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Public Commitment to Social Distancing in Public Places during COVID-19 Pandemic in Saudi Arabia

Category: Business & Management Paper Type: Report Writing Reference: APA Words: 4011

Frontiers | Controlling COVID-19 Pandemic: A Mass Screening Experience in  Saudi Arabia | Public Health


Table of contents

Abstract. 4

Background and context. 5

Problem analysis. 6

Target Identification.. 6

Methodology. 6

Rationale for intervention.. 9

Project development. 10

COM-B Model. 11

Intervention implementation.. 12

Evaluation.. 14

Strengths and limitations. 14

Suggested Intervention.. 15

Results and discussion.. 16

Conclusion.. 17

References. 18


 

List of Abbreviations

COVID-19

Coronavirus Disease of 2019

BCW

Behavioral change wheel

WHO

World Health Organization

COM-B

Capability, Opportunity and Motivation interact behavior.

 


 

Abstract

The basic objective of this paper is to explore the level of understanding of people and tries to determine their practices of the population living in Saudi Arabia regarding social distancing and stay at home strategy.The research is based on proper methodology and survey with a questionnaire that is used to assess participants and respondents to get awareness and practices regarding this act. Approximately, 5000 individuals completed the survey and the level of awareness could be analyzed with the help of knowledge and specifically with the people who have fewer resources and low education. The local Ministry of Health has successfully increased the knowledge of so the population and it is considered that if most people with poor practices are going to get more attention for better results. The basic objective of this paper is to analyze the social distancing that issues to overcome the spread of virus pile there, spreading from people to people and also overcome the chances to interact with the people who are infected with the COVID-19.

Background and context

The pandemic situation of COVID-19 is prevailing all around the world and the World Health Organization WHO suggested the public stay home control the virus of COVID-19 from spreading. In December 2019, there was a pandemic situation prevailing all around the world and the outbreak was started in Wuhan, China. The disease was designated as coronavirus disease, 2019, and down as it COVID-19. It was reported that this disease could cause severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus to the widespread of this disease was announced by the WHO as pandemic situation all around the world. It was reported that the coronavirus was caused over 9 million cases and 480,000 that's on an international level. Furthermore, it was also considered there is a lack of effective vaccination and treatments, and there are also fewer resources to deal with this pandemic situation. Therefore, it was announced that time the high concern with the stop to prevailing this situation is to adopt preventive measures so that it could be tackled to the spread of pandemic(Aldarhami A. , Bazaid, Althomali, & Binsaleh., 2020).

To prevent these threats, there were proper and effective measures that were considered to social distancing, self-isolation, home isolation, self-quarantine, and other precautionary measures were introduced by professional bodies. The situation was based on physical separation and making the distance between healthy people and from the people who were infected with the virus. Social distancing was mean to use as the distance from an individual to another to overcome the chances of getting spread of viral and bacterial infections. These strategies were required to implement and taking these measures and precautions that would be helpful, effective, and controlling the infection in China as well as from other Eastern countries. Saudi Arabia was also concerned with precautionary measures and it was also considered that even before the first case was confirmed in Saudi Arabia it was based to close the shopping centers, National Assembly and suspend all flight operations to overcome the spread of COVID-19. Government starts to implementing lockdown in cities and a high number of cases were aimed to limit the population's mobility and to overcome the social gatherings to get control transmission.

Problem analysis

This study is based on the problem of making awareness in the people about social distancing and preventive measures that are helpful to provide complete care from viral infection. Without proper preventive measures, people are not well aware of the severity of the disease and they are not adopting proper measures as it is a great cause of spreading viral infection. Saudi Arabia is a region that is highly important for trade as well As for religious purposes. Therefore, it shows that the region requires a lot of strategic measurement that would be helpful to prevent this viral infection(Bazaid, Aldarhami, Binsaleh, Sherwani, & Althomali, 2020).

Target Identification

            In this project, it will be the focus to assess different conditions implemented in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The change in behavior and interventions that are being practiced for the improvement of overall scenario created by COVID-19 will be assessed. Along with that, the impact of social distancing and the involvement of media for awareness areconsidered.

Methodology

Covid-19 is spreading all around the national and international areas and takes for this purpose. It is necessary to overcome the interaction with the public. These preventive measures are based on different interventions such as social distancing, that provide the chance of utilizing alternative tools that you interact with people such as online conferences and study system that would be helpful to overcome the chances of interaction with people and secure them from different kinds of viral diseases. This study is based on a cross-sectional observational study that evaluates the overall awareness and preventive measures that are necessary for the Saudi populations and it would be helpful to maintain social distancing to control the spread of COVID-19. The service is based on the proper questionnaire that is used for the survey method and makes sure that there is a wide distribution of target respondents and it was carried to use various social media tools to provide awareness to the people.

The questionnaire is based on interest and introductory information and also provides proper information to the respondents about the purpose of the study and it is also based on the consent information that is, make sure to participate in the study to provide voluntary help. There is wonderings are based on the above 18 years and it was created according to the COVID-19 infection Guidelines and Questionnaire provide complete information about this viral disease. It makes sure that the information collected is based on accurate criteria and multiple-choice questions, as well as close-ended questions, were used in the study. The questionnaire is based on experts that are helpful to target the respondents and pre-final survey of where individuals provide general information about different ages and questions assess for, despondent and it targets the objectives of the study. The information collected is highly based on their behavior change wheel BCW(Xie, Liang, Dulebenets, & Mei., 2020).

The information from the questionnaire is respondent with the proper answer of each question and it is the designated scored that for the most appropriate answer and open-ended question-answer were also suggested to collected information is used to measure the adherence to stay at home and keeping social distancing also provide proper information about the people as what they thought about this. After a survey, all the data is statistically analyzed and performed using SPSS software, and the number of participants, and their percentage was calculated with mean and standard deviation and the median. About evaluating the variables could be used to describe the practices of people to assess the preventive measures. The analysis is highly based on the demographic practice as it targets the people of Saudi Arabia in are specific region and it is also testing the knowledge of people with the behavior change model that is significant provided differences between respondents and demographic characteristics of the population of Saudi Arabia. The multilinear regression model is also used to associate with overall score and participants that are used to determine with the preventive food quantity of relationship between the variables and odd ratios(Aldarhami A. , Bazaid, Althomali, & Binsaleh, 2020).

The research also permits the hospitals and health care centers to handle third infected people without the overcrowding of patients and also providing health care safety kits to the professionals and medical attended. It makes sure that good knowledge and practices to the population would be helpful to stay at home and adopt social distancing that is helpful to overcome the spread of viral infection in a short time and it would be also helpful to fight the disease for the people who are infected with the COVID-19. The research is based on the proper background and context of COVID-19 and social distancing and also explored problem analysis that is required to maintain social distancing which provides proper evidence-based intervention with the help of behavior change wheel methodology and risk management evaluation that is based on BCW methodology.

After June 2020, the statistics show that COVID-19 also prevailing in Saudi Arabia and 170 thousand cases were reported and 1428 deaths were reported (Yezli & Khan., 2020). Therefore, time requires making sure that the public is adopting preventive measures and these are successfully implemented in Saudi Arabia. Similarly, it is also considered to make sure that the public could assess information to get about strategies and preventive measures from trusted agencies as their basic objective is to evaluate the awareness and practices of the Saudi population to maintain social distancing and to overcome the chances of getting the viral disease.

So the government started to take precautions and started to appear as preventive and stopping international traveling so that they could stop getting a virus from other countries. The government also advertised to different safety campaigns that would be helpful to create awareness in the people who are returning every day of life from the lockdown and they also considered that if these activities would be going on there are more chances to get too infected from the providers. They would be responsible for it as they are not adopting preventive measures.

Rationale for intervention

            The process of intervention is dependent on several factors that are being involved in it. In the very first phase of this particular project, education and use of media or awareness is implemented. For filling the gap between anxiety and compliancy, coercive controls are considered like fines or tax etc. Alternative behaviors will be addressed to the citizens for the assessment of protection and it will ultimately come with the barrier for spreading of COVID-19. As a social norm, social distancing will be the way of living and it would be very effective in many ways. Self-identity will be promoted and the way of life will be fine.

Project development

This section of the paper is based on the interventions as Saudi Arabia introduced this, different measures, such as home isolation, self-isolation, and social distancing strategies that would be helpful to overcome the chances of spreading viral disease. It argued to provide public awareness that is significant measures to control the spread of COVID-19 on an international and local basis concerning bringing these challenges to resolve the public health authority of Saudi Arabia has several campaigns that would be helpful to implement the applications that would be helpful to respond to the strategies and implement these strategies to control the viral disease. The development of the project is based on the information of individuals and information collected from the demographics that would be helpful to associate with the context of the study and to make the interventions according to the degree of level of people. For example, people have different priorities, such as students have to go for educational purposes and workers have to work, but it is based only on social distancing therefore a contract was made among the individuals and all the educational. The system was transferred to online and offices as well as entertainment venues are also closed.

The Health Authority of Saudi Arabia is also focusing on the implementation of strategies with the measurement to manage and control the spread of viral disease.After the assessment of different arrangements, overall the population implements different strategies and interventions that could be overcome the problem in different respects. These interventions are required to implement as these are based on behavior-based interventions that are focusing to improve social distancing. The objective of this study is to suggest behavior-based intervention to implement the practices of the social distancing curve with the help of a COM-B model(Alotaibi, Almutairi, Alotaibi, Alotaibi, & Alsufian., 2020). COVID-19 is a pandemic situation that is developing different worst situation and required to implement social distancing that measures are executed to gain the prime results. The social distancing interventions are suggested with the strategy that includes behavior paced action to help the public health readiness to respond to management and social distancing measures.

COM-B Model

The period change medication theory is based on the comprehension empowerment of influence and the barriers to change the components to start to learn about the executive role. The COM-B model is based on a complete behavior framework that provides a complete structure of evaluation of capacities and opportunities to get to basic conditions to perceive the different levels of improvement of successful interventions it provides the abilities and models that are helpful to evaluate the opportunity of social factors to the individual to change their life. (Zumla, Azhar, Alqahtani, Shafi, & Memish., 2020).

Intervention implementation

The basic objective of this study is to suggest behavior change based intervention improve the social distancing in Makkah, Saudi Arabia to prevent the social, infectious, and viral disease. The info intervention would be implemented to target the public for points of interest that determines everyone to implement social distancing to avoid the interaction with infected people. The objective of the behavior-based intervention is to improve the complete social distancing practices to adopt with the proper support system. The intervention would be implemented randomly after selecting the community of urban area of the country and there would be also different kinds of crowded areas such as religious places, educational level, and offices. Effective strategies of implementing these behavior change based interventions are successfully implemented in these locations.

This strategy is just like social distancing, isolation, and other true measurements that could be used to overcome the spread of viral infection is implemented through different mediums. The awareness is also made through innovative and creative ideas such as to put ads on the Internet and their mobile phones so that people could be well aware of the strategies to implement and save themselves from interacting with the infected people. These interventions could be implemented through social media channels such as Facebook, WhatsApp, Instagram, and Twitter. Social media influencers could provide complete detail to their followers and could spread awareness about these implementations as it is the necessary and basic step to secure yourself and your loved one. The project highlights the basic components that are necessary to implement and provide awareness about social distancing and home isolation to the people of Makkah, Saudi Arabia. This study highlights the requirements of people according to their demographics needs and wants.  This study highlights the requirements of people according to their demographics, needs, and wants, and also divided them into groups of working and students so that they could get treated fairly with the proper measurements(Nicola, et al., 2020).

The study is based to target the people from age of 15 to 65 as it makes sure that 55% of the targeted population is based on females and 45% based on males. Furthermore, it makes sure that 60% of the total population living in choosing areas and also has degree holders and qualified workers and the remaining 40% or lower and middle-class people who have to work for their survival. Low-income people although well aware of the preventive measures and social distancing but they could not implement it as it is necessary to do for a living.

 

Evaluation

The model is based on the health belief model and provides complete information about social distancing. The model could be implemented to make interventions of social distancing and also used to clarify the anticipation about the changes in health behaviors. Each aspect provides key elements of health beliefs that provide a complete light on different issues. The model is based on different elements such as perceived respectability, perceived severity, benefits barriers, and self-efficacy. It is used to stop the spread of COVID-19 through college students and workers by shutting down these places(Zia., 2020).

 

Summary

Indicators

Means of Verification

Risks and assumptions

Goal

To make people aware of social distancing in Saudi Arabia

Better intervention of social distancing

Study of social distancing with control

Majority will not follow intervention

Purpose

To stop spreading COVID-19

Most people following this

Tracking people following intervention

Increase in the public awareness in Saudi Arabia

Outputs

Better health facility

Daily improvement in cases

Survey for the improvements

Information related to social distancing spread in the kingdom

Activities

Social distancing as a norm

Training of people

Quantitative assessment of people following intervention

Providing ease in following such interventions

 

Strengths and limitations

These suggested preventive measures should be perceived, and it must be implemented with proper goals and guidelines for working employees. It is necessary to travel outside the home and they could not home isolated. Therefore they have to keep up social distancing and standards of safety outside the homes. Social distancing could be profoundly related to the development from outside the home, and it would be connected with the development of different transmissions that would be helpful to avoid viral transmission. The suggested mediation is also related to casual interference and the relationship between the developments of common behavior could be clarified with different selective factors. Social distancing is also helpful to maintain proper distancing from individuals so that it could be also, based on fewer chances of transferring viral infection from one individual to another. It could be helpful to work outside the home and also perform the task that could not be done online(AlAteeq, Aljhani, Althiyabi, & Majzoub., 2020).

With the preventive measures, it is also impossible to work with complete enthusiasm and also based on a proper platform that is working on a normal life. Besides the strengths, some limitations are evaluated with this project. Social distancing could create risk and also create difficulty for the job status of working employees. It could not be based on policies to assist the health behaviors to interact with the people and it is also considered that social distancing behavior is also related with the ordinary behaviors and it could provide incentives in treating social distancing as compulsory health behavior. It would overcome the efficiency of an individual while working and provide treatment to the infected people.

Suggested Intervention

By having the study, it can be seen that the interventions could be very fine in the control of social distancing in Makkah Saudi Arabia. Different approaches can be used for this purpose but the main thing to focus onto it is the implementation of social distancing as a norm in society. It would be good in the control of spreading COVID-19 and let the persons to have an identity by themselves. A constant positive feedback can also be expected by practicing this type of intervention in society of Saudi Arabia.

Resultsand discussion

The provided result of the research is based on more than 5000 respondents and the survey is completed with female and male respondents that provide results that 29.4% and 36.9% are based on 18 to 27 and 28 to 37 age groups respectively. Some respondents are based on highly qualified people and some are related to low income living on daily wages. The participants were based on asking them questions about their sources of information about COVID-19 and tell the results were about 785 and 49% of the participant were well-aware about this infection. Most people were well aware of this kind of infectious disease by social media channel and also seeking information about COVID-19 from their friends, colleagues, and relatives as they are talking about this topic mainly(Noreen, et al., 2020).

Statistical analysis provides information about the demographic people as they are related with the working environment and education field they are providing proper response about the awareness of COVID-19 and it would be easy to implement safety precautions to the people who are educated to as compared to people who are related with the labor workforce and are low educated. Low-income people showed their interest in saving their income and also working outside the homes that would be great negligence in previous precautions of viral disease. They have poor practices about the interventions that must be implemented by a Saudi government, and it could result from the lower level of knowledge that provides horrible results to the whole economy. It is considered necessary to provide them proper awareness about social distancing and isolation so that they could investigate the viral disease more closely and could get appropriate solutions to increase their awareness to implement the preventive measures.

Conclusion

The study represents that a high level of knowledge is required to provide awareness to the people about an infectious disease that provides them complete intervention so that they could stay home at home and implement strategies that are prepared by the Saudi government. The Saudi population is continuously improving their status and they are well conscious about their health and also want to improve awareness by using different channels. Demographic segmentations are affecting the knowledge that is required to implement in social distancing and also show that it must be used by this policymaker to identify and target the individuals that are necessary to implement the actions to get better knowledge.

References

AlAteeq, D. A., Aljhani, S., Althiyabi, I., & Majzoub., S. (2020). "Mental health among healthcare providers during coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in Saudi Arabia.". Journal of Infection and Public Health, 13(10), 1432-1437.

Aldarhami, A., Bazaid, A. S., Althomali, O. W., & Binsaleh, N. K. (2020). "Public Perceptions and Commitment to Social Distancing during COVID-19 Pandemic: A National Survey in Saudi Arabia.

Aldarhami, A., Bazaid, A. S., Althomali, O. W., & Binsaleh., N. K. (2020). Public Perceptions and Commitment to Social Distancing “Staying-at-Home” During COVID-19 Pandemic: A National Survey in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of General Medicine, 13, 677.

Alotaibi, N., Almutairi, S., Alotaibi, M., Alotaibi, M. M., & Alsufian., T. (2020). The Extent of Commitment of Saudis During Holy Ramadan to Social Distancing Measures Required for the Prevention of Transmission of COVID-19.". Journal of Community Health, 1-10.

Bazaid, A. S., Aldarhami, A., Binsaleh, N. K., Sherwani, S., & Althomali, O. W. (2020). "Knowledge and practice of personal protective measures during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study in Saudi Arabia.". PloS one, 15(12), e0243695.

Nicola, M., Alsafi, Z., Sohrabi, C., Kerwan, A., Al-Jabir, A., Iosifidis, C., . . . Agha., R. (2020). The socio-economic implications of the coronavirus and COVID-19 pandemic: a review. International Journal of Surgery.

Noreen, N., Dil, S., Niazi, S. U., Naveed, I., Khan, N. U., Khan, F. K., . . . Kumar., D. (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and Pakistan; limitations and gaps. Global Biosecurity, 1(3), 1-11.

Thomas, J., & Barbato., M. (2020). "Positive religious coping and mental health among Christians and Muslims in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Religions, 11(10), 498.

Xie, K., Liang, B., Dulebenets, M. A., & Mei., Y. (2020). The impact of risk perception on social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. " International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(17), 6256.

Yezli, S., & Khan., A. (2020). "COVID-19 social distancing in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Bold measures in the face of political, economic, social and religious challenges. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 101692.

Zia., A. (2020). "Exploring factors influencing online classes due to social distancing in COVID-19 pandemic: a business students perspective." . The International Journal of Information and Learning Technology .

Zumla, A., Azhar, E. I., Alqahtani, S., Shafi, S., & Memish., Z. A. (2020). COVID-19 and the scaled-down 2020 Hajj Pilgrimage-Decisive, logical and prudent decision making by Saudi authorities overcomes pre-Hajj public health concerns.".

 


 

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