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Literature Review on Consumers Behaviour in Online Shopping Especially in the UK


 

This chapter reviewed the relevant and previous literature, so that there could be insight data regarding the analysis of the consumption behaviour that how people focus on the online shopping, what is their experiences and how much willing they are in order to do online shopping in the UK (Spotts, 2014). Moreover, there is a focus on the definition of attitude, perception as well as the influencing factors related to consumer behaviour. The customers will be analyzed so that consumer behaviour can be studied on the basis of planned behaviour theory (Ajzen, 1991)

2.1 The definition of consumer understanding of online purchases

The number of new online transactions and distribution channels are increasing rapidly. In the present work, the consumer perceives understanding of online purchases. The particular factors of the present work have an influence on the online consuming process. The Internet is a new medium that provides online customer services to compete for the demand of customers. Consumer behaviour in the present work can be described as the study of all the organizations, groups, and individuals who avails the opportunity to purchase electronic goods (Ranzcp.org, 2016). The use of the World Wide Web is increasing. The content of marketing strategies enables to prudent future trends and popularity of the trade in the customers. The brand theory defines the most demanded brands in the online customers (Millenniumsi.com, 2016). The search engine optimizations realized two main factors. Most of the companies are making online business and use showrooms for the display of their products and all the services provided to the customers. The other process is a fast increment in the consumer segments due to the increased requirements of consumers (BASHIR, 2013).

2.2. The trend of buying stuff online

The trend of buying stuff online is rapidly increasing across the globe, and this fact is really changing the landscape of business for the companies dealing in online shopping. With the increasing use of smartphones, the consumers are willing to shop online to get ease, variety and convenience (FARBER, 2016). It is important for marketers to understand that with this changing trend, it is crucial for them to deal with the changing the behaviour of consumers. The consumers have more control over their buying decisions as technology has allowed them to do so in different ways (Odgers, 2017). There are some important factors, which affect the decisions of consumers to show a certain kind of online shopping behaviour. The research has overlooked some of the factors in planned behaviour theory such as behavioural beliefs, attitude, normative beliefs, subjective norms, control beliefs, perceived behavioural control, intention,  which have been found to play their part in changing consumers' decisions (Ajzen, 1991)

According to the research conducted by Ganesh, et al. (2010), there is the analysis of the e-Stores and online shopping that how the consumers are showing the willingness in order to get benefits from the online shopping. The research focuses on the people behaviour and it is known that online retail environment or the online retail strategy is throwing because the marketers are focused on the shopping motivations for the consumers (Hassan, Nareeman, & Pauline, 2013).       The today’s online shoppers are concerned and focused on the shopping motivations as they have understood the patterns of consumers’ and focus on improvement in the online stores regarding the choice of the consumers (Patel V. V., 2009). According to Wolfinbarger and Gilly (2014), the motivations for consumers in terms of online shopping are information availability, selection, convenience, control as well as freedom. So, markers need to understand and conceptualize such motivations for providing a better experience to consumers for their online shopping (Demangeot & Broderick, 2007)

            It is known that marketers are doing the comprehensive comparison based on the traditional and online formats (Anders Hasslinger, Opazo, &Kallstrom, 2011). However, the research proposition also considering the aspects related to the shopping motivations, it is known that consumers are doing the online shopping through the promotional strategies that are helping the marketers to promote the traditional retail shoppers; there are marketers that are maintaining and promoting the online shopping trends for the sustainable advantage (Shin & Thai, 2014). According to Kamarulzaman (2011), there are various other drivers, which play their part in helping consumers to make viable decisions regarding their online shopping. The consumers are becoming more price sensitive, and brand-sensitive when shopping online.

2.3 Concepts and Theories determining Factors for Consumers Behaviours in Online Shopping Especially in the UK

 The research is focused and gets the great understanding of the consumer online that how they are doing the purchases and getting the advantages and how marketers are more focused because they know that there could be the increase in the trend of online sells in the future (Hansen, 2008). In terms of making various decisions, the consumers are driven by their attitude as well as intention to change their behaviour towards something. The behavioural-intention model presented by Fishbein and Ajzen in 1975 to discuss that how behavioural intentions are concerned with the attitudes, which lead people to make certain online shopping decisions (Miniard & Cohen, 1981). There are various other factors, which also determine the behaviour and choices of consumers regarding online shopping.

Source: Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behaviour. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, p. 179-211.

2.3.1. Motivation for online shopping

 The scholars and researchers have always tried hard to understand that what the motivation is for consumers to go shopping. But it is important to see if any research has been made in terms of online shopping experience. Motivation is the desire or urges for someone, to satisfy his/her needs. It means that consumer develops a motive in their mind to do or achieve something (Joines, Scherer, & Scheufele, 2003).

       According to the research conducted by Childers et al (2001), there is focus on the motivations of the consumers to engage in the trend of the retail shopping as, the research concerned about the utilitarian and hedonic dimensions that how consumer e-commerce is being in trends these days and how the mechanism of web-shopping has expanded opportunities for the consumers.

The research has been able to found various motivations, which forces consumers to do shopping online rather visiting any stores. Whenever the question has been asked from consumers; the convenience always remained the first critical factor in this regard (Nabot, 2014).

         The other most important motivation for the consumers has been the ability to shop anytime. They don’t have to worry about any store opening or close timings. Moreover, the prices and free discounts are other viable motivations to influence their buying behaviours (Chaffey, 2017). The customer or consumer has the motivation in this way, in order to focus on the purchase via the internet because there are several benefits (Brown, Pope, & Voges, 2003). The financial risks are there that customers could face, the companies are negatively affecting the reputation of the online sales as that are not effectively managing the customer. The customers can face issue related to the online shopping example non-delivery risk. However, these companies are also negatively affecting the repute of other online companies.

          The overall online platforms with their ease and affordability have changed the overall attitudes of consumers. The internet has changed their attitudes as they are more informed than ever before. They can review products, get relevant information and compare with other products as well (TEO, 2002).

2.3.2 The behaviour of consumers is crucial to show their intentions about online shopping.

            The behaviour of consumers is crucial to show their intentions about online shopping. According to the theory of planned behaviour, a person makes reasoned decisions by showing intentions towards certain perceived controls and subjective norms, and these actions are the ones, which helps to shape the behaviour of a person (Ajzen, 1991). It means this theory can be applied to see that which norms and controls shape the behaviour of consumers to do online shopping. It is ascertained that there are few factors, which helps consumers to control their intentions so that they can develop their planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1991). The good thing is that various researchers have tried to find out the association between online shopping and the theory of planned behaviour. A research study was conducted by George (2004), which tried to see the relationship between internet purchasing and the theory of planned behaviour. His research found that trustworthiness and internet privacy is the controlling behaviours, which are important to shape the behaviours of consumers towards internet purchasing. The consumers who believed that it is safe to shop online, they were more likely to do internet purchasing, whereas the ones, who did not feel private & safe, they less likely purchased on the internet.

            Every study is crucial to analyze the behaviour of consumers that why they make or avoid certain purchasing decisions, especially on online platforms. A research study was conducted by Hansen,(2008)which tried to review online grocery store shopping relations with the theory of planned behaviour along with consumer personal values. The results from the study concluded that consumer personal behaviour is crucial to shaping their overall behaviour towards online grocery shopping, but it was also found that their previous buying experience was also influential in showing planned behaviour whether to buy or not to buy through online grocery stores (Hansen, 2008). It is a fact that when consumers look to purchase online, their behaviour is also driven by certain risk factors, which determine whether they want to purchase online or not. These risk factors can be instrumental in developing certain behaviour by online shoppers. A study found that non-delivery risks as well as financial risk, both were positively correlated with the behaviour of consumers to do online shopping or avoid it.

There are risk factors associated with the online shopping, as customers may not be given the product on the decided or committed time, or the product can be different as shown in the picture. However, it also found that negative online shopping behaviour is driven by the subjective norms carried by consumers (Javad, Dolatabadi, Nourbakhsh, Poursaeedi, & Asadollahi, 2012).

2.3.3 Content Marketing on Consumers Behaviour in Online Shopping Especially in the UK

 Other than consumers own behaviour, attitude and personal choices, the important thing is to alter their behaviour and purchasing decisions is content marketing. The content developed by marketers is crucial to attracting consumers towards online shopping. The marketers can use online targeting engines along with content management systems so that they can review past trends of consumers through real-time inventory, and then develop content accordingly (McKinsey Quarterly, 2009). The content is crucial for e-marketers to make sure they make the viable impact on the behaviour of consumers. It is a fact that the online shopping market is one of the most highly competitive markets, so the companies with better content marketing and better strategy from-marketers would win the hearts of consumers. The companies need to provide better web experience along with better content attractions so that consumers are attracted towards online shopping platforms. If consumers will not get attractive content marketing from marketers, it is hard to influence their purchasing behaviour on online shopping stores (Constantinides, 2004)

 The content on online platforms need to be more engaging and good enough that consumers do like to click on those links, otherwise, it is hard for marketers to make a considerable impact on the minds an behaviours of consumers. Consumers don't want to feel misinformed, rather they want to engage in online activities, and want to know more facts. So, marketers need to develop content, which has more facts and information for consumers otherwise if you won't provide, someone else would. The content should be honest enough with real-time facts so that consumers believe and trust can be developed on a certain online shopping platform, and in general on overall shopping platforms. (outbrain.com, 2018). The information content is critical to shaping the information perception as well as influence the attitudes of consumers. The information content effectiveness is an essential element when it is needed to make an impact on the behaviour of purchasing decisions through online platforms (Daliri & Rezaei, 2014)

2.3.4 Search Engine Optimization (SEO) for Consumers Behaviour in Online Shopping Especially in the UK

            The role of Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is very important for the online shopping companies to understand the real essence of consumer behaviours. The companies like Google use algorithms (Carson, 2016).  to count on the behaviour of consumers and online visitors. It is a common experience for everyone that people do get ads from Google and other advertisers as per their taste and interests. The question is how it happens; it happens because online consumer activities are tracked by these advertisers. They can track activities to note down the behaviour of consumers towards certain products, companies and ads. The search engine results to help to develop the great potential for companies to understand consumer behaviour (Carson, 2016). Some of the scholars have said that understanding consumer behaviour is an art, and this art cannot be established without the help of SEO. The psychology of consumers along with their behaviour and search patterns followed through SEO help to understand that what is being liked or disliked by the majority of consumers. The Google has made various changes in its algorithms so that SEO can allow companies to track user data and develop those keywords, which rank their online content on top, and they develop content accordingly (Miller, 2017)

 The role of SEO has been evident in shifting the trends paved in by technology in the field of marketing. A study conducted by Adobe revealed that out of total samples, seventy-six per cent marketers had a strong belief that industry has adopted more transformation in last two years. The marketing technology has been able to make a mark with identifying consumer behaviour with the help of search engine optimization. The marketers have to use SEO to make a great strategy in the future so that they can win the hearts of consumers by understanding their behaviour more accurately. The companies need to invest heavily in keyword research and then align their online content accordingly so that they can generate more traffic by getting more consumers on their online platforms (Patel A. , 2016). With the help of SEO and relevant technologies, the marketers can be able to know that what is the most interest of consumers and which are the platforms, brands or products, which are more likely to attract consumers. The companies are tracking trends, stats, and interests of consumers to understand their behaviour so that it can be predicted that how they will react in the future (Ratcliff, 2015)

2.3.5 Brand theory affects colour, Logo, ethical of a copycat for Consumers Behaviour in Online Shopping Especially in the UK.

 It is true that different brands use different kind of logos and colours to introduce their brand to consumers, and it automatically tells the importance of different colours, logos and their effects. The research LIBERATORE, (2015) has revealed that when consumers develop their opinion regarding any brand, the colour scheme is the most influential thing. The research study also revealed that how different colours of logos are understood by consumers. It showed that the consumer tried to make ethical opinions about companies with the help of logo and its colour. The company with the red logo was considered less eco-friendly as compared to the company with a blue logo. It shows that how crucial the colour scheme can be to shape consumer perceptions (LIBERATORE, 2015). It is important for any online shopping brand to analyze that which colours are used by their logo, as brand recognition is done through these colours. A study conducted by researchers of the University of Cincinnati and the University of Oregon found that majority of the ethical judgments and perceptions about brands are made on the basis of their logo and colour (SCHUTTE, 2015)

 The above-mentioned facts are crucial for online shopping platforms and e-marketers to understand that how colour and logo shape the attitude and behaviour of consumers towards brands. Other than online companies, when famous companies like Coke, IBM are looked at, it is evident that they use a certain scheme of colours to portray the image of their brand. That's why the researchers are agreed on this point that logo and brand colours are instrumental and crucial for the success of any brand. Every colour has its meaning, and online shopping companies should develop a better understanding of using these colours in their logos (Williams, 2007). There is one more term, which needs to be reviewed by online shopping platforms, and that is "copycat". This term means that companies try to copy the colour scheme; logos are slogans of other companies to influence consumers. Less known brands often indulge in such kind of practice by copying the content from famous brands. It has been observed that when brands copy other brands, it misleads the users and they are actually sometimes deceived by it. A scientific study by Gyekye, (2012) found that when copycat packaging is used, it misled the consumers about a certain brand, which raises several questions on the ethical aspects of a copycat. The implications can be several for the brand when they go for a copycat strategy. So online shopping platforms should develop better strategies to avoid copycat and stand out as innovative companies (Gyekye, 2012)

2.3.6 Social Media Marketing on Consumers Behaviour in Online Shopping Especially in the UK

 One of the most important and critical concepts for today's online shopping platforms is the social media marketing. It means using social media platforms to influence the behaviour of consumers. In the recent past, the digital marketing through social media has changed the marketing patterns around the world (Heitzman, 2017). It is important for online shopping platforms to ensure that they know everything about social media marketing that how it can make a considerable impact on the mind and behaviours of consumers. Social media marketing can help brands to keep their brand very much visible, and its presence helps to win brand loyalty. Moreover, the social media marketing can help to engage consumers more actively, resulting in better outcomes in terms of making online purchases (Mansoor, 2017). Mind Jumpers is a management consulting company and as per their research, it is revealed that majority of smartphone users go for online shopping with the help of reviews, deals, search engines, recommendations, which they get to know on social media platforms (Ray, 2018). According to toVinerean et al (2013), the online consumer behaviour is certainly affected with the help of marketing done through social media platforms. People engaged in online activities through social media were influenced to make online purchases. For, Example people can be motivated through word of mouth and their attention can be grasped by the online advertisements. The online purchases increase with the increase in the social media advertisements and when the people come to know online purchases benefits, as company prospects to customers to communicate directly with the brand representative and in this way customers get loyalty and do purchases (Vinerean, Iuliana, Dumitrescu, & Tichindelean, 2013).

According to Moustakas (2015), "Social media has changed marketing by shifting the scalability of influence and the ways in which consumers share, evaluate and choose information". It shows that marketers have to integrate social media marketing into their strategy. In there, an alternative study which suggests otherwise in 2015 revealed that social media has a positive impact on the behaviour of consumers in terms of developing trust as well as perceived usefulness to initiate online purchase decisions (Hajli, 2015). A study in 2015 revealed that social media has a positive impact on the behaviour of consumers in terms of developing trust as well as perceived usefulness to initiate online purchase decisions (Hajli, 2015).

Through the analysis of consumer behaviour, it is known that there are central for marketing success because customers are most potential by using the different online socializing tools (Vinerean, Iuliana, Dumitrescu, & Tichindelean, 2013). A study was conducted by Alsubagh (2015) try to analyze that how consumer behaviour is impacted by the social networking sites. Facebook was the main social networking site analyzed for this study and it revealed that companies using such platforms with great effect were more successful than those, who were not able to impact consumer behaviour through social networks. So, these research studies and their results are clearly showing that social media marketing is crucial in so many ways. Social media marketing has the ability to alter and manipulate the buying decisions of consumers by making a viable impact on their behaviour and attitude especially youngsters or teenagers. A study found that social media marketing is a great tool to influence Millenniumsito to impact their behaviours, the behaviour of older people can also be affected but they can be targeted very often (Roesler, 2015)

2.4 Summary of the Consumers Behaviour in Online Shopping Especially in the UK

It can be concluded that customers are effectively focused on the online shopping as they are influenced on social media to purchase the products or services. Heitzman (2017) did focus on consumer behaviour that how it is being influenced by the help of digital marketing. Mansoor(2017), also found the same thing in his article that social media gets people in by engaging them to make online shopping decisions. Moreover, companies dealing in online shopping are effectively dealing with changing the behaviour of consumers and there us more control over their buying decisions. According to Vinerean et al (2013), companies are changing the consumer behaviour through extensive social media marketing to help them in making buying decisions for online platforms. The current research also focused on the theories that are relevant to the online shopping of the customers such as theories of motivation, behaviour, content marketing, search engine optimization, social media marketing and brand theory.

All of these theories with relevant aspects of online shopping are crucial for this research study as they are the major concepts to find answers for research questions.  As the brand theory defines the most demanded brands in the online customers. To look at some important aspects of branding theory and its evolution, the work of Roper & Parker (2006) will be reviewed in detail that what their findings were about branding theory to get more insights on the topic. According to the theory of planned behaviour by Ajzen (1991), a person makes reasoned decisions by showing intentions towards certain perceived controls and subjective norms, and these actions are the ones, which helps to shape the behaviour of a person. The work of Ajzen (1991) has been reviewed in the literature review to see that how he has contributed to the theory of planned behaviour and what important aspects have been revealed by him, which can be instrumental for this research study.  However, the brand they have revealed that when consumers develop their opinion regarding any brand, the colour scheme is the most influential thing. Schutte (2015) revealed in his article that researchers from the University of Cincinnati and University of Oregon did conduct a research, which showed that perception about brands is driven by the logos as well as colour scheme.

 

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