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Report on Problem Statement of Universal Design of ICT in Earthquake Emergency Management in Pakistan

Paper's Detail

Category Engineering
Paper Type Report Writing
Reference Type APA
Words 2700

Many Pakistani dies in emergencies due to unawareness of security precautions. Pakistan is not utilizing ICT to spread the awareness of necessary precautions that are required during emergency situations to avoid chaos and deaths. Pakistan does not have a strong economy, and it does not have many resources to spend money on advertisements and arranging safety classes for emergencies.

We can safely assume that if Pakistan used universally designed ICT in Emergency management to spread awareness of security precautions, many lives could be saved. Moreover, it is not costly, and people with different impairments can also get safety precautions without having any additional and expensive safety classes.

Problem Descriptions of Universal Design of ICT in Earthquake Emergency Management in Pakistan

The description of the problem leads towards what’s the major and important issue that will be discussed and critically analyzed by conducting this research study. No doubt, there are several innovative ways that are adopted by the governments of Pakistan for managing emergency cases such as an earthquake. But it requires a new innovative way that can be utilized as the precautions in the region of Pakistan in order to manage in the earthquake. As stated under the headings of the problem statement. If Pakistan used universally designed ICT in Emergency management to spread awareness of security precautions, many lives could be saved. Yet, it means this study is particularly conducted in order to introduce and analyze the universal design that is particularly utilized in Pakistan in the situation of the earth Quack. This universal design will offer the various precautions by which the lives of a thousand people can be saved in effective manners. This design will be the universal design ICT that will be particularly utilized in order managing the case of emergency. The case of emergency is related to the earthquake. This universal design of ICT is particularly utilized in order to save the lives of the people in the entire region of Pakistan in effective manners. The said study is conducted to solve the problems that are related to the analysis and introduction of the universal design of ICT in the emergency cases of Pakistan, particularly in the situation of the earthquake.        

Research question of Universal Design of ICT in Earthquake Emergency Management in Pakistan

1.      How can the Universal design of ICT reduce the impact of emergencies or support diverse people in emergencies, in particular for Earthquake situations in Pakistan?

2.      What are the requirements for such a universally designed information system?

3.      What is a suitable universal design for such a system that is optimized for the situation in Pakistan regarding the availability of ICT equipment and network?

1. How can the Universal design of ICT reduce the impact of emergencies or support diverse people in emergencies in particular for Earthquake situations in Pakistan?

How Universal Design of ICT reduce the impact of emergencies

The focus of the thesis is to implement a universally designed earthquake management system. The purpose of this system is to provide guidance and safety precautions during an emergency, especially during an earthquake as it was safely assumed that the universal design of ICT could save lives. It’s been observed that ICT has a positive impact on emergencies, and if the ICT system is universally designed than it has even more impact on natural disasters like earthquakes (Gjøsæter T. R., 2018). These hazardous situations can be overcome by effective manners and guidance of it can be provided by spreading awareness through a universally designed ICT system.

ICT plays a vital role in plenty of areas to accelerate and secure human lives. Government sectors of many countries are already using ICT technologies to reduce risk vulnerabilities and improve disaster resilience. In the past, some applications were built that are very helpful in lifesaving. For example, Foresti made an emergency management advanced system that fuses social data and bottom-up communication with smart sensors in mobile phones (Foresti G, 2014). building damage assessment application was developed by (Fujiu M, 2012). In 2011 another application was developed for estimating risk for disaster areas (FEMA, 2011). By analyzing many studies, it can be seen that ICT support more effective disaster management in many ways (Aydin, Tarhan, Selcuk Ozgur, & Tecim, 2015)

The prevention from natural disasters such as earthquakes is necessary, and it is hard to reduce and overcome the problems aroused by an earthquake, but this situation can be handled to some extent by providing safety tools, awareness, and quick communication for all people including elderly and impaired as well. Therefore, the universal design of ICT can reduce emergencies, and it also has great capabilities to save human lives in the case of any emergency occurring during a natural disaster such as an earthquake in Pakistan. In the case of the crisis of communications and emergency management, the universal design of ICT can save lives. Scientists and Practitioners agree with suitable, Universally designed ICT technologies that can improve the crisis of communication and disaster management related to the people’s needs along with the disabilities (Gjøsæter, 2018)

To handle emergencies more abruptly and effectively, ICT is one of the important priorities among the public sector nowadays. Information communication technologies following universal design principles can be categorized as an important tool for emergencies because it is engaged in covering the most productive sectors to maintain continuous improvement. ICT also provides new inventions and new products for more efficient and effective handling of emergencies. Because the ICT sector is involved in providing services to the people in case of any emergency and with the use of advanced technologies, the handling of these emergencies will be more appropriate. In the future, many new technologies are expected to emerge that would be very helpful to control the effect of disasters or the affected people, so there is a huge need that all the ICT systems should be universally designed so that elderly and impaired people can also utilize these facilities.

The universal design of ICTs is about the provision of the trend, which is identifiable for the physical objects. It is done by connecting with the internet through proper communication networks (García, 2015). As the Universal design expands the ICTs domain application, which has the potential to avoid the stagnant multi-factor productivity (MFP) growth, that is, related to the ICT capital surplus to observe industrialized economics. It is the main point, where the impact of the ICT in the investment of the Earthquake situations by the MFP is characterized. The application of the ICTs is not interacting more with the physical world, and there is a variety of new use cases like allowing the integration of the Universal design of ICT, creating the liquid marketplaces (lMunib ur Rahman, 2016).

 An emergency is considered a dangerous, unexpected, and difficult situation, particularly in accidents that happen suddenly, and it requires quick action to deal and handle these situations. The abrupt actions are necessary for emergencies to protect the lives of living organisms.

Generally, the adaptation of Technology and innovation shows bigger technical changes for inventions and different sizes of the market. Researchers develop a test directed for technical changes and the structure of wages. The model evaluated skilled workers, and complementary technology changes the adaptation and application of different communication technologies. Conceivable conclusion approved hypothesis that the rate of Technical changes is based upon the growth of industries and skills of employees. The higher the skills of the people, the more effectively they can respond to emergencies like in an earthquake. More skilled people can perform more appropriately and abruptly in emergencies, and due to this, the outcomes will be higher, and more development will be observed (Treball, 2012).

It has been observed that ICT is more effectively used and adopted in developed countries because of the more advancement of technology. Contrarily, ICT is less used in poor countries due to a lack of IT infrastructure as well as illiteracy. The language barriers are one of the most important issues for adopting it.

During many disasters, ICT has been very helpful to help the people and alter the emergencies occurring due to disasters, especially in Earthquake. The use of technologies that require an internet connection is suitable only in those areas where internet connection is available. Through the use of social media and text messages, it is easy to get notified about the disasters and acquire information related to disasters, particularly for Earthquake. There are numerous applications of the WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks) and ICTs. The major disasters of the community can be tackled through proper communication technology. By using the WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks), the design of the useful model can be proposed.  This model will be very useful to sense the seismic waves of an earthquake and hence provide information for an upcoming earthquake. (A. Hassini, 2014).       

A research was conducted to identify differences between CST “Computer-Supported Training” perceptions at the beginning of the program and the end of the program; the participation perception improved particularly in the case of Earthquake situations in Pakistan. At the beginning of the courses, the digital inequity was based on social organizations, government programs, pricing policies, content, and industry structure. The findings of the research include processes, inputs, outputs, and summaries model for the improvement of information technology in the organization. The developed world has been more knowledgeable and equipped in terms of ICT and its basic knowledge and skills. But this is not the case with the impact of emergencies, who have been struggling to get their firm position through ICT by creating an impact of emergencies, which is based on income and information of emergencies.

How Universal Design of ICT can reduce the impact of the earthquake

There are the following methods to reduce the impact of earthquake hazards.

·         Interpreting the recorded ground motions

·         Constructing the seismic hazard maps

·         Developing resistant structures

·         With Seismic waves exploration the earth interior

·         Long-period oscillations of the globe

·         Seismic phenomena of Extra-terrestrial

Universal Design of ICTs can reduce the impact of emergency situations like earthquakes (Gjøsæter T. R., 2018). During earthquake shaking of the Tectonic plates bin, the Earth's crust causes lava to explode, and a volcanic eruption occurs as a result of heavy Earthquakes. The short-term impacts of these natural hazards are fatalities, and the long-term impacts of the Earthquake are the loss in business, loss of income and revenue generated, and the lack of tourism. Therefore, the ICT is used for predictions of the likelihood of an earthquake, which is occurring by detecting the plate movements and if there will be chances of After-shocks after the Earthquake. Moreover, it is observed that the person who already had evacuation experience from the previous disaster are more motivated for the preparation of item from basic preparedness and energy preparedness. It is also observed from the data analysis that the people are more prepared who suffered from the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. Contrarily the Great East Japan Earthquake does not have a prominent impact on preparedness (Onuma, Shin, & Managi, 2017).

 The implementation of the Universal design of ICTs provides the ability to save lives of the people in the situation of the earthquake as it can provide information to elderly and impaired persons also about the area of the earthquake before happening an uncertainty. The appropriate technology of universally designed ICTs has been acknowledged by several scientists and Practitioners to improve crisis communication and disaster management according to the needs and requirements of the people along with their disabilities (Iscram2018.rit.edu, 2018).

By using the WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks), the unusual movement of animals can be determined even before happening natural disasters like earthquakes. For determining the possibility of an earthquake, the abnormal movement of animals such as; rats, rabbits, reptiles, etc. are really helpful, and it provides the information related to the earthquake.  To determine the earthquake-prone areas, the sensors can be attached to the animals that partially act as GPS (Global Positioning System), which can be used to track their movements in a particular region. To determine the anxiety or fear of the animals, the sensors are also helpful by analyzing the body temperatures and several other features. By using this universal design of ICTs, the precautions can be provided or adapted in a particular area where the chances of the earthquake are predicted (K.R.Lakshmi, 2014). By using a universally designed ICT system, elderly or impaired people can also send their location or ask for aid or necessary precautions from the concerned emergency management system authorities.

By the environmental crises, whether the flooding, earthquake, or tsunamis short-sighted designed has occurred. Therefore the technology could also provide the planners, government, engineers by the basic feedback which is offering the feedback is the better methods, and it also predicted that behavior of the environment also constitutes advanced technology, and it provides essential methods which are proactive, and effectively make the communities disaster-resistant. The government must determine the different methods which reduced the earthquake damage. It also involves the infrastructure for the development along with the maintenance plus the preparedness in the event of disasters. In Japan, builds are earthquake-proof, but in Pakistan, builds are not earthquake resistant due to which a small scale of an earthquake can demolish buildings. So, the structure of builds should also be universally designed. Impaired or elderly people can also easily evacuate from the building during a disaster. Awareness of such things should be available on the universally designed ICT website. For example, during an emergency, people should use an emergency exit, and one should not use an elevator during an emergency.

 Form Autodesk, the technology is available, which converges the engineering design, architectural designs, plus geospatial data. The capability is used to precise the geospatial data and also applied across the infrastructure lifecycle, which also includes the maintenance and the operations. There are significant variations where the integration is enabled and made to address the management needs and town planning (Audio, 2013).

In the impact of the universal design of ICT to an earthquake, the broader implications are that; select the emerging economy that has the same characteristics of the developed countries. It should still receive the MFP (Multi-factor productivity) advantages for their investments in the universal design of ICT to deal with the impact of the earthquake. The improvement of the diminishing of the MFP returns connected by the ICT investments. The development of the universal design of ICT considered as business process, valuable economic development, and reduce digital inequality, streaming of national information infrastructure, language barriers, and constraints in the building of information technology capabilities in the development of the country. The developed world can play a big part in making sure that the changing impact of an earthquake can gain an equal level of access and skills related to ICT so that these societies can be capable of using ICT and its aspect for bringing earthquake change, which changes the lives of the majority of people. If only a short segment of society is changing their fate with the universal design of ICT, it means that the universal design of ICT reduced the impact of the earthquake in so many ways, which can play its part in income as well as informational inequality.

A study was held by researchers to the universal design of ICT and its relevant elements. The study kept three major things in perspective; the first thing was access to the universal design of ICT and its devices, the second thing was basic skills, and the third thing was complex capabilities. It is a fact that most of these studies have been keeping their focus on the developed world, but few researchers have also focused on the developing world as well. The role of this research has been instrumental in knowing how things have been changing in developing, transition, and emerging economies when ICTs made their influence in so many ways. It evaluated over the years that lots of investments have been made in ICT so that productivity and results achieved with better outcomes. (Mendonça, Crespo, & Simõesa, 2015)

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