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Methodology of Consumers Behaviour in Online Shopping Especially in the UK


    The purpose of this chapter is to focus on describing the research methodology that is used in this research. However, the research conducted by the survey on the behaviour shown by the consumers towards online shopping specifically in the UK.  The analysis of research is presented in the work. The analysis is mainly based on ethical consideration. The data is collected quantitatively using response on a questionnaire from respondents. The questionnaire includes advantages and disadvantages will be reviewed.

3.1 Research aim and objectives or hypothesis on Consumers Behaviour in Online Shopping Especially in the UK

The research aim and objectives include:

To Present an Investigation of the Motivations and Behaviour of Online Shopping of the Focused Areas and the outcome of the research will be significantly helpful for consumers to understand several target businesses regarding the purchasing behaviour.

•    To Identify Motivations and behaviour Regarding Online Shopping in the Concerned Areas.

•    To Distinguish the Preferences and Habits of Different Age Groups in Terms of Online Shopping.

•    To Provide Recommendations effective through online guides for the development of e-commerce market organizations and Consumers.

3.2 Research Design and Research Approach for Consumers Behaviour in Online Shopping Especially in the UK

 

The research design and approach also focused on the analysis of the current research (Malhotra 2010), as in the current research there is the focus on the primary data as well as the secondary data (Bryman and Bell 2011). The current questionnaire design is influenced by the previous research studies (Malhotra 2010).  There is the focus on the consumer behaviour by looking at elements such as motivation, behaviour, content marketing, search engine optimization, brand theory, and social media marketing.

3.2.1 Research Design on Consumers Behaviour in Online Shopping Especially in the UK

The research design is descriptive that covers all the important information. The research is basically based on the quantitative analysis of the data. Study of the direct behaviour of all related population was not possible therefore quantitative way of study is selected for the research (Bryman and Bell 2011).

Table 3.1 min Questions which linked to the element of literature review then applied to (Planned behaviour theory).

 

Literature

Contents

Section

Research Questions

 1

Behaviour

 

Behavioural beliefs

Subjective norm

(Ranzcp.org, 2016)

Theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen 1991) behaviour (Ajzen 1991)

What is the consumer online behaviour?

2

 

 

 

3

Motivation

 

 

Search Engine

Optimization

 

Normative beliefs

 

(Hassan, Nareeman, & Pauline, 2013)

Theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen 1991)

What is the consumer motivation to use the online platform?

4

Content Marketing

 

Attitude toward the behaviour

(Hassan, Nareeman, & Pauline, 2013).

Theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen 1991)

How are confident people using the online platform?

5

Social Media Marketing

 

Attitude toward the behavior

(Heitzman, 2017).

George (2004),

Theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen 1991)

How well do consumers know about their rights and businesses know their responsibilities, when they use E-Store as a retail channel?

6

Brand theory (affect in colour, Logo, ethical of copycat).

Subjective norms

 

 perceived behavioural control 

 

control beliefs

 

 

(Millenniumsi.com, 2016).

LIBERATORE, (2015)

(Patel V. V., 2009).

Theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen 1991)

What will digital and brand marketing support consumer behaviour?

3.2.2 Research Approach on Consumers Behaviour in Online Shopping Especially in the UK

 

However, the primary data will be collected through the questionnaire and the secondary data consider the previous literature that will be based on the UK consumes that how they focus on the online shopping. The literature review and survey questionnaire also analyze the current trend of the consumers in the online shopping. The primary data collected through questionnaires that were in form of an online survey (Survey Monkey). Survey Monkey is a credible tool that works to recognize credible results. The results are highly valid and the tool is used by a number of academic institutions (Easterby-Smith, Thorpe, & Jackson, 2012). Furthermore, (Quinlan 2011) also supports the gathering of the quantitative data points so that there could be a focus on the positive analysis of the research (Quinlan 2011).

               Through using the survey and primary data, the research focuses on the trends in the online shopping by the customers in the UK (Fullerton, 2017).

              The research design for the current research is based on the framework of the social survey design; there is the collection of information and quantitative research in the current research (Eid, 2011). However, the data analysis is done under the research strategy as well as the research objectives. There is the focus on the customer's attitudes as well as the perceptions or purchasing behaviour in the online shopping; these aspects are focused through the quantitative research  (Dong & Wu, 2015).

3.3 Data Collection for Consumers Behaviour in Online Shopping Especially in the UK

Salkins (2010) focuses on the data collected for the research is accessed through the use of a questionnaire. Data is collected from the selected samples of the study for the purpose of generalization. Primary data is collected as researcher directly focus on the social media and all customers (students, staff members, friends, Local people) in the St university and another area of the UK was not an easy job because of the large-scale distribution of the population. Smith, M. Thorpe, R. Jackson, P (2015).

3.3.1 Primary data of Consumers Behaviour in Online Shopping Especially in the UK

For the data collection, there is the use of the quantitative research method, the collected primary data is analyzed through the questionnaire survey and with use of the quantitative method as well as the qualitative method so that statistical analysis could be effectively performed (Easterby-Smith, Thorpe, & Jackson, 2012). The collected data is analyzed through the online questionnaire and with the user for collecting data; there can be a better analysis of the consumers. However, for the collection of the data, the Questionnaires was made on the Survey Monkey and consumers were skated to fill the data based on the series of questions (appendices 1). However, the consumers of the UK fill the data and by providing information they tell about the behaviour. Easterby-Smith, Thorpe, & Jackson (2012) were an emeritus professor and he described organizational learning along with practical guidance. He provided an accessible way to work on management research and the methods are approachable.

3.3.2 Questionnaire for Consumers Behaviour in Online Shopping Especially in the UK

Salkind (2010) focus on the collecting respondent answers, the effective questionnaire design was used and the analysis was done through the quantitative primary data, there are the varieties of questions that help the researcher to analyze the behaviour of the consumers (Eid, 2011). There is also the analysis of the consumer awareness, motivation regarding the online shopping How are confident people using the online platform?. There are also questions regarding the lifestyle characteristics of the consumers, like what is the consumer motivation to use the online platform?

There are various advantages of the questionnaire that is filled online by the consumers as different consumers participated online. How well do consumers know about their rights and businesses know their responsibilities, when they use E-Store as a retail channel? There were the limited responses by the consumers, in the online survey; this is one of the disadvantages of the research (Pappas, 2013). What digital and brand marketing will support consumer behaviour; the personal information regarding the behaviour of people shopping also analyzed by filling the data online. In the questionnaire, there was also the analysis of the consumer behaviour regarding the intention to purchase. Research provides the maximum understanding of the behaviour of the customer for online shopping (Easterby-Smith, Thorpe, & Jackson, 2012).

3.3.2.1 Importance/Justification of the research for Consumers Behaviour in Online Shopping Especially in the UK

The current research focuses on the consumer behaviours that how they focused on the purchasing the product. However, the current research focuses on the consumers; who are in the UK and doing the online shopping. Moreover, the primary research is also conducted in order to analyze the demand of the e-commerce and in order to get the knowledge related to the E-stores. The current research focuses on the primary, as well as secondary data (Dong & Wu, 2015).

3.3.3 Sample approach of Consumers Behaviour in Online Shopping Especially in the UK

Regarding the sampling approach, the individual that is selected; they are from the UK. The current research uses the survey research that is focused on the simple random sample. Through simple random sampling, there were respondents from the university (Portal - web survey) and there are aims to explore the influenced factors that are related to the consumer purchasing behaviour. The snowballing approach is used in the survey to analyze the behaviour of customers for online shopping (Dong & Wu, 2015).

However, through the simple random sampling people were selected to fill the data on the survey monkey and the sample size based on the people that how many people want to respond (Easterby-Smith, Thorpe, & Jackson, 2012). There is the analysis of the consumers, who are the age of over 18 years old so that there could be better analysis; in this way, the ethics board for permission was also concerned.

However, for the analysis, the majority of the participants are allowed to share the personal data as well, in order to concerns about the gender that focused on the online shopping aspects. For the personal information of the respondents, there is an analysis of the respondent’s marital status, age, gender etc. (Champion, 2003). The response of each respondent is measured and specified analysis provides credible results.

3.4 Secondary Data of Consumers Behaviour in Online Shopping Especially in the UK

For the analysis of the consumer behaviour in the UK, there is the use of the secondary data so that there could be an analysis of the related studies given by the researchers regarding the consumer behaviour with the help of planned behaviour theory (Ajzen, 1991). However, different studies are analyzed and there is the maximum knowledge that how people are showing the attitude towards the online shopping experience. Secondary research has given the effectiveness and better understanding of the current research. The secondary data is said to be permanent and available. The snowballing approach is used in the survey to analyze the behaviour of customers for online shopping (Easterby-Smith, Thorpe, & Jackson, 2012).

3.5 Data analysis technique for Consumers Behaviour in Online Shopping Especially in the UK

For the data analysis technique, there is the analysis of the filled question that was taken online through the survey, the data analysis technique could be explained as the most important part of any research because results are analyzed and interpreted in this part. Consequently, there is the effective interpretation of collected data in the current research, there are the meanings of results that how the research was conducted, and the analysis was done with the survey monkey tool as people filled data effectively (Easterby-Smith, Thorpe, & Jackson, 2012). In order to analyze the response of the people, there is an effective analysis of the technique so that result could be effectively focused through the descriptive and inferential data analysis. (Ganesh, Reynolds, Luckett, & Pomirleanu, 2010) focuses on the aspect related to the data analysis technique based on the effective research outcomes, the data analysis is done effectively with the authentic as well as the valid approach.

The current research used the deductive approach so that there could be the most suitable analysis and so that results could be effectively concerned or reach. With the quantitative data analysis, there is the collection of quantifiable data and the researcher focus to get the results that are valid. There is focused on the online assessment and questionnaire tool through the survey monkey so that maximum customers taken from the different region in the UK.

3.5.1 Limitations of Consumers Behaviour in Online Shopping Especially in the UK

The process of collecting the data was significantly precise and analysis included a survey. Some respondents neglected actual facts about the experiences they had in the online shopping process.  The age limit was considered in the analysis including for males and female customers. The age limit was determined for males are from 18 years old customers.

3.6 Ethical Considerations of Consumers Behaviour in Online Shopping Especially in the UK

I adhered to the works of Easterby-Smith, Thorpe, & Jackson (2012) also Ethical research practice was followed ethical guidelines of the British Psychological Society Code of Human Research Ethics. Also, the ethics form was approved by the ethical committee of the University of Stirling. This ethical approach included safety and security, privacy and anonymity. See appendices 2.

3.6.1 Problems encountered of Consumers Behaviour in Online Shopping Especially in the UK

I faced multiple problems including lack of response, spoiled papers, different approaches through Whatsapp. The pilot questionnaire was tested by two students from Stirling University and Glasgow Caledonia University. One of the participants performed online shopping and one purchased from the online process. The contributors performed the pilot test for feedback.  In the feedback, some questions were changed based on the required process. In the feedback section, I selected some questions according to the requirement as some questions were opening questions. Some questions included in the questionnaire were paraphrased and some were prepared new. I changed some questions multiple times and tried my best to avoid misunderstanding related to meanings of questions. The last issue was opening questions in the survey from the mobile survey (Pappas, 2013). The questions were not suitable for the complex answers 102 participantscompleted the survey, 233 just opened the survey and did not complete it, and the number of participants who agree to use their information on the project is 100.

3.7 Chapter Summary of Consumers Behaviour in Online Shopping Especially in the UK

For the research methodology, it is analyzed that current research using the primary data, and the secondary data so that there could be the analysis of the consumers towards online shopping specifically in the UK. Moreover, the primary data is collected through the questionnaire and the secondary data consider the previous literature and there is the use of a quantitative method. Through the focus on the customer's attitudes as well as the perceptions or purchasing behaviour in the online shopping is known and also the lifestyle characteristics. The consumer behaviour is effectively focused in order to regard the intention to purchase of the UK consumers

 

References of Consumers Behaviour in Online Shopping Especially in the UK

 

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211.

Champion, E. (2003). Online Exploration of Mayan Culture. VSMM2003-Ninth International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia, Hybrid Reality: Art, Technology and the Human Factor, 1(1), 1-10. Retrieved 11 25, 2017

Dong, J. Q., & Wu, W. (2015). Business value of social media technologies: Evidence from online user innovation communities. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 24(02), 113-127. Retrieved 01 13, 2018

Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R., & Jackson, P. R. (2012). Management Research. SAGE.

Eid, M. I. (2011). DETERMINANTS OF E-COMMERCE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION, TRUST, AND LOYALTY IN SAUDI ARABIA. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 12(1), 78-93. Retrieved 09 27, 2017

Fullerton, L. (2017, 03 27). Online reviews impact purchasing decisions for over 93% of consumers, report suggests. Retrieved from http://www.thedrum.com: http://www.thedrum.com/news/2017/03/27/online-reviews-impact-purchasing-decisions-over-93-consumers-report-suggests

Ganesh, J., Reynolds, K. E., Luckett, M., & Pomirleanu, N. (2010). Online Shopper Motivations, and e-Store Attributes: An Examination of Online Patronage Behavior and Shopper Typologies. Journal of Retailing, 86(1), 106–115.

Hassan, Z., Nareeman, A., & Pauline, N. (2013). Impact of CSR Practices on Customer Satisfaction and Retention: An Empirical Study on Foreign MNCs in Malaysia. SSRN Electronic Journal, 01(02), 63-81.

Heitzman, A. (2017). How Digital Marketing Transformed the Consumer Buying Process. Retrieved July 1, 2018, from https://www.inc.com/adam-heitzman/how-digital-marketing-transformed-the-consumer-buying-process.html

Millenniumsi.com. (2016, 05 08). 5 WAYS TO IMPROVE CUSTOMER SERVICE. Retrieved from www.millenniumsi.com: https://www.millenniumsi.com/blog/5-ways-to-improve-customer-service/

Pappas, N. (2013). Marketing strategies, perceived risks, and consumer trust in online buying behaviour. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 29(1), 92-103.

Patel, V. V. (2009). Consumers' motivations to shop in shopping malls: A study of Indian shoppers. Advances in consumer research. Association for Consumer Research (U.S.), VIII.

Ranzcp.org. (2016). Psychiatrists, online presence and social media. Retrieved from www.ranzcp.org: https://www.ranzcp.org/Files/Resources/College_Statements/Position_Statements/75-Psychiatry,-online-presence-and-social-media-GC.aspx

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