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According to your textbook a commemorative speech

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The Art of Public Speaking

Stephen E. Lucas University of Wisconsin—Madison

Paul Stob Vanderbilt University



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Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright ©2020 by Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2007, 2004, 2001, 1998, 1995, 1992, 1989, 1986, 1983. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States.

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 LWI 21 20 19 18

ISBN 978-1-259-92460-6 (bound edition) MHID 1-259-92460-2 (bound edition)

ISBN 978-1-260-41293-2 (loose-leaf edition) MHID 1-260-41293-8 (loose-leaf edition)

ISBN 978-1-260-41287-1 (annotated instructor’s edition) MHID 1-260-41287-3 (annotated instructor’s edition)

Portfolio Manager: Sarah Remington Product Developer: Betty Chen Marketing Manager: Laura Young Program Manager: Marianne Musni Senior Content Project Manager: Danielle Clement Content Project Manager: Tim Coté Senior Buyer: Laura M. Fuller Designer: Egzon Shaqiri Content Licensing Specialist: Carrie Burger Cover Image: ©skyboysv/Shutterstock Compositor: Lumina Datamatics

All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Lucas, Stephen, 1946– author. | Stob, Paul, author. Title: The art of public speaking / Stephen E. Lucas with Paul Stob. Description: Thirteenth edition. | New York, NY : McGraw-Hill Education, [2019] Identifiers: LCCN 2018038517| ISBN 9781259924606 (bound edition : alk. paper) |  ISBN 1259924602 (bound edition : alk. paper) | ISBN 9781260412932 (loose-leaf edition) |  ISBN 1260412938 (loose-leaf edition) Subjects: LCSH: Public speaking. Classification: LCC PN4129.15 .L83 2019 | DDC 808.5/1—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2018038517

The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.


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Stephen E. Lucas is Professor of Communication Arts and Evjue-Bascom Professor in the Humanities at the Univer-sity of Wisconsin–Madison. He received his bachelor’s degree from the University of California, Santa Barbara, and his master’s and doctorate degrees from Penn State University.

Professor Lucas has been recognized for his work as both a scholar and a teacher. His first book, Portents of Rebellion: Rhetoric and Revolution in Philadelphia, 1765–1776, received the Golden Anniversary Award of the National Communication Association and was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize. His major articles include “The Schism in Rhetorical Scholarship,” “The Renaissance of American Public Address: Text and Context in Rhetorical Criti- cism,” “The Stylistic Artistry of the Declaration of Independence,” and “The Rhetorical Ancestry of the Declaration of Indepen- dence,” for which he received the Golden Anniversary Monograph Award of the National Communication Association. His most recent book is Words of a Century: The Top 100 American Speeches, 1900–1999.

Professor Lucas has received a number of teaching awards, including the Chancellor’s Award for Excellence in Teaching at the University of Wisconsin and the National Communication Association’s Donald Ecroyd Award for Outstanding Teaching in Higher Education. He is featured in the Educational Video Group’s program on the history of American public address, and he appeared on the History Channel’s documentary on the Declaration of Independence.

Professor Lucas has directed the introductory public speaking course at the University of Wisconsin–Madison since 1973. Over the years he has been respon- sible for numerous teaching innovations and has supervised the training of hun- dreds of graduate assistants. He has also served as a judge for the major national English-language public speaking competitions in China, has lectured at numer- ous Chinese universities, has conducted workshops for Chinese instructors on teaching public speaking, and has been instrumental in the development of public speaking as a dedicated course in the English curriculum of Chinese universities. The Art of Public Speaking has been translated into several languages, including Chinese, Portuguese, Korean, Romanian, and Japanese.

Stephen Lucas and his wife, Patty, live in Madison, Wisconsin, and have two sons, Jeff and Ryan. His interests include travel, sports, art, and photography.

About the Author

Courtesy of Stephen Lucas

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1 Speaking in Public 2 2 Ethics and Public Speaking 26 3 Listening 44 4 Giving Your First Speech 60


5 Selecting a Topic and a Purpose 74 6 Analyzing the Audience 94 7 Gathering Materials 114 8 Supporting Your Ideas 134


9 Organizing the Body of the Speech 158 10 Beginning and Ending the Speech 176 11 Outlining the Speech 196


12 Using Language 212 13 Delivery 230 14 Using Visual Aids 250


15 Speaking to Inform 268 16 Speaking to Persuade 290 17 Methods of Persuasion 316 18 Speaking on Special Occasions 344 19 Presenting Your Speech Online 356 20 Speaking in Small Groups 372

APPENDIX Speeches for Analysis and Discussion A-1


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A Note from the Author xvi Highlights of the Thirteenth Edition xvii McGraw-Hill Connect and Instructor Resources xviii Acknowledgments xxii Reviewers, Contributors, and Symposia Participants xxiii


Chapter 1 Speaking in Public 2 The Power of Public Speaking 4

The Tradition of Public Speaking 5

Similarities Between Public Speaking and Conversation 6

Differences Between Public Speaking and Conversation 8

Developing Confidence: Your Speech Class 8 Nervousness Is Normal 9 Dealing with Nervousness 10

Public Speaking and Critical Thinking 16

The Speech Communication Process 17 Speaker 17 Message 18 Channel 18 Listener 18 Feedback 19 Interference 20 Situation 20 The Speech Communication Process: Example with Commentary 21

Public Speaking in a Multicultural World 21 Cultural Diversity in the Modern World 21 Cultural Diversity and Public Speaking 22 Avoiding Ethnocentrism 23


Chapter 2 Ethics and Public Speaking 26 The Importance of Ethics 28

Guidelines for Ethical Speaking 29 Make Sure Your Goals Are Ethically Sound 29 Be Fully Prepared for Each Speech 30 Be Honest in What You Say 31

Courtesy of Josh Shipp

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vi Contents

Chapter 4 Giving Your First Speech 60 Preparing Your Speech 60

Developing the Speech 60 Organizing the Speech 63

Delivering Your Speech 65 Speaking Extemporaneously 66 Rehearsing the Speech 66 Presenting the Speech 67

Sample Speeches with Commentary 68

Chapter 3 Listening 44 Listening Is Important 46

Listening and Critical Thinking 47

Four Causes of Poor Listening 48 Not Concentrating 48 Listening Too Hard 48 Jumping to Conclusions 49 Focusing on Delivery and Personal Appearance 50

How to Become a Better Listener 51 Take Listening Seriously 51 Be an Active Listener 51 Resist Distractions 51 Don’t Be Diverted by Appearance or Delivery 53 Suspend Judgment 54 Focus Your Listening 54 Develop Note-Taking Skills 56

Avoid Name-Calling and Other Forms of Abusive Language 32 Put Ethical Principles into Practice 33

Plagiarism 34 Global Plagiarism 35 Patchwork Plagiarism 35 Incremental Plagiarism 36 Plagiarism and the Internet 38

Guidelines for Ethical Listening 39 Be Courteous and Attentive 39 Avoid Prejudging the Speaker 40 Maintain the Free and Open Expression of Ideas 40

©sturti/Getty Images

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Contents vii

Chapter 6 Analyzing the Audience 94 Audience-Centeredness 96

Your Classmates as an Audience 96

The Psychology of Audiences 97

Demographic Audience Analysis 98 Age 99 Religion 100 Racial, Ethnic, and Cultural Background 100 Gender and Sexual Orientation 101 Group Membership 102

Situational Audience Analysis 102 Size 103 Physical Setting 103 Disposition Toward the Topic 103 Disposition Toward the Speaker 105 Disposition Toward the Occasion 106

Getting Information About the Audience 107

Adapting to the Audience 109 Audience Adaptation Before the Speech 110 Audience Adaptation During the Speech 110


Chapter 5 Selecting a Topic and a Purpose 74 Choosing a Topic 76

Topics You Know a Lot About 76 Topics You Want to Know More About 77 Brainstorming for Topics 78

Determining the General Purpose 79

Determining the Specific Purpose 80 Tips for Formulating the Specific Purpose Statement 82 Questions to Ask About Your Specific Purpose 84

Phrasing the Central Idea 86 What Is the Central Idea? 86 Guidelines for the Central Idea 88

©Handout/Getty Images

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viii Contents

Chapter 8 Supporting Your Ideas 134 Examples 136

Brief Examples 137 Extended Examples 137 Hypothetical Examples 138

Tips for Using Examples 138

Statistics 141 Understanding Statistics 142 Tips for Using Statistics 145

Testimony 148 Expert Testimony 149 Peer Testimony 149

Quoting Versus Paraphrasing 150 Tips for Using Testimony 150

Citing Sources Orally 153

Chapter 7 Gathering Materials 114 Using Your Own Knowledge and Experience 114

Doing Library Research 116 Librarians 116 The Catalogue 117 Reference Works 117 Newspaper and Periodical Databases 118 Academic Databases 119

Searching the Internet 120 Search Engines 120 Specialized Research Resources 120 Evaluating Internet Documents 122

Interviewing 125 Before the Interview 125 During the Interview 126 After the Interview 128

Tips for Doing Research 128 Start Early 128 Make a Preliminary Bibliography 128 Take Notes Efficiently 129 Think About Your Materials as You Research 131

©Cooper Neill/Getty Images

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Contents ix


Chapter 9 Organizing the Body of the Speech 158 Organization Is Important 158

Main Points 160 Number of Main Points 162 Strategic Order of Main Points 162 Tips for Preparing Main Points 167

Supporting Materials 168

Connectives 170 Transitions 171 Internal Previews 171 Internal Summaries 172 Signposts 172

Chapter 11 Outlining the Speech 196 The Preparation Outline 196

Guidelines for the Preparation Outline 198 Sample Preparation Outline with Commentary 202

The Speaking Outline 205 Guidelines for the Speaking Outline 206 Sample Speaking Outline with Commentary 208

Chapter 10 Beginning and Ending the Speech 176 The Introduction 178

Get Attention and Interest 178 Reveal the Topic 183 Establish Credibility and Goodwill 184 Preview the Body of the Speech 185 Sample Introduction with Commentary 186 Tips for the Introduction 187

The Conclusion 188 Signal the End of the Speech 188 Reinforce the Central Idea 190 Sample Conclusion with Commentary 193 Tips for the Conclusion 193

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Chapter 13 Delivery 230 What Is Good Delivery? 232

Methods of Delivery 232 Reading from a Manuscript 232 Reciting from Memory 233 Speaking Impromptu 233 Speaking Extemporaneously 234

The Speaker’s Voice 235 Volume 235 Pitch 236 Rate 236 Pauses 236 Vocal Variety 237

Pronunciation 237 Articulation 238 Dialect 239

The Speaker’s Body 239 Personal Appearance 240 Movement 240 Gestures 241 Eye Contact 242

Practicing Delivery 242

Answering Audience Questions 244 Preparing for the Question-and-Answer Session 244 Managing the Question-and-Answer Session 245


Chapter 12 Using Language 212 Meanings of Words 212

Using Language Accurately 214

Using Language Clearly 216 Use Familiar Words 216 Choose Concrete Words 217 Eliminate Clutter 218

Using Language Vividly 219 Imagery 219

Rhythm 222

Using Language Appropriately 224 Appropriateness to the Occasion 225 Appropriateness to the Audience 225 Appropriateness to the Topic 226

Appropriateness to the Speaker 226

A Note on Inclusive Language 226

©fstop123/Getty Images

x Contents

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Chapter 14 Using Visual Aids 250 Kinds of Visual Aids 252

Objects and Models 252 Photographs and Drawings 252 Graphs 253 Charts 255 Video 255 The Speaker 256

Presentation Technology 256 Pluses and Minuses of Presentation Technology 257 Planning to Use Presentation Technology 258

Guidelines for Preparing Visual Aids 259 Prepare Visual Aids Well in Advance 259 Keep Visual Aids Simple 259 Make Sure Visual Aids Are Large Enough 259 Use a Limited Amount of Text 259 Use Fonts Effectively 260 Use Color Effectively 260 Use Images Strategically 261

Guidelines for Presenting Visual Aids 262 Display Visual Aids Where Listeners Can See Them 262 Avoid Passing Visual Aids Among the Audience 262 Display Visual Aids Only While Discussing Them 263 Explain Visual Aids Clearly and Concisely 263 Talk to Your Audience, Not to Your Visual Aid 264 Practice with Your Visual Aids 264 Check the Room and Equipment 265


Chapter 15 Speaking to Inform 268 Types of Informative Speeches: Analysis and Organization 270

Speeches About Objects 270 Speeches About Processes 272 Speeches About Events 274 Speeches About Concepts 275

Guidelines for Informative Speaking 277 Don’t Overestimate What the Audience Knows 277 Relate the Subject Directly to the Audience 278 Don’t Be Too Technical 280 Avoid Abstractions 281 Personalize Your Ideas 283 Be Creative 284

Sample Speech with Commentary 285

©Patrick T. Fallon/Bloomberg/Getty Images

Contents xi

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xii Contents

Chapter 16 Speaking to Persuade 290 The Importance of Persuasion 292

Ethics and Persuasion 292

The Psychology of Persuasion 293 The Challenge of Persuasive Speaking 293 How Listeners Process Persuasive Messages 294 The Target Audience 295

Persuasive Speeches on Questions of Fact 296 What Are Questions of Fact? 296 Analyzing Questions of Fact 297 Organizing Speeches on Questions of Fact 298

Persuasive Speeches on Questions of Value 298 What Are Questions of Value? 298

Analyzing Questions of Value 299 Organizing Speeches on Questions of Value 299

Persuasive Speeches on Questions of Policy 300 What Are Questions of Policy? 300 Types of Speeches on Questions of Policy 301 Analyzing Questions of Policy 302 Organizing Speeches on Questions of Policy 304

Sample Speech with Commentary 310

Chapter 17 Methods of Persuasion 316 Building Credibility 318

Factors of Credibility 318 Types of Credibility 319 Enhancing Your Credibility 320

Using Evidence 322 How Evidence Works: A Case Study 322 Tips for Using Evidence 324

Reasoning 325 Reasoning from Specific Instances 327 Reasoning from Principle 328 Causal Reasoning 328 Analogical Reasoning 329 Fallacies 330

Appealing to Emotions 334 What Are Emotional Appeals? 334 Generating Emotional Appeal 335 Ethics and Emotional Appeal 337

Sample Speech with Commentary 338

©Joshua Blanchard/Getty Images

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Contents xiii

Chapter 18 Speaking on Special Occasions 344 Speeches of Introduction 344

Speeches of Presentation 348

Speeches of Acceptance 349

Commemorative Speeches 350

Chapter 19 Presenting Your Speech Online 356

The Special Nature of the Online Environment 358

Kinds of Online Speeches 358

Guidelines for Online Speaking 359 Control the Visual Environment 359 Adapt Your Nonverbal Communication 362 Adjust Your Pacing 362 Don’t Forget Your Audience 363 Practice, Practice, Practice 363

The Technology of Real-Time Online Speeches 366 Choosing the Software 366 Learning the Software 366

Have a Backup Plan 366

Sample Speech with Commentary 367

Chapter 20 Speaking in Small Groups 372 What Is a Small Group? 374

Leadership in Small Groups 374 Kinds of Leadership 374 Functions of Leadership 376

Responsibilities in a Small Group 377 Commit Yourself to the Goals of Your Group 377 Fulfill Individual Assignments 378 Avoid Interpersonal Conflicts 378 Encourage Full Participation 379 Keep the Discussion on Track 380

The Reflective-Thinking Method 380 Define the Problem 380 Analyze the Problem 382 Establish Criteria for Solutions 383 Generate Potential Solutions 384 Select the Best Solution 384

Presenting the Recommendations of the Group 386 Oral Report 386 Symposium 387 Panel Discussion 387

©Nick David/Getty Images

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xiv Contents

Appendix Speeches for Analysis and Discussion A-1 Lady Liberty A-2

Using a Tourniquet to Save a Life A-3

The Living-Wage Solution A-5

Phony Pharmaceuticals A-7

Make a Wish A-9

Elie Wiesel A-10

Notes N1

Index I1

SPEECHES The Courtyard (Sample Speech with Commentary) 69

Fearless (Sample Speech with Commentary) 70

Supervolcanoes: The Sleeping Giants (Sample Speech with Commentary) 285

Getting the Lead Out (Sample Speech with Commentary) 310

Changing Lives Through the Literacy Network (Sample Speech with Commentary) 338

Presenting the National Teacher of the Year Award Barack Obama 348

Accepting the National Teacher of the Year Award Shanna Peeples 350

Ida B. Wells 353

charity: water (Sample Speech with Commentary) 368

Lady Liberty A-2

Using a Tourniquet to Save a Life A-3

The Living-Wage Solution A-5

Phony Pharmaceuticals A-7

Make a Wish A-9

Elie Wiesel A-10

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Contents xv



Fearless 70

INFORMATIVE SPEECHES Space Junk (Sample Introduction with Commentary) 187

Space Junk (Sample Conclusion with Commentary) 193

Beneficial Bacteria (Sample Preparation Outline with Commentary) 203

Beneficial Bacteria (Sample Speaking Outline with Commentary) 208

Supervolcanoes: The Sleeping Giants 285

Lady Liberty A-2

Using a Tourniquet to Save a Life A-3

PERSUASIVE SPEECHES Getting the Lead Out 310

Changing Lives Through the Literacy Network 338

The Living-Wage Solution A-5

Phony Pharmaceuticals A-7

SPEECHES OF PRESENTATION Presenting the National Teacher of the Year Award Barack Obama 348

SPEECHES OF ACCEPTANCE Accepting the National Teacher of the Year Award Shanna Peeples 350


Make a Wish A-9

Elie Wiesel A-10

ONLINE SPEECHES charity: water 368

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When I wrote the first edition of The Art of Public Speaking, I could not have imagined the extraordinary response the book would receive. I am deeply appreciative of the students and teachers who have made it the leading work on its subject at colleges and universities across the United States and around the world.

In preparing this edition, I have retained what readers have identified as the main strengths of the book. The Art of Public Speaking is informed by classical and contemporary theories of rhetoric, but it does not present theory for its own sake. Keeping a steady eye on the practical skills of public speaking, it offers full coverage of all major aspects of speech preparation and presentation.

It also follows David Hume’s advice that one “who would teach eloquence must do it chiefly by examples.” Whenever possible, I have tried to show the principles of public speaking in action in addition to describing them. Thus you will find in the book a large number of narratives, speech excerpts, and full sample speeches that illustrate the prin- ciples of effective public speaking.

Because the immediate task facing students is to present speeches in the classroom, I rely heavily on examples that relate directly to students’ classroom needs and experi- ences. The speech classroom, however, is a training ground where students develop skills that will serve them throughout life. Therefore, I also include a large number of illustrations drawn from the kinds of speaking experiences students will face after they graduate from college.

Because speeches are performative acts, students need to be able to view speakers in action as well as to read their words on the printed page. The Art of Public Speaking has an extensive video program that is available both on DVD and on Connect, McGraw-Hill’s online learning platform. The video program includes over 40 full stu- dent speeches, plus more than 60 speech excerpts. Eleven of the full speeches and 18 of the excerpts are new to this edition.

Connect also provides a wide range of teaching and learning resources in addition to the speech videos. These resources include SmartBook, hands-on study tools, critical-thinking exercises, speech-analysis questions, worksheets, assessment forms, and more. Taken together, The Art of Public Speaking and the digital resources available on Connect provide a time-tested interactive public speaking program that meets the needs of students and teachers alike.

The Art of Public Speaking has changed over the years in response to changes in technology, student demographics, and instructional needs. But it has never lost sight of the fact that the most important part of speaking is thinking. The ability to think critically is vital to a world in which personality and image too often substitute for thought and substance. While helping students become capable, responsible speakers, The Art of Public Speaking also aims to help them become capable, responsible thinkers who value the role of civil discourse in a democratic society.

A Note from the Author

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Highlights of the Thirteenth Edition of The Art of Public Speaking Fully updated for the thirteenth edition, the award-winning Art of Public Speaking offers a time-tested approach that has made it the most widely used college text- book on its subject in the world. Seamlessly coordinated with Connect, McGraw- Hill Education’s pathbreaking online program, it supplies a proven set of teaching and learning tools that is without parallel among public speaking books.

For experienced instructors, The Art of Public Speaking presents a solid, fully customizable foundation and an abundance of teaching aids from which to choose, allowing for complete teaching flexibility in the course. For novice instructors, its wisdom, steady hand, and unmatched ancillary package instill con- fidence and build success in the classroom from day one.

■ New chapter on presenting online speeches. This chapter gives students the guidance they need for effective online speaking. Distinguishing between recorded and real-time online speeches, it explains the unique features of each and how students can adapt to those features when preparing, rehears- ing, and delivering their speeches. Practical guidelines help students control the visual environment, create a suitable relationship with the online audi- ence, and use online presentation software skillfully and professionally. A full sample speech with commentary illustrates the principles of effective online speaking in action. Video of the speech is available on DVD and Connect, in both final and needs improvement versions.

■ New full student speeches. The Art of Public Speaking video program is designed to bridge the gap between the written page and the spoken word. Toward this end, the thirteenth edition has 11 new full speeches for analysis and discus- sion, all of which are available in both print and digital formats. They include two new speeches of self-introduction, two new informative speeches (includ- ing a demonstration speech), a new persuasive speech, a new commemorative speech, and a new online speech—plus four new needs improvement speeches.

■ Other video resources. The Art of Public Speaking’s video program also includes more than 60 speech excerpts that are fully integrated into the eBook. Stu- dents can access these excerpts—along with full speeches—as they read the book to see the principles of public speaking in action. Whether a full speech or an excerpt, each video illustrates specific skills and concepts from the text.

■ Improved coverage of introduction and conclusions. Chapter 10 features new sample introductions and conclusions with commentary, both of which are also available on video. The chapter also includes a new section on using visual aids to gain attention and interest at the start of a speech.

■ Fresh real-world examples. Every chapter of The Art of Public Speaking opens with an engaging and relevant example, and dozens of additional examples appear throughout the chapters, each demonstrating the importance of pub- lic speaking in school, business, and social settings. As in every edition, examples have been updated for currency, relevance, and interest.

■ Improved discussion of audience analysis. Chapter 6, on audience analysis, has been fine-tuned to take account of changes in audience demographics and

A Note from the Author xvii

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xviii A Note from the Author

public attitudes. This is most evident in the treatment of gender and sexual orientation, but there are changes throughout the chapter to keep it up to date.

■ Updated MLA and APA citation models. Chapter 7, on gathering materials, presents all-new sample bibliography entries, reflecting the latest MLA and APA citation formats to help students correctly cite academic, digital, and other sources. As in each edition, the chapter as a whole has been revised to reflect technological changes.

■ Enhanced discussion of presentation technology. Guidance on the use of visual aids and presentation technology has been updated in accord with current developments. Best practices are illustrated by abundant examples in the book and on speech videos.

McGraw-Hill Connect and Instructor Resources MCGRAW-HILL CONNECT McGraw-Hill Connect® is a highly reliable, easy-to-use homework and learning management solution that utilizes learning science and award-winning adaptive tools to improve student results.

Connect’s assignments help students contextualize what they’ve learned through application, so they can better understand the material and think criti- cally about it.

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SMARTBOOK WITH LEARNING RESOUCES SmartBook provides an interactive reading experience that helps students study more efficiently through adaptive highlighting and review. As a student uses SmartBook, it creates a personalized learning path that highlights the most important concepts the student needs to grasp at that moment in time. The learn- ing path continuously adapts by delivering a variety of dynamic digital learning resources that are catered to each student’s needs. These resources help students learn the material, retain more knowledge, and earn better grades.

CONNECT EBOOK The Connect eBook makes it easy for students to access their study material on smartphones and tablets. They can study on the go and don’t need Internet access to use the eBook with full functionality.

INSIGHT ANALYTICS Connect Insight® provides instructors easy-to-read reports on individual stu- dents, on the class as a whole, and on specific assignments. The Connect Insight dashboard delivers data on performance, study behavior, and effort. Instructors can quickly identify students who are struggling and can help them focus on mate- rial that they need to master.

A Note from the Author xix

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LEARNSMART REPORTS LearnSmart Instructor Reports make it easy to pinpoint the help individual stu- dents need to improve their performance. Reports also identify concepts and learning objectives that may be unclear to the class as a whole. With this informa- tion, instructors can target areas for discussion and review.

Some key LearnSmart reports include:

Progress Overview report—View student progress for all LearnSmart modules, including how long students have spent working in each module and which mod- ules they have used outside of those that were assigned.

Missed Questions report—Identify specific LearnSmart probes, organized by chapter, that are problematic for students.

Most Challenging Learning Objectives report—Learn which topics are most chal- lenging for your students. Reports are organized by chapter and include specific page references. Use this information to tailor your lecture time and assignments to cover areas that require additional attention and practice.

Metacognitive Skills report—View statistics showing how knowledgeable your students are about their own comprehension and learning.

SPEECH CAPTURE Designed for use in face-to-face, real-time classrooms, as well as online courses, Speech Capture allows instructors to evaluate their students’ speeches using fully customizable rubrics. Instructors can also create and manage peer review assign- ments and upload videos on behalf of students for optimal flexibility.

Students can access rubrics and leave comments when preparing self-reviews and peer reviews. They can easily upload a video of their speech from their hard drive or use Connect’s built-in video recorder. Students can even attach and upload addi- tional files or documents, such as a works-cited page or a PowerPoint presentation.

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