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Chapter 7 bureaucracy and formal organizations

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Sociology A Down-to-Earth Approach

Thirteenth Edition

James M. Henslin Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Henslin, James M., author. Title: Sociology : a down-to-earth approach / James M. Henslin, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville. Description: Thirteenth edition. | Boston : Pearson Education, [2017] Identifiers: LCCN 2015043067 | ISBN 9780134205571 Subjects: LCSH: Sociology. Classification: LCC HM586. H45 2017 | DDC 301–dc23 LC record available at http://lccn.loc.gov/2015043067

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Student Edition: ISBN-10: 0-13-420557-X ISBN-13: 978-0-13-420557-1

Books A La Carte ISBN 10: 0-13-420559-6 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-420559-5

A01_HENS5571_13_SE_FM.indd 2 11/23/15 2:12 PM

To my fellow sociologists, who do such creative research on social life and who communicate the sociological imagination to generations of students. With my sincere admiration and appreciation,

A01_HENS5571_13_SE_FM.indd 3 11/24/15 12:14 AM

1 The Sociological Perspective 1

2 Culture 34

3 Socialization 63

4 Social Structure and Social Interaction 96

5 How Sociologists Do Research 127

6 Societies to Social Networks 148

7 Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations 174

8 Deviance and Social Control 196

9 Global Stratification 228

10 Social Class in the United States 261

11 Sex and Gender 294

12 Race and Ethnicity 326

13 The Elderly 365

14 The Economy 394

15 Politics 427

16 Marriage and Family 459

17 Education 493

18 Religion 520

19 Medicine and Health 555

20 Population and Urbanization 587

21 Collective Behavior and Social Movements 622

22 Social Change and the Environment 648

Brief Contents


A01_HENS5571_13_SE_FM.indd 4 11/24/15 12:14 AM

To the Student . . . from the Author xix To the Instructor . . . from the Author xx About the Author xxxi

1 The Sociological Perspective 1 The Sociological Perspective 3

Seeing the Broader Social Context 3 The Global Context—and the Local 4

Sociology and the Other Sciences 5 The Natural Sciences 5 The Social Sciences 5

Anthropology  6  •  Economics  6  •  politicAl  sciEncE  6  •  psychology   6  •  sociology  6

The Goals of Science 7 The Risks of Being a Sociologist 8

Origins of Sociology 8 Tradition versus Science 8 Auguste Comte and Positivism 9 Herbert Spencer and Social Darwinism 9 Karl Marx and Class Conflict 10 Emile Durkheim and Social Integration 11

Applying DurkhEim  12

Max Weber and the Protestant Ethic 13 rEligion AnD thE origin of cApitAlism  13

Values in Sociological Research 13

Verstehen and Social Facts 14 Weber and Verstehen 14 Durkheim and Social Facts 15 How Social Facts and Verstehen Fit Together 15

Sociology in North America 16 Sexism at the Time: Women in Early Sociology 16 Racism at the Time: W. E. B. Du Bois 18 Jane Addams: Sociologist and Social Reformer 20

Talcott Parsons and C. Wright Mills: Theory versus Reform 20

The Continuing Tension: Basic, Applied, and Public Sociology 21 BAsic sociology  21 •  AppliED sociology  21  •  puBlic  sociology  21  •  sociAl rEform is risky  22

Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology 23 Symbolic Interactionism 24

symBols in EvEryDAy lifE  24  •  Applying symBolic  intErActionism  24  • 

Functional Analysis 26 roBErt mErton AnD functionAlism  26  •  Applying  functionAl AnAlysis  26

Conflict Theory 28 kArl mArx AnD conflict thEory  28  •  conflict thEory  toDAy  28  •  fEminists AnD conflict thEory  28  •  Applying conflict thEory  29

Putting the Theoretical Perspectives Together 29 Levels of Analysis: Macro and Micro 29

Trends Shaping the Future of Sociology 30 Sociology’s Tension: Research versus Reform 30

thrEE stAgEs in sociology  30  •  DivErsity of  oriEntAtions  30

Globalization 31 ApplicAtion of gloBAlizAtion to this tExt  31

summary and review  31 thinking critically about chapter 1 33

2 Culture 34 What Is Culture? 36

Culture and Taken-for-Granted Orientations to Life 36 Practicing Cultural Relativism 38

AttAck on culturAl rElAtivism  42

Components of Symbolic Culture 42 Gestures 42

misunDErstAnDing AnD offEnsE 42  •  univErsAl  gEsturEs? 43

Language 43 lAnguAgE Allows humAn ExpEriEncE to BE  cumulAtivE 44  •  lAnguAgE proviDEs A sociAl  or shArED pAst 44  •  lAnguAgE proviDEs A sociAl  or shArED futurE 44  •  lAnguAgE Allows shArED  pErspEctivEs 44  •  lAnguAgE Allows shArED,  goAl-DirEctED BEhAvior 45

Language and Perception: The Sapir–Whorf Hypothesis 46 Values, Norms, and Sanctions 46 Folkways, Mores, and Taboos 48

Many Cultural Worlds 49 Subcultures 49 Countercultures 52

Values in U.S. Society 52 An Overview of U.S. Values 52 Value Clusters 53 Value Contradictions 53 An Emerging Value Cluster 54 When Values Clash 55 Values as Distorting Lenses 55 “Ideal” versus “Real” Culture 55

Cultural Universals 56

Sociobiology and Human Behavior 57

Technology in the Global Village 58 The New Technology 58 Cultural Lag and Cultural Change 58 Technology and Cultural Leveling 60 summary and review 61 thinking critically about chapter 2 62



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vi  contents

3 Socialization 63 Society Makes Us Human 65

Feral Children 65 Isolated Children 66 Institutionalized Children 67

thE orphAnAgE ExpErimEnt in thE unitED stAtEs 67  •  thE orphAnAgE ExpErimEnt in romAniA 68  •  timing  AnD humAn DEvElopmEnt 68

Deprived Animals 69

Socialization into the Self and Mind 70 Cooley and the Looking-Glass Self 70 Mead and Role Taking 70 Piaget and the Development of Reasoning 72 Global Aspects of the Self and Reasoning 73

Learning Personality, Morality, and Emotions 73 Freud and the Development of Personality 73

sociologicAl EvAluAtion 74

Kohlberg and the Development of Morality 74 kohlBErg’s thEory 74  •  criticisms of  kohlBErg 75  •  rEsEArch with BABiEs 75  •  thE  culturAl rElAtivity of morAlity 75

Socialization into Emotions 75 gloBAl Emotions 75  •  ExprEssing Emotions:  “gEnDEr rulEs” 75  •  thE ExtEnt of “fEEling  rulEs” 76  •  whAt wE fEEl  76  •  rEsEArch nEEDED 76

Society within Us: The Self and Emotions as Social Control 77

Socialization into Gender 77 Learning the Gender Map 77 Gender Messages in the Family 77

pArEnts 77  •  toys AnD plAy 78 •  sAmE-sEx pArEnts 80

Gender Messages from Peers 80 Gender Messages in the Mass Media 80

tElEvision, moviEs, AnD cArtoons 81 •  viDEo gAmEs 81  •  ADvErtising 81

Agents of Socialization 83 The Family 83

sociAl clAss AnD typE of work 83 •  sociAl clAss AnD plAy 83

The Neighborhood 84 Religion 84 Day Care 84 The School 85 Peer Groups 85 The Workplace 88

Resocialization 88 Total Institutions 88

Socialization through the Life Course 90 Childhood (from birth to about age 12) 90 Adolescence (ages 13–17) 91 Transitional Adulthood (ages 18–29) 91

“Bring your pArEnts to work DAy.” 92

The Middle Years (ages 30–65) 92 thE EArly miDDlE yEArs (AgEs 30–49) 92 •  thE lAtEr miDDlE yEArs (AgEs 50–65) 92

The Older Years (about age 65 on) 92 thE trAnsitionAl olDEr yEArs (AgEs 65–74) 92  •  thE lAtEr olDEr yEArs (AgE 75 or so on) 93

Applying the Sociological Perspective to the Life Course 93

Are We Prisoners of Socialization? 93 summary and review 94 thinking critically about chapter 3 95

4 Social Structure and Social Interaction 96 Levels of Sociological Analysis 98

Macrosociology and Microsociology 98

The Macrosociological Perspective: Social Structure 99 The Sociological Significance of Social Structure 99 Culture 101 Social Class 101 Social Status 101

stAtus sEts 101  •  AscriBED AnD AchiEvED  stAtusEs 101  •  stAtus symBols 102  •  mAstEr  stAtusEs 102  •  stAtus inconsistEncy 102

Roles 103 Groups 103 Social Institutions 104 Comparing Functionalist and Conflict Perspectives 105

thE functionAlist pErspEctivE 105  •  thE conflict  pErspEctivE 106 

Changes in Social Structure 106 What Holds Society Together? 106

mEchAnicAl AnD orgAnic soliDArity 106 •  Gemeinschaft AnD Gesellschaft 107 •  how rElEvAnt ArE thEsE concEpts toDAy? 107

The Microsociological Perspective: Social Interaction in Everyday Life 109

Symbolic Interaction 109 stErEotypEs in EvEryDAy lifE 109  •  pErsonAl  spAcE 113  •  EyE contAct 114  •   smiling 114 •  BoDy lAnguAgE 114  •  AppliED BoDy lAnguAgE 114

Dramaturgy: The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life 114 stAgEs 115  •  rolE pErformAncE, conflict, AnD  strAin  115  •  sign-vEhiclEs 115  •  tEAmwork 116 •  BEcoming thE rolEs wE plAy 118  •  Applying  imprEssion mAnAgEmEnt 118

Ethnomethodology: Uncovering Background Assumptions 119 The Social Construction of Reality 120   •  gynEcologicAl ExAminAtions 120

The Need for both Macrosociology and Microsociology 122 summary and review 125 thinking critically about chapter 4 126

5 How Sociologists Do Research 127 What Is a Valid Sociological Topic? 129

Common Sense and the Need for Sociological Research 129

A Research Model 129 1. Selecting a Topic 130 2. Defining the Problem 130

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contents vii

3. Reviewing the Literature 130 4. Formulating a Hypothesis 130 5. Choosing a Research Method 130 6. Collecting the Data 130 7. Analyzing the Results 131 8. Sharing the Results 131

Research Methods (Designs) 131 Surveys 133

sElEcting A sAmplE 133  •  Asking nEutrAl  QuEstions 134  •  QuEstionnAirEs AnD  intErviEws 134  •  EstABlishing rApport 136

Participant Observation (Fieldwork) 136 Case Studies 137 Secondary Analysis 137 Analysis of Documents 137 Experiments 139 Unobtrusive Measures 141 Deciding Which Method to Use 141 Controversy in Sociological Research 141

Gender in Sociological Research 143

Ethics in Sociological Research 143 Protecting the Subjects: The Brajuha Research 144 Misleading the Subjects: The Humphreys Research 144

How Research and Theory Work Together 145 The Real World: When the Ideal Meets the Real 145 summary and review  147 thinking critically about chapter 5  147

6 Societies to Social Networks 148 Societies and Their Transformation 150

Hunting and Gathering Societies 150 Pastoral and Horticultural Societies 152 Agricultural Societies 152 Industrial Societies 153 Postindustrial (Information) Societies 154 Biotech Societies: Is a New Type of

Society Emerging? 154

Groups within Society 156 Primary Groups 158

proDucing A mirror within 158

Secondary Groups 158 In-Groups and Out-Groups 158

shAping pErcEption AnD morAlity 159

Reference Groups 159 EvAluAting oursElvEs 160  •  ExposurE to  contrADictory stAnDArDs in A sociAlly DivErsE  sociEty 160

Social Networks 160 AppliED nEtwork AnAlysis 161  •  thE smAll worlD  phEnomEnon 161  •  is thE smAll worlD phEnomEnon  An AcADEmic myth? 162  •  BuilDing unintEntionAl  BArriErs 162

Group Dynamics 162 Effects of Group Size on Stability and Intimacy 163 Effects of Group Size on Attitudes and Behavior 164

lABorAtory finDings AnD thE rEAl worlD 165

Leadership 167 who BEcomEs A lEADEr? 167  •  typEs of lEADErs 167  •  lEADErship stylEs 168  •  lEADErship stylEs in  chAnging situAtions 168

The Power of Peer Pressure: The Asch Experiment 169

The Power of Authority: The Milgram Experiment 170 Global Consequences of Group Dynamics:

Groupthink 171 prEvEnting groupthink 172

summary and review 172 thinking critically about chapter 6 173

7 Bureaucracy and Formal Organizations 174

The Rationalization of Society 176 Why Did Society Make a Deep Shift in Human

Relationships? 176 lifE in trADitionAl sociEtiEs 176  •  thE shift  to rAtionAlity As sociEtiEs inDustriAlizED 176

Marx: Capitalism Broke Tradition 178

Weber: Religion Broke Tradition 178 thE two viEws toDAy 178

Formal Organizations and Bureaucracies 179 Formal Organizations 179 The Characteristics of Bureaucracies 179 “Ideal” versus “Real” Bureaucracy 181 Goal Displacement and the Perpetuation of

Bureaucracies 183 Dysfunctions of Bureaucracies 184

rED tApE: A rulE is A rulE 184  •  lAck of  communicAtion BEtwEEn units 184 •  BurEAucrAtic incompEtEncE 184

Alienation of Workers 185 cAusEs of AliEnAtion 185  •  thE AliEnAtED  BurEAucrAt 186  •  rEsisting AliEnAtion 186

Voluntary Associations 187 Functions of Voluntary Associations 187 Motivations for Joining 188 The Inner Circle and the “Iron Law” of Oligarchy 188

thE innEr circlE 188  •  thE iron lAw of  oligArchy  188

Working for the Corporation 189 Humanizing the Work Setting 189

workEr EmpowErmEnt 189  •  corporAtE chilD  cArE 190  •  thE conflict pErspEctivE 190  •  workErs’  AttEmpts to humAnizE work 190

Fads in Corporate Culture 190 Self-Fulfilling Stereotypes in the “Hidden”

Corporate Culture 192 sElf-fulfilling stErEotypEs AnD promotions 192

Diversity in the Workplace 192

Technology and the Maximum-Security Society 193 summary and review 195 thinking critically about chapter 7 195

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viii  contents

8 Deviance and Social Control 196 What Is Deviance? 198

thE rElAtivity of DEviAncE 198  •  A nEutrAl  tErm 198  •  stigmA 199

How Norms Make Social Life Possible 199 Sanctions 200 Competing Explanations of Deviance: Sociobiology,

Psychology, and Sociology 200 BiosociAl ExplAnAtions 201  •  psychologicAl  ExplAnAtions 201  •  sociologicAl  ExplAnAtions 201

The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective 201 Differential Association Theory 202

ThE ThEory 202  •  fAmiliEs 202  •  friEnDs,  nEighBorhooDs, AnD suBculturEs 202 •  DiffErEntiAl AssociAtion in thE cyBEr  AgE 203  •  prison or frEEDom? 203

Control Theory 203 ThE ThEory 203  •  Applying control thEory 204

Labeling Theory 204 rEjEcting lABEls: how pEoplE nEutrAlizE  DEviAncE 204  •  Applying nEutrAlizAtion 206  •  EmBrAcing lABEls: thE ExAmplE of  outlAw BikErs 206  •  lABEls cAn BE  powErful 207  •  how Do lABEls work? 208

The Functionalist Perspective 208 Can Deviance Really Be Functional for Society? 208 Strain Theory: How Mainstream Values

Produce Deviance 209 four DEviAnt pAths 210

Illegitimate Opportunity Structures: Social Class and Crime 211 strEEt crimE 211  •  whitE-collAr  crimE 211  •  gEnDEr AnD crimE 213 

The Conflict Perspective 214 Class, Crime, and the Criminal Justice System 214 The Criminal Justice System as an Instrument

of Oppression 214

Reactions to Deviance 216 Street Crime and Prisons 216 The Decline in Violent Crime 218 Recidivism 219 The Death Penalty and Bias 220

gEogrAphy 220  •  sociAl clAss 220  •  gEnDEr 220  •  rAcE–Ethnicity 222

The Trouble with Official Statistics 223 The Medicalization of Deviance:

Mental Illness 224 nEithEr mEntAl nor illnEss? 224  •  thE homElEss  mEntAlly ill 225

The Need for a More Humane Approach 226 summary and review 226 thinking critically about chapter 8 227

9 Global Stratification 228 Systems of Social Stratification 230

Slavery 231

cAusEs of slAvEry 231  •  conDitions of  slAvEry 231  •  BonDED lABor in thE nEw  worlD 232  •  slAvEry in thE nEw  worlD 232  •  slAvEry toDAy 232

Caste 233 inDiA’s rEligious cAstEs 233  •  south AfricA 234 •  A u.s. rAciAl cAstE systEm 235

Estate 236 womEn in thE EstAtE systEm 236

Class 236 Global Stratification and the Status of Females 237 The Global Superclass 237

What Determines Social Class? 238 Karl Marx: The Means of Production 238 Max Weber: Property, Power, and Prestige 239

Why Is Social Stratification Universal? 240 The Functionalist View: Motivating Qualified People 240

DAvis AnD moorE’s ExplAnAtion 240  •  tumin’s  critiQuE of DAvis AnD moorE 240

The Conflict Perspective: Class Conflict and Scarce Resources 241 moscA’s ArgumEnt 241  •  mArx’s ArgumEnt  242  •  currEnt ApplicAtions of conflict thEory 242

Lenski’s Synthesis 242

How Do Elites Maintain Stratification? 243 Soft Control versus Force 243

controlling pEoplE’s iDEAs 243  •  controlling informAtion 244  •  stifling  criticism 244  •  Big BrothEr  tEchnology 244 

Comparative Social Stratification 245 Social Stratification in Great Britain 245 Social Stratification in the Former

Soviet Union 245

Global Stratification: Three Worlds 246

thE proBlEm with tErms 247

The Most Industrialized Nations 247 The Industrializing Nations 250 The Least Industrialized Nations 251 Modifying the Model 251

How Did the World’s Nations Become Stratified? 254

Colonialism 254 World System Theory 254 Culture of Poverty 256 Evaluating the Theories 256

Maintaining Global Stratification 257 Neocolonialism 257

rElEvAncE toDAy 257

Multinational Corporations 257 Buying politicAl stABility 258  •  unAnticipAtED  consEQuEncEs 258

Technology and Global Domination 258

Strains in the Global System 259 summary and review 259 thinking critically about chapter 9 260 260

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contents ix

10 Social Class in the United States 261 What Is Social Class? 263

Property 263 Distinguishing BEtwEEn wEAlth AnD incomE 263  •  DistriBution of propErty 264  •  DistriBution  of incomE 264

Power 266 thE DEmocrAtic fAcADE 266  •  thE powEr ElitE 266

Prestige 268 occupAtions AnD prEstigE 268  •  DisplAying  prEstigE 268

Status Inconsistency 269

Sociological Models of Social Class 270 Updating Marx 270 Updating Weber 272

thE cApitAlist clAss 273  •  thE uppEr-miDDlE  clAss 273  •  thE lowEr-miDDlE clAss 274  •  thE  working clAss 274  •  thE working poor 274  •  thE unDErclAss 275

Consequences of Social Class 275 Physical Health 276 Mental Health 276 Family Life 276

choicE of husBAnD or wifE 277 •  DivorcE 277  •  chilD rEAring 277

Education 277 Religion 277 Politics 278 Crime and Criminal Justice 278

Social Mobility 279 Three Types of Social Mobility 279 Women in Studies of Social Mobility 280 The Pain of Social Mobility 280

Poverty 283 Drawing the Poverty Line 283 Who Are the Poor? 284

thE gEogrAphy of povErty  284

rAcE–Ethnicity  286  •  EDucAtion  286 •  thE fEminizAtion of povErty  286  •  olD AgE  287

Children of Poverty 287 The Dynamics of Poverty versus the Culture of Poverty 287 Why Are People Poor? 289 Deferred Gratification 289 Where Is Horatio Alger? The Social Functions of a Myth 290

Peering into the Future: Will We Live in a Three-Tier Society? 291

summary and review 292 thinking critically about chapter 10 293

11 Sex and Gender 294 Issues of Sex and Gender 296

thE sociologicAl significAncE of gEnDEr 296

Gender Differences in Behavior: Biology or Culture? 296 The Dominant Position in Sociology 298 Opening the Door to Biology 298

A mEDicAl AcciDEnt  298  •  thE viEtnAm vEtErAns  stuDy 299  •  morE rEsEArch on humAns 299

Gender Inequality in Global Perspective 300 How Did Females Become a Minority Group? 301

humAn rEproDuction 301  •  hAnD-to-hAnD comBAt 303 •  which onE? 303  •  continuing DominAncE 303

Sex Typing of Work 303 Gender and the Prestige of Work 304 Other Areas of Global Discrimination 304

thE gloBAl gAp in EDucAtion 304  •  thE gloBAl  gAp in politics 304  •  thE gloBAl gAp in pAy 307 •  gloBAl violEncE AgAinst womEn 307

Gender Inequality in the United States 308 Fighting Back: The Rise of Feminism 308 Gender Inequality in Everyday Life 311

DEvAluAtion of things fEmininE 311

Gender Inequality in Health Care 311 Gender Inequality in Education 313

thE pAst 313  •  A funDAmEntAl chAngE 313  •  gEnDEr  trAcking 314  •  grADuAtE school AnD BEyonD 314

Gender Inequality in the Workplace 316 The Pay Gap 316

historicAl BAckgrounD 316  •  gEogrAphicAl  fActors 317  •  thE “tEstostEronE Bonus” 317 •  rEAsons for thE gEnDEr pAy gAp 319  •  thE cEo  powEr gAp 320

Is the Glass Ceiling Cracking? 320 thE womEn who BrEAk through 320 •  AnD thE futurE? 320

Sexual Harassment—and Worse 321 lABEls AnD pErcEption 321  •  not just A  “mAn thing” 321  •  sExuAl oriEntAtion 321

Gender and Violence 321 Violence against Women 321

forciBlE rApE 321  •  DAtE (AcQuAintAncE)  rApE 322  •  murDEr 323  •  violEncE in  thE homE 323  •  fEminism AnD gEnDErED  violEncE 323  •  solutions 323

The Changing Face of Politics 323

Glimpsing the Future—with Hope 324 summary and review 324 thinking critically about chapter 11 325

12 Race and Ethnicity 326 Laying the Sociological Foundation 328

Race: Myth and Reality 328 thE rEAlity of humAn vAriEty 328  •  thE myth of purE  rAcEs 328  •  thE myth of A fixED numBEr of rAcEs 328 •  thE myth of rAciAl supEriority 328  •  thE myth  continuEs 331

Ethnic Groups 331 Minority Groups and Dominant Groups 332

not sizE, But DominAncE AnD DiscriminAtion 332 •  EmErgEncE of minority groups 332

Ethnic Work: Constructing Our Racial–Ethnic Identity 332

Prejudice and Discrimination 333 Learning Prejudice 333

Distinguishing BEtwEEn prEjuDicE AnD  DiscriminAtion 333  •  lEArning prEjuDicE 

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from AssociAting with othErs 335  •  thE  fAr-rEAching nAturE of prEjuDicE 336 •  intErnAlizing DominAnt norms 336

Individual and Institutional Discrimination 338 homE mortgAgEs 338  •  hEAlth cArE 338

Theories of Prejudice 339 Psychological Perspectives 339

frustrAtion AnD scApEgoAts 339  •  thE AuthoritAriAn  pErsonAlity 340

Sociological Perspectives 340 functionAlism 340  •  conflict thEory 341 •  symBolic intErActionism 342  •  how lABEls  crEAtE prEjuDicE 342  •  lABEls AnD sElf-fulfilling  stErEotypEs 342

Global Patterns of Intergroup Relations 343 Genocide 343 Population Transfer 344 Internal Colonialism 345 Segregation 345 Assimilation 345 Multiculturalism (Pluralism) 346

Racial–Ethnic Relations in the United States 346 European Americans 346 Latinos (Hispanics) 348

umBrEllA tErm 348  •  countriEs of origin 348 •  unAuthorizED immigrAnts 349  •  rEsiDEncE 351 •  spAnish 351  •  Economic wEll-BEing 351 •  politics 351

African Americans 352 rising ExpEctAtions AnD civil strifE 353 •  continuED gAins 354  •  currEnt lossEs 354  •  rAcE or sociAl clAss? A sociologicAl DEBAtE 354 •  rAcism As An EvEryDAy BurDEn 355

Asian Americans 355 A BAckgrounD of DiscriminAtion 356  •  DivErsity 356 •  rEAsons for finAnciAl succEss 356  •  politics 357

Native Americans 357 DivErsity of groups 357  •  from trEAtiEs to  gEnociDE AnD  populAtion trAnsfEr 358  •  thE  invisiBlE minority AnD sElf-DEtErminAtion 358  •  thE  cAsinos 359  •  DEtErmining iDEntity AnD goAls 359

Looking toward the Future 359 The Immigration Controversy 360 The Affirmative Action Controversy 360 Less Racism 362 Toward a True Multicultural Society 362 summary and review 363 thinking critically about chapter 12 364

13 The Elderly 365 Aging in Global Perspective 367

The Social Construction of Aging 367 Industrialization and the Graying of the Globe 368 The Graying of America 369

rAcE–Ethnicity AnD Aging 370  •  thE lifE spAn 371

The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective 372 When Are You “Old”? 372

chAnging pErcEptions As you AgE 372  •  four fActors in our DEcision 372

Changing Perceptions of the Elderly 373 shifting mEAnings 373

The Influence of the Mass Media 375

The Functionalist Perspective 376 Disengagement Theory 376

EvAluAtion of thE thEory 376

Activity Theory 377 EvAluAtion of thE thEory 377

Continuity Theory 377 EvAluAtion of thE thEory 377

The Conflict Perspective 378 Fighting for Resources: Social Security Legislation 378 Intergenerational Competition and Conflict 380 Fighting Back 382

thE grAy pAnthErs 382  •  thE AmEricAn AssociAtion  of rEtirED pErsons  383

Recurring Problems 383 Gender and Living Arrangements of the Elderly 383 Nursing Homes 383

unDErstAffing, DEhumAnizAtion, AnD DEAth 384

Elder Abuse 386 The Elderly Poor 386

rAcE–Ethnicity AnD povErty 386  •  gEnDEr  AnD povErty 386

The Sociology of Death and Dying 387 Industrialization and the New Technology 387 Death as a Process 387 Hospices 388 Suicide and Age 389 Adjusting to Death: The Importance of “Closure” 389

Looking toward the Future 390 New Views of Aging 390

crEAtivE Aging 390

The Impact of Technology 391 summary and review 392 thinking critically about chapter 13 393

14 The Economy 394 The Transformation of Economic Systems 396

Preindustrial Societies: The Birth of Inequality 396 Industrial Societies: The Birth of the Machine 396 Postindustrial Societies: The Birth of the Information Age 397 Biotech Societies: The Merger of Biology and Economics 397 Implications for Your Life 397

The Transformation of the Medium of Exchange 398

Earliest Mediums of Exchange 399 Medium of Exchange in Agricultural Societies 399 Medium of Exchange in Industrial Societies 399 Medium of Exchange in Postindustrial Societies 401

World Economic Systems 401 Capitalism 401

whAt cApitAlism is 401  •  whAt stAtE cApitAlism  is 401  •  thE DEvElopmEnt of stAtE cApitAlism 402

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contents xi

Socialism 403 whAt sociAlism is 403  •  sociAlism in prActicE 403  •  DEmocrAtic sociAlism 404

Ideologies of Capitalism and Socialism 404 Criticisms of Capitalism and Socialism 404 The Convergence of Capitalism and Socialism 405

chAngEs in sociAlist countriEs 405  •  chAngEs in  cApitAlism 406  •  possiBlE trAnsmErgEncE 407

The Functionalist Perspective on the Globalization of Capitalism 407

The New Global Division of Labor 407 Capitalism in a Global Economy 408

corporAtE cApitAlism 408  •  sEpArAtion of  ownErship AnD mAnAgEmEnt 408

Functions and Dysfunctions on a Global Scale 410

The Conflict Perspective on the Globalization of Capitalism 410 Making Capitalism Flourish: Profits and Self-Interests 410

corporAtE–politicAl connEctions 410  •  corporAtE  powEr AnD conspirAciEs 413  •  multiplying powEr:  intErlocking DirEctorships 413

The Global Superclass 413 Shifting Dominance and Power 414 Global Investing 414

Work in U.S. Society 417 The Transition to Postindustrial Society 417 Women and Work 417

thE QuiEt rEvolution 417  •  fEmAlE-mAlE work stylEs 418

The Underground Economy 419 Stagnant Paychecks 421 Patterns of Work and Leisure 421

work AnD lEisurE AnD thE trAnsformAtion  of EconomiEs 422  •  trEnDs in  lEisurE 422  •  tElEcommuting 422  •  thE moBilE shift 423

Global Capitalism and Our Future 423 The New Economic System and the Old Divisions

of Wealth 424 summary and review 425 thinking critically about chapter 14 426

15 Politics 427 Micropolitics and Macropolitics 429

Power, Authority, and Violence 429 Authority and Legitimate Violence 430

thE collApsE of Authority 430

Traditional Authority 431 Rational–Legal Authority 431 Charismatic Authority 432

thE thrEAt posED By chArismAtic lEADErs 432

Authority as Ideal Type 432 The Transfer of Authority 433

Types of Government 433 Monarchies: The Rise of the State 433 Democracies: Citizenship as a Revolutionary Idea 434 Dictatorships and Oligarchies: The Seizure of Power 436

The U.S. Political System 436 Political Parties and Elections 436

slicEs from thE cEntEr 437  •  thirD pArtiEs 437

Contrast with Democratic Systems in Europe 438 Voting Patterns 438

sociAl intEgrAtion 441  •  AliEnAtion 441 •  ApAthy 441  •  thE gEnDEr AnD rAciAl–Ethnic  gAps in voting 441

Lobbyists and Special-Interest Groups 441 loBBying By spEciAl-intErEst groups 442 •  thE monEy 442

Who Rules the United States? 443 The Functionalist Perspective: Pluralism 443 The Conflict Perspective: The Power Elite 444 Which View Is Right? 444

War and Terrorism: Implementing Political Objectives 446

Is War Universal? 446 How Common Is War? 446 Why Countries Go to War 447 The War Machine and the Profits of War 447 Costs of War 447 A Special Cost of War: Dehumanization 449

succEss AnD fAilurE of DEhumAnizAtion 449

Terrorism 451 Targeted Killings 454 Sowing the Seeds of Future Violence 455

sElling wAr tEchnology 455  •  AlignmEnts  AnD DisAlignmEnts 455

A New World Order? 456 Trends toward Unity 456 Inevitable Changes 456 summary and review 457 thinking critically about chapter 15 458

16 Marriage and Family 459 Marriage and Family in Global Perspective 461

What Is a Family? 461 What Is Marriage? 462 Common Cultural Themes 462

mAtE sElEction 462  •  DEscEnt 462  •  inhEritAncE 463 •  Authority 463

Marriage and Family in Theoretical Perspective 463 The Functionalist Perspective: Functions

and Dysfunctions 464 why thE fAmily is univErsAl 465  •  functions of thE  incEst tABoo 465  •  isolAtion AnD EmotionAl  ovErloAD 465

The Conflict Perspective: Struggles between Husbands and Wives 465

The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Gender, Housework, and Child Care 466 chAngEs in trADitionAl gEnDEr oriEntAtions 466 •  pAiD work AnD housEwork 466  •  morE chilD  cArE 467  •  totAl hours 467  •  A gEnDEr Division  of lABor 467

The Family Life Cycle 467 Love and Courtship in Global Perspective 467 Marriage 469

thE sociAl chAnnEls of lovE AnD mArriAgE 469

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xii  contents

Childbirth 470 iDEAl fAmily sizE 470  •  mAritAl sAtisfAction 471

Child Rearing 472 mArriED couplEs AnD singlE mothErs 472  •  singlE  fAthErs 473  •  DAy cArE 474  •  nAnniEs 474  •  uBEr  As A pArEnt suBstitutE 474  •  sociAl clAss 474

Family Transitions 475 trAnsitionAl ADulthooD AnD thE not-so-Empty  nEst 475  •  wiDowhooD 475

Diversity in U.S. Families 476 African American Families 476 Latino Families 477 Asian American Families 478 Native American Families 478 One-Parent Families 479 Couples without Children 479 Blended Families 479 Gay and Lesbian Families 480

ADoption By gAy AnD lEsBiAn couplEs 480

Trends in U.S. Families 481 The Changing Timetable of Family Life: Marriage

and Childbirth 481 Cohabitation 481

cohABitAtion AnD mArriAgE: thE EssEntiAl  DiffErEncE 482  •  cohABitAtion AnD hEAlth 482  •  DoEs cohABitAtion mAkE mArriAgE strongEr? 482

The “Sandwich Generation” and Elder Care 483

Divorce and Remarriage 483 Ways of Measuring Divorce 483 Divorce and Mixed Racial–Ethnic Marriages 485 Children of Divorce 486

nEgAtivE EffEcts 486  •  whAt hElps chilDrEn ADjust  to DivorcE? 486  •  pErpEtuAting DivorcE 487

Grandchildren of Divorce: Ripples to the Future 487 Fathers’ Contact with Children after Divorce 487 The Ex-Spouses 487 Remarriage 488

Two Sides of Family Life 488 The Dark Side of Family Life: Battering, Child Abuse,

Marital Rape, and Incest 488 spousE BAttEring 488  •  chilD ABusE 488  •  mAritAl AnD  intimAcy rApE 489  •  incEst 489

The Bright Side of Family Life: Successful Marriages 490 succEssful mArriAgEs 490

Symbolic Interactionism and the Misuse of Statistics 490

The Future of Marriage and Family 491 summary and review 491 thinking critically about chapter 16 492

17 Education 493 The Development of Modern Education 495

Education in Earlier Societies 495 Industrialization and Universal Education 495

hoDgE-poDgE EDucAtion AnD nAtionAl  Disunity 495  •  inDustriAlizAtion AnD mAnDAtory  EDucAtion 496  •  thE ExpAnsion of EDucAtion 496

Education in Global Perspective 498

Education in the Most Industrialized Nations: Japan 498 Education in the Industrializing Nations: Russia 499 Education in the Least Industrialized Nations: Egypt 500

The Functionalist Perspective: Providing Social Benefits 501 Teaching Knowledge and Skills 501 Cultural Transmission of Values 502 Social Integration 502

intEgrAting immigrAnts 502  •  stABilizing sociEty:  mAintAining thE stAtus Quo 502  •  intEgrAting  pEoplE with DisABilitiEs 502

Gatekeeping (Social Placement) 503 Replacing Family Functions 503 Other Functions 503

A surprising lAtEnt function 505 

The Conflict Perspective: Perpetuating Social Inequality 505 The Hidden Curriculum: Reproducing the Social

Class Structure 505 Tilting the Tests: Discrimination by IQ 506 Stacking the Deck: Unequal Funding 507 The Correspondence Principle 508 The Bottom Line: Family Background 508

rEproDucing thE sociAl clAss structurE 508

•  rEproDucing thE rAciAl–Ethnic structurE 508

The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Teacher Expectations 509

The Rist Research 509 The Rosenthal–Jacobson Experiment 510 How Do Teacher Expectations Work? 511 Self-Expectations 511

Problems in U.S. Education—and Their Solutions 512 Mediocrity 513

thE rising tiDE of mEDiocrity 513  •  thE sAts 513  •  grADE inflAtion, sociAl  promotion, AnD functionAl illitErAcy 514

Raising Standards 514 rAising stAnDArDs for tEAchErs 514  •  A wArning  ABout highEr stAnDArDs 514

Cheating 515 thE solution to chEAting 515

Violence 516

Technology and Education 517 summary and review 518 thinking critically about chapter 17  519

18 Religion 520 What Is Religion? 522

The Functionalist Perspective 523 Functions of Religion 523

mEAning AnD purposE 523  •  EmotionAl  comfort 523  •  sociAl soliDArity 523  •  guiDElinEs  for EvEryDAy lifE 523  •  sociAl control 525  •  ADAptAtion 525  •  support for thE govErnmEnt 525 •  sociAl chAngE 525

Functional Equivalents of Religion 525

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contents xiii

Dysfunctions of Religion 526 rEligion As justificAtion for pErsEcution 526 •  wAr AnD tErrorism 526

The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective 528 Religious Symbols 528 Rituals 529 Beliefs 529 Religious Experience 529 Community 529

unity 529  •  Exclusion 532

The Conflict Perspective 532 Opium of the People 532 Legitimating Social Inequalities 532

Religion and the Spirit of Capitalism 533

The World’s Major Religions 534 Judaism 534 Christianity 536 Islam 536 Hinduism 538 Buddhism 539 Confucianism 539

Types of Religious Groups 540 Cult 541 Sect 542 Church 542 Ecclesia 543 Variations in Patterns 543 When Religion and Culture Conflict 543

Religion in the United States 544 Characteristics of Members 544

sociAl clAss AnD rEligious pArticipAtion 544 •  rAcE–Ethnicity 545

Characteristics of Religious Groups 545 DivErsity 545  •  plurAlism AnD frEEDom 546 •  compEtition AnD rEcruitmEnt 546 •  commitmEnt 546  •  tolErAtion 547 •  funDAmEntAlist rEvivAl 547 •  thE ElEctronic church 547

Secularization of Religion and Culture 549 thE sEculArizAtion of rEligion 549 •  thE sEculArizAtion of culturE 550

The Future of Religion 551 summary and review 552 thinking critically about chapter 18 554

19 Medicine and Health 555 Sociology and the Study of Medicine and Health 557

The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective 557 The Role of Culture in Defining Health and Illness 557 The Components of Health 558

The Functionalist Perspective 558 The Sick Role 558

ElEmEnts of thE sick rolE 558  •  AmBiguity  in thE sick rolE 558  •  gAtEkEEpErs to thE sick  rolE 559  •  gEnDEr DiffErEncEs in thE sick rolE 559

The Conflict Perspective 559 Global Stratification and Health Care 559 Establishing a Monopoly on U.S. Health Care 560

thE profEssionAlizAtion of mEDicinE 561  •  thE  monopoly of mEDicinE 562

Historical Patterns of Health 563 Physical Health 563

lEADing cAusEs of DEAth 563  •  wErE AmEricAns  hEAlthiEr in thE pAst? 564

Mental Health 564

Issues in Health Care 564 Medical Care: A Right or a Commodity? 565 Skyrocketing Costs 565 Social Inequality 565 Reducing Inequalities: Health Care Reform 566 Malpractice Lawsuits and Defensive Medicine 566 Medical Incompetence 567

DEAth By Doctors 567  •  using A chEcklist 567 •  fEDErAl cEntEr for pAtiEnt sAfEty 568

Depersonalization: The Medical Cash Machine 568 Conflict of Interest 569 Medical Fraud 569 Sexism and Racism in Medicine 570 The Medicalization of Society 570

thEorEticAl pErspEctivEs 570

Medically Assisted Suicide 570 Reducing the Costs of Medical Care 571

hEAlth mAintEnAncE orgAnizAtions 571 •  DiAgnosis-rElAtED groups 572  •  pAy-As-you- go clinics 572  •  group cArE 572  •  workplAcE  cArE 572  •  rEtAil hEAlth clinics 572 •  tElEmEDicinE 572  •  Dumping 573  •  rAtioning  mEDicAl cArE 573

Threats to Health 574 HIV/AIDS 574

origin 575  •  thE trAnsmission of hiv/AiDs 575 •  gEnDEr, circumcision, AnD rAcE–Ethnicity 575 •  thE stigmA of AiDs 576  •  is thErE A curE  for AiDs? 576

Weight: Too Much and Too Little 577 Alcohol and Nicotine 577

Alcohol 577  •  nicotinE 578

Disabling Environments 580 Medical Experiments: Callous and Harmful 580

thE tuskEgEE syphilis ExpErimEnt 580  •  thE  guAtEmAlAn ExpErimEnt 580  •  thE colD wAr  ExpErimEnts 580  •  plAying goD 581

Chicken Bones and the Globalization of Disease 581 ruBBing chickEn BonEs togEthEr 582

Treatment or Prevention? 582

The Future of Medicine 582 Alternative Medicine 583 Technology 584

DigitAl mEDicinE 584

summary and review 585 thinking critically about chapter 19 586

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xiv  contents

20 Population and Urbanization 587 Population in Global Perspective 589 A Planet with No Space for Enjoying Life? 589

The New Malthusians 589 The Anti-Malthusians 591 Who Is Correct? 592 Why Are People Starving? 593

Population Growth 595

Why the Least Industrialized Nations Have So Many Children 596

Consequences of Rapid Population Growth 597 Population Pyramids as a Tool

for Understanding 598 The Three Demographic Variables 598

fErtility 598  •  mortAlity 599  •  migrAtion 599

Problems in Forecasting Population Growth 600

Urbanization 604 The Development of Cities 605

Urbanization 605 thE AppEAl of citiEs 605  •  forcED  urBAnizAtion 608  •  mEtropolisEs 608 •  mEgAlopolisEs 608  •  mEgAcitiEs 608 •  mEgArEgions 608

U.S. Urban Patterns 608 from country to city 608  •  from city to  city 609  •  BEtwEEn citiEs 610  •  within thE city 610  •  from city to suBurB AnD  BAck 610  •  smAllEr cEntErs 610

Models of Urban Growth 612 The Concentric Zone Model 612 The Sector Model 612 The Multiple-Nuclei Model 613 The Peripheral Model 613 Critique of the Models 614

City Life 615 Alienation in the City 615 Community in the City 616 Who Lives in the City? 616

thE cosmopolitEs 616  •  thE singlEs 616  •  thE  Ethnic villAgErs 616  •  thE DEprivED 617  •  thE  TrAppED 617  •  critiQuE 617

The Norm of Noninvolvement and the Diffusion of Responsibility 617 tuning out: thE norm of noninvolvEmEnt 617

Urban Problems and Social Policy 618 Suburbanization 618

city vErsus suBurB 618  •  suBurBAn  flight 619  •  living At thE mAll 619

Disinvestment and Deindustrialization 619 The Potential of Urban Revitalization 619

puBlic sociology 620

summary and review 620  thinking critically about chapter 20 621

21 Collective Behavior and Social Movements 622

Collective Behavior 624 Early Explanations: The Transformation of People 624

How Crowds Change People 624 The Acting Crowd 625

The Contemporary View: The Rationality of the Crowd 626 The Minimax Strategy 626 Emergent Norms 626 How Sociologists Study Collective Behavior 627

Forms of Collective Behavior 627 Riots 627

pArticipAnts in riots 628 

Rumors 629 Panics 630

thE clAssic pAnic  630

Mass Hysteria 632 Moral Panics 632 Fads and Fashions 634 Urban Legends 635

Social Movements 636 Types and Tactics of Social Movements 637

Types of Social Movements 637 Tactics of Social Movements 638

lEvEls of mEmBErship 638  •  thE puBlics 638 •  rElAtionship to AuthoritiEs 639

Multiple Realities and Social Movements 639 Propaganda and the Mass Media 639

gAtEkEEpErs to sociAl movEmEnts 641

Why People Join Social Movements 641 Relative Deprivation Theory: Improving

Status and Power 641 rElAtivity of DEprivAtion 641  •  rElAtivE DEprivAtion  AnD thE civil rights movEmEnt 642

Declining Privilege Theory: Protecting Status and Power 642

Moral Issues and Ideological Commitment 642

When Social Movements Pose a Threat to the Government 643

On the Success and Failure of Social Movements 643 The Rocky Road to Success 643 The Stages of Social Movements 644 Resurgence 645 summary and review 646 thinking critically about chapter 21 647

22 Social Change and the Environment 648 How Social Change Transforms Social Life 650

The Four Social Revolutions 650 From Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft 650 The Industrial Revolution and Capitalism 651 Social Movements 652

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contents xv

Conflict, Power, and Global Politics 652 A BriEf history of gEopolitics 652  •  g7 plus 652  •  DiviDing up thE worlD 652  •  four thrEAts to this coAlition of  powErs 653  •  thE growing rElEvAncE of AfricA 654

Theories and Processes of Social Change 654 Evolution from Lower to Higher 654 Natural Cycles 655 Conflict over Power and Resources 655 Ogburn’s Theory 656

invEntion 656  •  DiscovEry 657  •  Diffusion 657 •  culturAl lAg 657  •  EvAluAtion of ogBurn’s  ThEory 657

How Technology Is Changing Our Lives 658 Extending Human Abilities 658 The Sociological Significance of Technology: How

Technology Changes Social Life 659 chAngEs in proDuction 659  •  chAngEs in workEr–ownEr  rElAtions 659  •  chAngEs in iDEology 659  •  chAngEs  in conspicuous consumption 659  •  chAngEs in fAmily  rElAtionships 660

When Old Technology Was New: The Impact of the Automobile 660 DisplAcEmEnt of Existing tEchnology 660  •  EffEcts on  citiEs 660  •  chAngEs in ArchitEcturE 661  •  chAngED  courtship customs AnD sExuAl norms  661  •  EffEcts on  womEn’s rolEs 661 

The New Technology: The Microchip and Social Life 662

computErs in EDucAtion 662  •  computErs in  BusinEss AnD finAncE 663  •  computErs in  intErnAtionAl conflict 663

Cyberspace and Social Inequality 664

The Growth Machine versus the Earth 665 thE gloBAlizAtion of cApitAlism AnD thE rAcE for  Economic growth 666  •  A sustAinABlE  EnvironmEnt 666

Environmental Problems and Industrialization 666 toxic wAstEs 666  •  fossil fuEls AnD climAtE  chAngE 667  •  thE EnErgy shortAgE  AnD intErnAl comBustion EnginEs 669 •  thE rAin forEsts 669

The Environmental Movement 669 Environmental Sociology 672 Technology and the Environment: The Goal

of Harmony 673 summary and review 674 thinking critically about chapter 22 675

Epilogue: Why Major in Sociology? 676 Glossary G-1 References R-1 Name Index N-1 Subject Index S-1 Credits CR-1

A01_HENS5571_13_SE_FM.indd 15 11/19/15 4:31 PM

Special Features

Down-to-Earth Sociology An Updated Version of the Old Elephant Story 7 Enjoying a Sociology Quiz—Testing Your Common Sense 8 Testing Your Common Sense—Answers to the Sociology

Quiz 10 Harriet Martineau and U.S. Customs: Listening to an Early

Feminist 18 W. E. B. Du Bois: The Souls of Black Folk 19 Careers in Sociology: What Applied Sociologists Do 22 Heredity or Environment? The Case of Jack and Oskar,

Identical Twins 66 Gossip and Ridicule to Enforce Adolescent Norms 87 Boot Camp as a Total Institution 89 College Football as Social Structure 100 Beauty May Be Only Skin Deep, But Its Effects Go On

Forever: Stereotypes in Everyday Life 112 Loading the Dice: How Not to Do Research 135 Gang Leader for a Day: Adventures of a Rogue Sociologist 138 The McDonaldization of Society 182 Shaming: Making a Comeback? 205 Running Naked with Pumpkins on Their Heads: Deviance

or Freedom of Self-Expression? 209 Islands in the Street: Urban Gangs in the United States 212 Sexting: Getting on the Phone Isn’t What It Used to Be 216 The Killer Next Door: Serial Murderers in Our Midst 221 Inequality? What Inequality? 246 How the Super-Rich Live 267 The Big Win: Life after the Lottery 271 “The American Dream”: Social Mobility Today 281 What Do You Know about Poverty? A Reality Check 285 Poverty: A Personal Journey 290 Cold-Hearted Surgeons and Their Women Victims 312 Affirmative Action for Men? 315 Applying Sociology: How to Get a Higher Salary 319 Can a Plane Ride Change Your Race? 330 Living in the Dorm: Contact Theory 335 The Racist Mind 337 The Man in the Zoo 342 Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack: Exploring Cultural

Privilege 349 The New Centenarians 382 Feisty to the End: Gender Roles among the Elderly 384 What Do You Think about the Red Sock? Sex in Nursing

Homes 385 Women in Business: Maneuvering the Male Culture 420 The Revolving Door of Power 445 The Rape of Nanking: A Report on Dehumanization 450

Who Are the Suicide Terrorists? Testing Your Stereotypes 452 Child Soldiers 453 Health Benefits of Marriage: Living Longer 471 “What Are Your Chances of Getting Divorced?” 485 Community Colleges: Facing Old and New Challenges 497 Home Schooling: The Search for Quality and Values 504 How I Became a Fairy: Education and the Perpetuation

of Social Inequality 506 You Want to Get Through College? Let’s Apply Sociology

512 Religion and Health: What We Know and Don’t Know 524 Terrorism and Access to the Mind of God 527 José’s Old Kidney: The International Black Market in Human

Body Parts 561 Having Babies Is Men’s Work 563 BioFoods: What’s in Your Future? Threats to Scientific

Research 594 Reclaiming Harlem: A Twist in the Invasion–Succession

Cycle 611 Rumors and Riots: An Eyewitness Account of the Tulsa

Riot 629 Dancing, Sex, and Monkey Men 633 “Tricks of the Trade”—Deception and Persuasion in

Propaganda 640

Cultural Diversity in the United States U n a n t i c i p a t e d P u b l i c S o c i o l o g y : S t u d y i n g J o b

Discrimination 23 Miami—Continuing Controversy over Language 45 Race and Language: Searching for Self-Labels 47 Immigrants and Their Children: Caught between Two

Worlds 86 The Amish: Gemeinschaft Community in a Gesellschaft

Society 108 Do Your Social Networks Perpetuate Social Inequality?

163 Social Class and the Upward Social Mobility of African

Americans 282 Tiger Woods: Mapping the Changing Ethnic Terrain 329 The Illegal Travel Guide 350 Glimpsing the Future: The Shifting U.S. Racial–Ethnic

Mix 361 The Politics of Immigrants: Power, Ethnicity, and Social

Class 440


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special features xvii

Human Heads and Animal Blood: Testing the Limits of Tolerance 541

The New Face of Religion: Pentecostals and Spanish- Speaking Immigrants 548

Cultural Diversity around the World Why the Dead Need Money 39 You Are What You Eat? An Exploration in Cultural

Relativity 40 When Women Become Men: The Sworn Virgins 79 Human Sexuality in Cross-Cultural Perspectives 199 Female Circumcision (Genital Cutting) 307 China: Changing Sentiment about the Elderly 374 The Child Workers 398 The New Competitor: The Chinese Capitalists 406 Doing Business in the Global Village 409 East Is East and West Is West: Love and Arranged Marriage

in India 468 Killing Little Girls: An Ancient and Thriving Practice 602 Why City Slums Are Better Than the Country: Urbanization

in the Least Industrialized Nations 614 The Rain Forests: Lost Tribes, Lost Knowledge 670

Thinking Critically Are We Prisoners of Our Genes? 57 Doing Controversial Research—Counting the Homeless 142 Are Rapists Sick? A Close-Up View of Research 146 If Hitler Asked You to Execute a Stranger, Would You?

The Milgram Experiment 170 Diversity in the Workplace 193 The Saints and the Roughnecks: Labeling in Everyday

Life 207 What Should We Do About Repeat Offenders? “Three Strikes”

Laws 219 Vigilantes: When the State Breaks Down 222 Open Season: Children as Prey 250 When Globalization Comes Home: Maquiladoras South of

the Border 255 The Nation’s Shame: Children in Poverty 288 The Coming Three-Tier Society and the Militarization of the

Police 292

New Masculinities and Femininities Are on Their Way 300 Social Security: The Magical Money Machine 378 Would You Like to Live to 200? 391 Targeted Killings 454 Will Traditional College Education Disappear? 518 Your Vote, Please: Should Doctors Be Allowed to Kill

Patients? 571 How Will Your Lifestyle Affect Your Health? 583 Which Side of the Barricades? Prochoice and Prolife as a

Social Movement 645 Cyberwar and Cyber Defense 663 Climate Controversy, the Island Nations, and You 668 Eco-sabotage 671

Sociology and the New Technology How Smart Is Your Clothing? 59 Avatar Fantasy Life: The Blurring Lines of Reality 155 “So, You Want to Be Yourself?” Cloning and the Future of

Society 156 Social Networking as the New Contender to Bureaucracies 185 Surfing at Work 191 Welcome to the Memory Hole: Enjoy the Security State 194 Online Dating: Risks and Rewards 464 What Color Eyes? How Tall? Designer Babies on the

Way 473 Who Should Live, and Who Should Die? The Dilemma of

Rationing Medical Care 573 The Coming Star Wars 665

Mass Media in Social Life Lara Croft, Tomb Raider: Changing Images of Women in the

Mass Media 82 “Nothing Tastes as Good as Thin Feels”: Body Images and

the Mass Media 117 Women in Iran: The Times Are Changing, Ever So

Slowly 302 The Cultural Lens: Shaping Our Perceptions of the Elderly 375 The Propaganda and Profits of War 448 School Shootings: Exploding a Myth 516 God on the Net: The Online Marketing of Religion 552

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FiguRE 8.1 How Safe Is Your State? Violent Crime in the United States 213

FiguRE 8.5 Executions in the United States 220

FiguRE 9.3 Global Stratification: Income of the World’s Nations 248

FiguRE 10.9 Patterns of Poverty 286

FiguRE 11.6 Women in the Workforce 317

FiguRE 12.6 The Distribution of Dominant and Minority Groups 348

FiguRE 13.1 The Graying of the Globe 368

FiguRE 13.6 As Florida Goes, So Goes the Nation 371

FiguRE 14.3 The Globalization of Capitalism: U.S. Ownership in Other Countries 416

FiguRE 14.4 The Globalization of Capitalism: U.S. Workers Who Work for Foreign-Owned Businesses 416

FiguRE 15.1 Which Political Party Dominates? 437

FiguRE 16.14 The “Where” of U.S. Divorce 484

FiguRE 17.2 Not Making It: Dropping Out of High School 499

FiguRE 17.3 The Unequal Funding of Education 507

FiguRE 18.2 U.S. Church Membership: Dominant Religion, by County 537

FiguRE 18.3 The Second Most Popular Religion in the United States, by State 537

FiguRE 20.12 The World’s 10 Largest Megacities 609

FiguRE 20.13 How Urban Is Your State? The Rural–Urban Makeup of the United States 609

FiguRE 22.2 The Worst Hazardous Waste Sites 667

Guide to Social Maps

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To the Student … from the Author

WELCOME TO SOCiOLOgY! I’ve loved sociol-ogy since I was in my teens, and I hope you enjoy it, too. Sociology is fascinating because it is about human behavior, and many of us find that it holds the key to understanding social life.

If you like to watch people and try to figure out why they do what they do, you will like sociology. Sociology pries open the doors of society so you can see what goes on behind them. Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach stresses how profoundly our society and the groups to which we belong influence us. Social class, for example, sets us on a particular path in life. For some, the path leads to more education, more interesting jobs, higher income, and better health, but for others it leads to drop- ping out of school, dead-end jobs, poverty, and even a higher risk of illness and disease. These paths are so significant that they affect our chances of making it to our first birthday, as well as of getting in trouble with the police. They even influence our satisfaction in marriage, the number of children we will have— and whether or not we will read this book in the first place.

When I took my first course in sociology, I was “hooked.” Seeing how marvelously my life had been affected by these larger social influences opened my eyes to a new world, one that has been fascinating to explore. I hope that you will have this experience, too.

From how people become homeless to how they be- come presidents, from why people commit suicide to why women are discriminated against in every society around the world—all are part of sociology. This breadth, in fact, is what makes sociology so intriguing. We can place the sociological lens on broad features of society, such as social class, gender, and race–ethnicity, and then immediately turn our focus on the smaller, more intimate level. If we look at two people in- teracting—whether quarreling or kissing—we see how these broad features of society are being played out in their lives.

We aren’t born with instincts. Nor do we come into this world with preconceived notions of what life should be like. At birth, we have no concepts of race–ethnicity, gender, age, or social class. We have no idea, for example, that people “ought” to act in certain ways because they are male or fe- male. Yet we all learn such things as we grow up in our soci- ety. Uncovering the “hows” and the “whys” of this process is also part of what makes sociology so fascinating.

One of sociology’s many pleasures is that as we study life in groups (which can be taken as a definition of sociol- ogy), whether those groups are in some far-off part of the world or in some nearby corner of our own society, we gain new insights into who we are and how we got that way. As we see how their customs affect them, the effects of our own society on us become more visible.

This book, then, can be part of an intellectual adventure, for it can lead you to a new way of looking at your social world and, in the process, help you to better understand both society and yourself.

I wish you the very best in college—and in your career afterward. It is my sincere desire that Sociology: A Down- to-Earth Approach will contribute to that success.

James M. Henslin

Department of Sociology

Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville

P.S. I enjoy communicating with students, so feel free to com- ment on your experiences with this text. You can write me at henslin@aol.com.


A01_HENS5571_13_SE_FM.indd 19 11/19/15 4:31 PM

REMEMBER WHEN YOu FiRST gOT “HOOKED” on sociology, how the windows of perception opened as you began to see life-in-society through the socio- logical perspective? For most of us, this was an eye-opening experience. This text is designed to open those windows onto social life, so students can see clearly the vital effects of group membership on their lives. Although few students will get into what Peter Berger calls “the passion of sociol- ogy,” we at least can provide them the opportunity.

To study sociology is to embark on a fascinating process of discovery. We can compare sociology to a huge jigsaw puzzle. Only gradually do we see how the smaller pieces fit together. As we begin to see the interconnections, our per- spective changes as we shift our eyes from the many small, disjointed pieces to the whole that is being formed. Of all the endeavors we could have entered, we chose sociology be- cause of the ways in which it joins the “pieces” of society to- gether and the challenges it poses to “ordinary” thinking. It is our privilege to share with students this process of aware- ness and discovery called the sociological perspective.

As instructors of sociology, we have set ambitious goals for ourselves: to teach both social structure and social inter- action and to introduce students to the sociological litera- ture—both the classic theorists and contemporary research. As we accomplish this, we would also like to enliven the classroom, encourage critical thinking, and stimulate our students’ sociological imagination. Although formidable, these goals are attainable. This book is designed to help you reach them. Based on many years of frontline (classroom) experience, its subtitle, A Down-to-Earth Approach, was not proposed lightly. My goal is to share the fascination of so- ciology with students and in doing so to make your teach- ing more rewarding.

Over the years, I have found the introductory course es- pecially enjoyable. It is singularly satisfying to see students’ faces light up as they begin to see how separate pieces of their world fit together. It is a pleasure to watch them gain insight into how their social experiences give shape to even their innermost desires. This is precisely what this text is de- signed to do—to stimulate your students’ sociological imagi- nation so they can better perceive how the “pieces” of society fit together—and what this means for their own lives.

Filled with examples from around the world as well as from our own society, this text helps to make today’s multi- cultural, global society come alive for students. From learn- ing how the international elite carve up global markets to studying the intimacy of friendship and marriage, students can see how sociology is the key to explaining contemporary life—and their own place in it.

In short, this text is designed to make your teaching eas- ier. There simply is no justification for students to have to wade through cumbersome approaches to sociology. I am firmly convinced that the introduction to sociology should be enjoyable and that the introductory textbook can be an essential tool in sharing the discovery of sociology with students.

The Organization of This Text The text is laid out in five parts. Part I focuses on the socio- logical perspective, which is introduced in the first chapter. We then look at how culture influences us (Chapter 2), exam- ine socialization (Chapter 3), and compare macrosociology and microsociology (Chapter 4). After this, we look at how sociologists do research (Chapter 5). Placing research meth- ods in the fifth chapter does not follow the usual sequence, but doing so allows students to first become immersed in the captivating findings of sociology—then, after their interest is awakened, they learn how sociologists gather their data. Stu- dents respond very well to this approach, but if you prefer the more traditional order, simply teach this chapter as the second chapter. No content will be affected.

Part II, which focuses on groups and social control, adds to the students’ understanding of how far-reaching society’s influence is—how group membership penetrates even our thinking, attitudes, and orientations to life. We first examine the different types of groups that have such profound influ- ences on us and then look at the fascinating area of group dynamics (Chapter 6). We then examine the impact of bu- reaucracy and formal organizations (Chapter 7). After this, we focus on how groups “keep us in line” and sanction those who violate their norms (Chapter 8).

In Part III, we turn our focus on social inequality, exam- ining how it pervades society and how it has an impact on our own lives. Because social stratification is so significant, I have written two chapters on this topic. The first (Chapter 9), with its global focus, presents an overview of the principles of stratification. The second (Chapter 10), with its emphasis on social class, focuses on stratification in the United States. After establishing this broader context of social stratifica- tion, we examine gender, the most global of the inequalities (Chapter 11). Then we focus on inequalities of race–ethnicity (Chapter 12) and those of age (Chapter 13).

Part IV helps students to become more aware of how social institutions encompass their lives. We first look at

To the Instructor … from the Author


A01_HENS5571_13_SE_FM.indd 20 11/19/15 4:31 PM

to the instructor … from the Author xxi

economy, the social institution that has become dominant in U.S. society (Chapter 14) and then at politics, our second overarching social institution (Chapter 15). We then place the focus on marriage and family (Chapter 16), and education (Chapter 17). After this, we look at the significance of reli- gion (Chapter 18) and, finally, that of medicine (Chapter 19). One of the emphases in this part of the book is how our so- cial institutions are changing and how their changes, in turn, have an impact on our own lives.

With its focus on broad social change, Part V provides an appropriate conclusion for the book. Here we examine why our world is changing so rapidly, as well as catch a glimpse of what is yet to come. We first analyze trends in population and urbanization, those sweeping forces that affect our lives so significantly but that ordinarily remain below our level of awareness (Chapter 20). Our focus on collective behavior and social movements (Chapter 21) and social change and the environment (Chapter 22) takes us to the “cutting edge” of the vital changes that engulf us all.

Themes and Features Six central themes run throughout this text: down-to-earth sociology, globalization, cultural diversity, critical thinking, the new technology, and the influence of the mass media on our lives. For each of these themes, except globalization, which is incorporated throughout the text, I have written a series of boxes. These boxed features are one of my favorite components of the book. They are especially useful for intro- ducing the controversial topics that make sociology such a lively activity.

Let’s look at these six themes.

Down-to-Earth Sociology As many years of teaching have shown me, all too often text- books are written to appeal to the adopters of texts rather than to the students who will learn from them. In writing this book, my central concern has been to present sociology in a way that not only facilitates understanding but also shares its excitement. During the course of writing other texts, I of- ten have been told that my explanations and writing style are “down-to-earth,” or accessible and inviting to students— so much so that I chose this phrase as the book’s subtitle. The term is also featured in my introductory reader, Down- to-Earth Sociology: Introductory Readings, to appear in its 15th edition (New York: The Free Press, 2016).

This first theme is highlighted by a series of boxed fea- tures that explore sociological processes that underlie every- day life. The topics that we review in these Down-to-Earth Sociology boxes are highly diverse. Here are some of them.

• the experiences of W.E.B. Du Bois in studying U.S. race relations (Chapter 1)

• what applied sociologists do (Chapter 2)

• how gossip and ridicule enforce adolescent norms (Chapter 3)

• how football can help us understand social structure (Chapter 4)

• beauty and success (Chapter 4)

• fraudulent social research (Chapter 5)

• serial killers (Chapter 8)

• sexting (Chapter 8)

• the lifestyles of the super-rich (Chapter 10)

• the American dream and actual social mobility (Chapter 10)

• how to get a higher salary by applying sociology (Chapter 11)

• living in the dorm: contact theory (Chapter 12)

• sex in nursing homes (Chapter 13)

• women navigating male-dominated corporations (Chapter 14)

• the life of child soldiers (Chapter 15)

• the health benefits of marriage (Chapter 16)

• how to get through college by applying sociology (Chapter 17)

• terrorism in the name of God (Chapter 18)

• the international black market in human body parts (Chapter 19)

• biofoods (Chapter 20)

• mass hysteria (Chapter 21)

• the coming Star Wars (Chapter 22)

This first theme is actually a hallmark of the text, as my goal is to make sociology “down to earth.” To help stu- dents grasp the fascination of sociology, I continuously stress sociology’s relevance to their lives. To reinforce this theme, I avoid unnecessary jargon and use concise explanations and clear and simple (but not reductive) language. I also use stu- dent-relevant examples to illustrate key concepts, and I base several of the chapters’ opening vignettes on my own experi- ences in exploring social life. That this goal of sharing sociol- ogy’s fascination is being reached is evident from the many comments I receive from instructors and students alike that the text helps make sociology “come alive.”

Globalization In the second theme, globalization, we explore the impact of global issues on our lives and on the lives of people around the world. All of us are feeling the effects of an increasingly powerful and encompassing global economy, one that inter- twines the fates of nations. The globalization of capitalism influences the kinds of skills and knowledge we need, the types of work available to us—and whether work is avail- able at all. Globalization also underlies the costs of the goods

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xxii  to the instructor … from the Author

and services we consume and whether our country is at war or peace—or in some uncharted middle ground between the two, some sort of perpetual war against unseen, sinister, and ever-threatening enemies lurking throughout the world. In addition to the strong emphasis on global issues that runs throughout this text, I have written a separate chapter on global stratification (Chapter 9). I also feature global issues in the chapters on social institutions and the final chapters on social change: population, urbanization, social movements, and the environment.

What occurs in Russia, Germany, and China, as well as in much smaller nations, such as Afghanistan and Iraq, has far-reaching consequences on our own lives. Consequently, in addition to the global focus that runs throughout the text, the next theme, cultural diversity, also has a strong global emphasis.

Cultural Diversity around the World and in the United States The third theme, cultural diversity, has two primary empha- ses. The first is cultural diversity around the world. Gaining an understanding of how social life is “done” in other parts of the world often challenges our taken-for-granted assump- tions about social life. At times, when we learn about other cultures, we gain an appreciation for the life of other peoples; at other times, we may be shocked or even disgusted at some aspect of another group’s way of life (such as female circum- cision) and come away with a renewed appreciation of our own customs.

To highlight this first subtheme, I have written a series of boxes called Cultural Diversity around the World. Among the topics with this subtheme are

• food customs that shock people from different cultures (Chapter 2)

• why the dead need money (Chapter 2)

• where virgins become men (Chapter 3)

• human sexuality in Mexico and Kenya (Chapter 8)

• how blaming the rape victim protects India’s caste system (Chapter 8)

• female circumcision (Chapter 11)

• the life of child workers (Chapter 14)

• China’s new capitalism (Chapter 14)

• the globalization of capitalism (Chapter 14)

• love and arranged marriage in India (Chapter 16)

• female infanticide in China and India (Chapter 20)

• the destruction of the rain forests and indigenous peoples of Brazil (Chapter 22)

In the second subtheme, Cultural Diversity in the united States, we examine groups that make up the fascinating array

of people who form the U.S. population. The boxes I have written with this subtheme review such topics as

• the language of race (Chapter 2)

• the controversy over the use of Spanish or English (Chapter 2)

• how the Amish resist social change (Chapter 4)

• how our social networks produce social inequality (Chapter 6)

• the upward social mobility of African Americans (Chapter 10)

• how Tiger Woods represents a changing racial–ethnic identity (Chapter 12)

• the author’s travels with a Mexican who transports un- documented workers to the U.S. border (Chapter 12)

• Pentecostalism among Latino immigrants (Chapter 18)

• human heads, animal sacrifices, and religious freedom (Chapter 18)

• our shifting racial–ethnic mix (Chapter 20)

Seeing that there are so many ways of “doing” social life can remove some of our cultural smugness, making us more aware of how arbitrary our own customs are—and how our taken-for-granted ways of thinking are rooted in culture. The stimulating contexts of these contrasts can help students develop their sociological imagination. They encourage stu- dents to see connections among key sociological concepts, such as culture, socialization, norms, race–ethnicity, gender, and social class. As your students’ sociological imagination grows, they can attain a new perspective on their experiences in their own corners of life—and a better understanding of the social structure of U.S. society.

Critical Thinking In our fourth theme, critical thinking, we focus on controver- sial social issues, inviting students to examine various sides of those issues. In these sections, titled Thinking Critically, I present objective, fair portrayals of positions and do not take a side—although occasionally I do play the “devil’s advocate” in the questions that close each of the topics. Like the boxed features, these sections can enliven your classroom with a vi- brant exchange of ideas. Among the social issues we tackle are

• whether rapists are sick (Chapter 5)

• our tendency to conform to authority, even though evil, as uncovered by the Milgram experiments (Chapter 6)

• how labeling keeps some people down and helps others move up (Chapter 8)

• how vigilantes fill in when the state breaks down (Chapter 8)

• the three-strikes-and-you’re-out laws (Chapter 8)

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to the instructor … from the Author xxiii

• bounties paid to kill homeless children in Brazil (Chapter 9)

• children in poverty (Chapter 10)

• biology versus culture (Chapter 11)

• emerging masculinities and femininities (Chapter 11)

• targeted killings (Chapter 15)

• medically assisted suicide (Chapter 19)

• abortion as a social movement (Chapter 21)

• cyberwar and cyber defense (Chapter 22)

These Thinking Critically sections are based on contro- versial social issues that either affect the student’s own life or focus on topics that have intrinsic interest for students. Because of their controversial nature, these sections stimulate both crit- ical thinking and lively class discussions. These sections also provide provocative topics for in-class debates and small dis- cussion groups, effective ways to enliven a class and present sociological ideas. In the Instructor’s Manual, I describe the nuts and bolts of using small groups in the classroom, a highly effective way of engaging students in sociological topics.

Sociology and the New Technology The fifth theme, sociology and the new technology, explores an aspect of social life that has come to be central in our lives. We welcome these new technological tools, for they help us to be more efficient at performing our daily tasks, from making a living to communicating with others—whether those peo- ple are nearby or on the other side of the globe. The signif- icance of our new technology, however, extends far beyond the tools and the ease and efficiency they bring to our lives. The new technology is better envisioned as a social revolution that will leave few aspects of our lives untouched. Its effects are so profound that it even changes the ways we view life.

This theme is introduced in Chapter 2, where technol- ogy is defined and presented as a major aspect of culture. The impact of technology is then discussed throughout the text. Examples include how technology is related to cultural change (Chapter 2), the control of workers (Chapter 7), the maintenance of global stratification (Chapter 9), social class (Chapter 10), and social inequality in early human history (Chapter 14). We also look at the impact of technology on dating (Chapter 16), family life (Chapter 16), education (Chapter 17), religion (Chapter 18), medicine (Chapter 19), and war (Chapter 22). The final chapter (Chapter 22), “Social Change and the Environment,” concludes the book with a focus on the effects of technology.

To highlight this theme, I have written a series of boxes called Sociology and the New Technology. In these boxes, we explore how technology affects our lives as it changes so- ciety. We examine how technology

• is making our clothing smart (Chapter 2)

• blurs the distinction between reality and fantasy (Chapter 6)

• might make social networking the dominant form of social organization (Chapter 7)

• is leading to an overwhelming security state (Chapter 7)

• is being used to organize family life (Chapter 16)

• is changing the way people find mates (Chapter 16)

• is leading to designer babies (Chapter 16)

• is changing education through distance learning (Chapter 17)

• leads to dilemmas of rationing medical care (Chapter 19)

The Mass Media and Social Life In the sixth theme, we stress how the mass media affect our behavior and permeate our thinking. We consider how the media penetrate our consciousness to such an extent that they even influence how we perceive our own bodies. As your students consider this theme, they may begin to grasp how the mass media shape their attitudes. If so, they will come to view the mass media in a different light which, should further stimulate their sociological imagination.

To make this theme more prominent for students, I have written a series of boxed features called Mass Media in Social Life. Among these are

• the presentation of gender in computer games (Chapter 3)

• the worship of thinness—and how this affects our body images (Chapter 4)

• the issue of censoring high-tech pornography (Chapter 8)

• the reemergence of slavery in today’s world (Chapter 9)

• the slowly changing status of women in Iran (Chapter 11)

• the profits and propaganda of war (Chapter 15)

• God on the Net (Chapter 18)

What’s New in This Edition? Because sociology is about social life and we live in a chang- ing global society, an introductory sociology text must reflect the national and global changes that engulf us, as well as represent the new sociological research. An indication of the thoroughness of incorporating recent sociological research is the text’s hundreds of new citations. This edition of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach also has more than 300 new in- structional photos. I have either selected or taken each of the photos, which are tied directly into the content of the text. I have designed it so that the photos and their captions are part of the students’ learning experience.

I won’t bother listing the numerous changes that run throughout the text. Instead, on the two pages that follow this Note to the Instructor (pp. xxvi and xxvii) I have listed just the new topics, boxed features, and tables and figures that are new in this edition. This gives you the best idea of how extensively this edition is revised.

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xxiv  to the instructor … from the Author

Visual Presentations of Sociology SHOWiNg CHANgES OVER TiME In presenting social data, many of the figures and tables show how data change over time. This feature allows students to see trends in social life and to make predictions on how these trends might continue—and how the trends even affect their own lives. Examples include

• Figure 1.4 U.S. Marriage, U.S. Divorce (Chapter 1)

• Figure 3.2 Transitional Adulthood: A New Stage in Life (Chapter 3)

• Figure 8.2 How Much Is Enough? The Explosion in the Number of Prisoners (Chapter 8)

• Figure 10.3 The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same: Dividing the Nation’s Income (Chapter 10)

• Figure 16.2 In Two-Paycheck Marriages, How Do Husbands and Wives Divide Their Responsibilities? (Chapter 16)

• Figure 16.4 The Number of Children Americans Think Are Ideal (Chapter 16)

• Figure 16.9 The Decline of Two-Parent Families (Chapter 16)

• Figure 16.11 Cohabitation in the United States (Chapter 16)

• Figure 17.1 Educational Achievement in the United States (Chapter 17)

• Figure 20.11 How the World Is Urbanizing (Chapter 20)

THROugH THE AuTHOR’S LENS Using this format, stu- dents are able to look over my shoulder as I experience other cultures or explore aspects of this one. These eight photo es- says should expand your students’ sociological imagination and open their minds to other ways of doing social life, as well as stimulate thought-provoking class discussions.

ViENNA: SOCiAL STRuCTuRE AND SOCiAL iNTERAC- TiON iN A ViBRANT CiTY appears in Chapter 4. The photos I took in this city illustrate how social structure sur- rounds us, setting the scene for our interactions, limiting and directing them.

WHEN A TORNADO STRiKES: SOCiAL ORgANizATiON FOLLOWiNg A NATuRAL DiSASTER When a tornado hit a small town just hours from where I lived, I photographed the aftermath of the disaster. The police let me in to view the neighborhood where the tornado had struck, destroying homes and killing several people. I was impressed by how quickly people were putting their lives back together, the topic of this photo essay (Chapter 4).

COMMuNiTY iN THE CiTY, in Chapter 6, is also from Vienna. This sequence of four photos focuses on strangers who are helping a man who has just fallen. This event casts doubt on the results of Darley and Latane’s laboratory experi- ments. This short sequence was serendipitous in my research. One of my favorite photos is the last in the series, which

portrays the cop coming toward me to question why I was taking photos of the accident. It fits the sequence perfectly.

THE DuMP PEOPLE OF PHNOM PENH, CAMBODiA Among the culture shocks I experienced in Cambodia was not to discover that people scavenge at Phnom Penh’s huge city dump—this I knew about—but that they also live there. With the aid of an interpreter, I was able to interview these people, as well as photograph them as they went about their everyday lives. An entire community lives in the city dump, complete with restaurants amid the smoke and piles of gar- bage. This photo essay reveals not just these people’s activi- ties but also their social organization (Chapter 9).

WORK AND gENDER: WOMEN AT WORK iN iNDiA As I traveled in India, I took photos of women at work in pub- lic places. The more I traveled in this country and the more photos I took, the more insight I gained into gender relations. Despite the general dominance of men in India, women’s worlds are far from limited to family and home. Women are found at work throughout the society. What is even more re- markable is how vastly different “women’s work” is in India than it is in the United States. This, too, is an intellectually provocative photo essay (Chapter 11).

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