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Communication between cultures 9th edition pdf

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Communication Between Cultures, 7e


Samovar | Porter | McDaniel © 2010 | 0495567442 | 9780495567448


Enhance your intercultural communication learning experience!


COMMUNICATION BETWEEN CULTURES gives you an understanding


communication with people from other cultures. COMMUNICATION BETWEEN CULTURES is renowned for being the only text on the market to consistently emphasize religion and history as key variables in intercultural communication.


examine your own assumptions and cultural biases, this book helps your understand the subtle and


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Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).


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LARRY A. SAMOVAR San Diego State University, Emeritus


RICHARD E. PORTER California State University, Long Beach, Emeritus


EDWIN R. MCDANIEL San Diego State University


THIRTEENTH EDITION


Intercultural Communication: A Reader


Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States


Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).


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Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10


Intercultural Communication: A Reader, Thirteenth Edition


Larry A. Samovar, Richard E. Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel


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Table of Contents


Preface vi


Chapter 1 Approaches to Intercultural Communication 1


Using Intercultural Communication: The Building Blocks 4


EDWIN R. MCDANIEL, LARRY A. SAMOVAR, RICHARD E. PORTER


Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context 19


GEERT HOFSTEDE


Culture and Conflict 34 HARRY C. TRIANDIS


Intercultural Communication in a Globalized World 45


BERNARD SAINT-JACQUES


Worldview in Intercultural Communication: A Religio-Cosmological Approach 56


SATOSHI ISHII, DONALD KLOPF, PEGGY COOKE


“Harmony without Uniformity”: An Asiacentric Worldview and Its Communicative Implications 65


YOSHITAKA MIIKE


Chapter 2 Identity: Issues of Belonging 81


Globalization and Intercultural Personhood 83 YOUNG YUN KIM


An Alternative View of Identity 95 GUO-MING CHEN


Living Within Whiteness: A Project Aimed at Undermining Racism 104


JOHN T. WARREN


American Indian Identity: Communicating Indian-ness 112


STEVEN B. PRATT, MERRY C. PRATT, LYNDA D. DIXON


We Don’t Talk Right. You Ask Him 119 JOAN WYNNE


International Marriages in Japan: Cultural Conflict and Harmony 126


STEVEN E. QUASHA, FUMIKO TSUKADA


Chapter 3 International Cultures: Understanding Diversity 144


The Spirituality of “Being” Grace, Tao, and Awaken in Intercultural Communication 146


MARY FONG


Chimerica: U.S.–China Communication for the Twenty-first Century 161


WENSHAN JIA, DEXIN TIAN, XUANZI B. JIA


Communicating with Indians 170 RAJESH KUMAR, ANAND KUMAR SETHI


When Face-to-Face Won’t Work: Use of Informal Intermediaries to Communicate Interpersonally in Sub-Saharan Africa 179


ANN NEVILLE MILLER


Russian Cultural Values and Workplace Communication Patterns 189


MIRA BERGELSON


Ladylike Men and Guyland: Cross-Cultural Accomplishments of Masculinities 198


JUSTIN CHARLEBOIS


iii


Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).


Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.


Chapter 4 Co-cultures: Living in a Multicultural Society 206


Unum and Pluribus: Ideological Underpinnings of Interethnic Communication in the United States 208


YOUNG YUN KIM


Action-Oriented Interfaith Dialogue with Muslim Communities 222


POLLY A. BEGLEY


America in Black and Brown: Exploring Sources of Intercultural Tensions between Blacks and Latinos in the United States 232


PETER OGOM NWOSU


“Which Is My Good Leg?”: Cultural Communication of Persons with Disabilities 241


DAWN O. BRAITHWAITE, CHARLES A. BRAITHWAITE


In Plain Sight: Gay and Lesbian Communication and Culture 254


WILLIAM F. EADIE


Chapter 5 Intercultural Messages: Verbal and Nonverbal Communication 268


The Nexus of Language, Communication, and Culture 271


MARY FONG


Dialogue, Argument, and Cultural Communication Codes between Israeli-Jews and Palestinians 280


DONALD G. ELLIS, IFAT MAOZ


Mexican Dichos: Lessons Through Language 288


CAROLYN ROY


The Basis of Cultural Differences in Nonverbal Communication 293


PETER A. ANDERSEN


Monochronic and Polychronic Time 313 EDWARD T. HALL


Mexicans and Americans: A Different Sense of Space 320


NED CROUCH


Chapter 6 Cultural Contexts: The Influence of the Setting 327


Japanese Style of Decision Making in Business Organizations 331


KAZUO NISHIYAMA


Comparing and Contrasting German and American Business Cultures 339


MICHAEL B. HINNER


The Problem of Globalization: Jamaican Managers at the Intersection of Past and Present Cultural Challenges 356


MAURICE L. HALL


Health Journeys: Intersections Between Ancient Healing and Modern Medicine 366


POLLY A. BEGLEY, DEBBIE A. OCKEY


Culture and Communication in the Classroom 381


GENEVA GAY


Enculturation of Values in the Educational Setting: Japanese Group Orientation 400


EDWIN R. McDANIEL, ERIKO KATSUMATA


Intercultural Communication and the Global Classroom 413


CHARLES A. BRAITHWAITE


Chapter 7 Communicating Interculturally: Becoming Competent 422


Axioms for a Theory of Intercultural Communication Competence 424


BRIAN H. SPITZBERG


A Confucian Perspective of Communication Competence 435


XIAOSUI XIAO, GUO-MING CHEN


iv Table of Contents


Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).


Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.


Harmony, Conflict and the Process of Argument in Chinese Societies 445


MICHAEL DAVID HAZEN, RUI SHI


The Social Construction of Demeanor through Deference Rituals 457


JUSTIN CHARLEBOIS


Discriminating Attitudes Toward Speech 464 AARON CASTELAN CARGILE


Chapter 8 Ethical Considerations: Prospects for the Future 473


A Communicative Approach to Intercultural Dialogue on Ethics 476


RICHARD EVANOFF


Worldview: The Ethical Dimension 481 NINIAN SMART


Cultural Diversity: A World View 490 THOMAS SOWELL


The Limits to Cultural Diversity 498 HARLAN CLEVELAND


Index 503


Table of Contents v


Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).


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Preface


I know quite certainly that I myself have no special talent; curiosity, obsession and dogged endurance, combined with self-criticism have brought me to my ideas.


—ALBERT EINSTEIN


Precision of communication is important, more important than ever, in our era of hair-trigger balances, when a false or misunderstood word may create as much disaster as a sudden thoughtless act.


—JAMES THURBER


A SIMPLE “THANK YOU” We begin, as we do with every new edition, with a simple “thank you.” Our gratitude is directed at all those educators and students who have seen our book through twelve previous editions. We are not being prosaic or trite when we make known our pride in this extraordinary honor. Hence, we trust you can understand why we are excited about this new edition and want to begin by expressing our appreciation to the thousands of individuals who have found some- thing of value in past presentations.


BLENDING THE NEW AND THE OLD We approached this new edition with the twin feel- ings of exhilaration and prudence. The excitement, as noted, was due to the recognition we have received during the last forty years—enough acknowledgment to warrant yet another new edition. Still, our sense of pride is moderated with a heavy dose of caution. As we proceeded, we wanted to preserve the basic framework and philosophy that has sustained us through the previous editions, while at the same time we needed to include topics that are new to the field. Here in our thirteenth edition we have bal- anced these two complementary positions—the past and present.


First, the new version of the book continues to reflect our belief that the basic core of the discipline should not be changed for the sake of being novel; such change would deprive the book of those funda- mental concepts that we have infused into all previ- ous editions. Second, a new book needs to reflect how intercultural theory has evolved since the last edition. We needed to present essays that mirror that change. We believe we have accomplished the blending of the old with the new in this edition. We have, as is the case in all past editions, even staked out some fresh territory for the field.


A POINT OF VIEW A constant theme in this edition is “globalization,” a term that can no longer be applied solely to interna- tional economic activities. Globalization has stimu- lated the growth of all developed nations and vastly increased the economic, political, and in many cases military aspirations of what are now called “emerging markets.” For instance, Brazil, Russia, India, and China, the “BRIC nations,” have issued joint commu- niqués indicating they expect developing nations to be given more influence over how world international financial systems are managed and increased partici- pation in world affairs. Russia has openly called for a new international currency to replace the U.S. dollar as the world reserve currency. India’s population reached 1.2 billion in 2010, and that country con- tinues to invest heavily in industrialization and edu- cation. China continues to assert itself across all aspects of international relations, and its military growth and modernization have become a concern to the United States.


As these emerging-market nations increase their economical and political influence, they will expect to play a larger role in the management and direction of the world community. This will exert pressure on the


vi


Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).


Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.


established world order and currently normative be- haviors. The dominant nations of the West, led by the United States, will be faced with little choice but to engage these new players.


The changes and challenges brought about by globalization are not limited to the international sphere. Within the United States, people from a host of diverse cultures are coming together by both chance and design. These “meetings” are taking place in work- places, classrooms, health care facilities, tourist venues, and numerous other locations. Most encounters are positive and lead to productive relationships, but not all. For example, Arizona’s 2010 passage of legislation targeting illegal immigrants led to protests, sometimes destructive, across the country. Here was a conflict that clearly calls out for cultural awareness and understand- ing. Developing that awareness and transforming it into understanding is at the core of this book.


As a member of this multicultural globalized world, your ability to engage successfully in intercul- tural communication may be one of the most impor- tant skills you will ever develop, because now, more than ever before, you are being challenged by a future in which you will interact with people from a wide range of dissimilar cultural backgrounds.


Developing effective intercultural communication skills will require that you acquire new ways of think- ing and interacting. This will not be easy, for two very important reasons. First, because your view of the world is shaped by the perspective of your own cul- ture, it is often difficult to understand and appreciate many of the actions originating from other people, groups, and nations. Your cultural perceptions tend to condition you to see people and events through a highly selective lens. Second, to be a successful inter- cultural communicator you must be open to new and different communication experiences, have empathy toward cultures different from your own, develop a universalistic, realistic worldview, and learn to be tol- erant of views that differ from your own. These com- munication characteristics may be easy for you to read about, but translating them into action is a very diffi- cult task. Yet training in intercultural communication does offer you an arena in which to work on these skills. In short, it is your ability to change, to make adjustments in your communication habits and behav- ior, which gives you the potential to engage in success- ful and effective intercultural contacts.


OUR APPROACH The basic energizing motive for this book has remained the same since we became interested in the topic of intercultural communication over forty years ago. We believe that the ability to communicate effec- tively with people from other cultures and co-cultures benefits each of us as individuals and has the potential to benefit the nearly seven billion people with whom we share this planet. We have intentionally selected materials that will assist you in understanding those intercultural communication principles that are instru- mental to success when you interact with people from diverse cultures. Fundamental to our approach is the conviction that communication is a social activity; it is something people do to and with one another. The activity might begin with ideas or feelings, but they are manifested in our behaviors, be they verbal or non- verbal. In both explicit and implicit ways, the informa- tion and the advice contained in this book are usable; the ideas presented can be translated into action.


NEW FEATURES We have already noted that the study of intercultural communication is a vibrant and energetic discipline. As intercultural contacts became more intense and widespread, the field has been forced to adapt to these new dynamics. As it has continued to evolve, we have attempted to mature and adapt with it. In 1972, the first edition contained thirty-four articles and essays. In this new edition, we included forty-five, of which twenty-four are new to this volume. Of these, twenty were written exclusively for this edition. Furthermore, six authors from earlier editions have made revisions to their selections for this new volume.


In one sense, we could say that these twenty-five new essays are “new features.” But that point is obvi- ous. There are, however, two other changes that are deserving of the title of “new features.” First, in an attempt to broaden our theoretical base, we have in- corporated the work of international scholars from Russia, Germany, Korea, China, Japan, Kenya, Israel, Canada, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and India who were able to complement and counterbalance the research of the academic community in the United States. Second, because of our long-held conviction that it is the deep structure of a culture that dictates how members of each culture view themselves and


Preface vii


Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).


Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.


others, we have added a number of new essays that look at religion, worldview, identity, and spirituality. These enduring deep-structure elements carry a cul- ture’s most important beliefs, and are emotional, deeply felt concepts. They also have a profound influ- ence on how perceptions are shaped and how people communicate. For these reasons, we have added new selections that examine the deep structure elements of culture. Finally, realizing that we have been editing this book for over forty years, we have chosen to include the voices of new, young scholars who have added a fresh perspective that we have been able to combine with the basic core of the field.

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