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Evidence-Based Practice and Evaluation of the Project Through Measureable Goals

24/09/2020 Client: sarah Deadline: 3 days

 This is the ongoing project discussion portion of this class. My population is geriatric/elderly. The problem is BP...


I will attach previous discussions because it all needs to tie in together


350 words


at least 3 references cited in the discussion.


must be last 5 years


Overview: Dr. Marcia Stanhope (2020) explained that evidence-based public health practice refers to those decisions made by using the best available evidence, data and information systems and program frameworks; engaging community stakeholders in the decision-making process; evaluating the results; and then disseminating that information to those who can use the information.


Practicum Discussion: This week, your assignment will be to incorporate all of the information you have gathered from the community—including the population itself, health data, interviews/conversations with interested community members, and your community assessment, including your Windshield Survey—as well as what you have gathered from scholarly literature to propose measureable interventions. Measureable interventions mean that the results can be measured through some data that could be collected (Stanhope, 2020). This requires thinking in terms of actions and then measuring results. An evaluation of interventions is important to see whether or not they are effective in solving a health care problem. Remember, you will need to use the data you gathered to determine whether or not a problem exists in your community and to then determine whether your interventions might be effective.


Please discuss the following points in your Practicum Discussion:



  • Identify one evidence-based behavior change that would promote health in your selected population.

  • Suggest one specific culturally sensitive, evidence-based, measureable intervention to address the health problem for your selected population.

  • Think in terms of measuring outcomes. What outcomes would you expect to see once the intervention(s) are in place? Be specific.


By Day 4


Post your response to this Discussion.


Support your response with references from the professional nursing literature.


GOAL of PRACTICUM PROJECT


 


Overall Purpose for Practicum: Develop a potential project to improve the health of a specific population of interest or a population at risk.


This practicum is designed to help you develop as a scholar practitioner and health leader to promote positive social change in your own community. In this practicum experience you will focus on primary prevention of a health problem in your community (see text for definition.)  You already possess the knowledge and skills to help those who are acutely ill. This experience will help learn how to prevent a health problem in a specific population at risk at the community and system level of care (see text for definition). Consequently, because you are well aware of how to care for individuals you will now develop leadership and advocacy skills to improve the health of the community.  Collaborating with other professionals and community members in your community will be the key to a successful practicum and project. Collaborate with each other in the discussions, with your instructor, with health care professionals (nurses and other disciplines), with local and state departments of health, and most importantly with the population you hope to help. As an advocate, you will promote positive social change through collaboration with families, communities, and professionals in the health care system. You will develop a culturally relevant proposal that could improve health outcomes for a specific population at risk in your community. 


WK 1


 


I live in a small community located in northwest metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. The population as of 2019, was 21,760 people. The breakdown of the population is 31% under the age of 18, 14.9% 65 years or older, 51.2% are women. 73% White, 20.8% Black/African American, 12.7% Latino/Hispanic. I am currently practicing at a privately owned hospice company where we provide services to adult patients in their homes and facilities in North Georgia.


Race is a major social determinant of health. African Americans have a higher rate of significant health problems and functional limitations.  Economic resources are also a social determinant of health. As poverty increases, mortality rates increase. Economic resources are also needed to provide basic needs such as housing and food, and is required to obtain health care and medications. Social isolation and loneliness also are social determinants that have profound effects, especially during the COVID 19 pandemic.


As a hospice nurse, the majority of my patients are the geriatric population and the population at risk I am choosing to focus on for this project. The most prevalent health problems include heart disease, respiratory diseases, stroke, cancer, diabetes, and dementia.  Depression is also a problem that occurs, leading to increased suicide rates of the geriatric patient. Injuries or death related to falls is a perpetual problem in the elderly. Malnutrition is widespread and seen in nearly every older patient, which is related to access to food, decreased physical ability to shop, cook, or eat. Malnutrition could also happen due to other comorbid conditions that the senior has such as dementia.


References


U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Cartersville city, Georgia. (n.d.). Www.Census.Gov. Retrieved September 7, 2020, from https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/cartersvillecitygeorgia


Equity and Social Determinants of Health Among Older Adults | American Society on Aging. (n.d.). Www.Asaging.Org. Retrieved September 7, 2020, from https://www.asaging.org/blog/equity-and-social-determinants-health-among-older-adults#:~:text=Race%20long%20has%20been%20known%20to%20be%20a


10 common elderly health issues - Vital Record. (2018, June 25). Vital Record. https://vitalrecord.tamhsc.edu/10-common-elderly-health-issues/




WK2


 


According to the CDC (FastStats - Hypertension, 2019), 63.1% of adults age 60 and over have high blood pressure, which is three times higher than adults aged 20-44. Georgia ranks #33rd in the nation.  (Explore High Blood Pressure in the United States | 2019 Annual Report, n.d.). High blood pressure is one of the leading risk factors in heart attack and stroke.


As a person ages, the size of the liver decreases, and the blood flow is reduced, which reduces how quickly the liver metabolizes medication. Kidney size is reduced, and blood flow is less, resulting in low renal clearance (Beers Criteria: Some Medications to Avoid in the Elderly, 2012). Because of these physiological changes, controlling blood pressure in geriatric patients can be challenging. Cognitive impairments due to age-related dementia can result in medication noncompliance and not being able to recognize symptoms of hyper/hypotension. Physical limitations result in difficulty going to regular doctor appointments, regular physical activity, and not being able to cook a healthy heart diet, all leading to uncontrolled blood pressure.


The geriatric patient needs to be closely monitored due to drug sensitivity. Because of increased sensitivity to medication, orthostatic hypotension is a significant concern for the elderly population. Orthostatic hypotension can result in falls, syncope, or death. (Arik & Yavuz, 2014)


In looking for information for this discussion, I utilized Google Scholar for my search engine. I found much of my statistics through CDC website.


References


ARIK, G., & YAVUZ, B. B. (2014). Hypertension in Older Adults-Geriatrician Point of View. Journal of Gerontology & Geriatric Research, 03(05). https://doi.org/10.4172/2167-7182.1000182


Beers Criteria: Some Medications to Avoid in the Elderly. (2012). Tmc.Edu. https://www.uth.tmc.edu/HGEC/GemsAndPearls/medications_BeersCriteria.html


Explore High Blood Pressure in the United States | 2019 Annual Report. (n.d.). America’s Health Rankings. Retrieved September 13, 2020, from https://www.americashealthrankings.org/explore/annual/measure/Hypertension


FastStats - Hypertension. (2019). https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/hypertension.htm




WK3


 


We all know the top risk factors for getting or becoming more severely ill from Covid-19 include age, heart disease, or diabetes. Surprisingly, there may be a genetic link to being more susceptible or getting more severely sick from Covid-19 according to researchers. (Willingham, 2020).  Researches have recently tied the severity and susceptibility of COVID-19 to two genetic links associated with a person's immune system. One is a persons blood type, the other is a gene that regulates chemokines (Willingham, 2020). Researchers warn that this genetic knowledge is not 100% and does not factor in the social and economic inequalities that increase risk of susceptibility and severity, rather it reveals information about the disease susceptibility which may help identify therapeutic drugs to target those biological pathways and lead the way to a cure for the entire populations, not just those with specific genes (Willingham, 2020).  Chromosome 3 hold genes that encode chemokines to attract immune cells and proteins that interact with our gatekeeper into cells, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, also known as ACE2 (Willingham, 2020).  On chromosome 9 lies DNA that determines a person's blood type.  Compared with other blood types, type A are at a higher risk of getting Covid-19 and have a 1.5 times higher risk of respiratory failure and those with type O had the lowest chance of all blood types for getting Covid-19 or experiencing respiratory failure (Willingham, 2020). 


By 2050 the population of adults 65 and older is expected to be 83.7 million, almost double the population in 2012 (Journal of the American Geriatrics Society). The minority population of older adults is expected to rise from 20.7% in 2012 to 39.1% in 2050 with the largest increase in Asian, Native Hawaiian, and other Pacific Islander populations , and the Hispanic population over 65 will have doubled (Journal of the American Geriatrics Society).  This means that our elderly care will also have to be ethnically diverse, culturally sensitive, and unbiased.


Culturally sensitive interventions that would be top priority would be asking the patient their preferred language and offering interpreter service in that language for any education (Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 2016).  This is important with any education but can be lifesaving for Covid-19 prevention education. It is equally important to know the patient's education level, cognition, and hearing to ensure understanding as well as knowing if they have a surrogate or who all will be involved in decision making (Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 2016).  Customizing care to and individual's cultural and language preferences will result in a more positive health outcome for this diverse population (Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 2016).


Achieving High-Quality Multicultural Geriatric Care. (2016). Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 64(2), 255-260.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.13924


Willingham, E. (2020). Genes May Influence Covid-19 Risk, New Studies Hint.  Scientific America. Retrieved from: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/genes-may-influence-covid-19-risk-new-studies-hint/#:~:text=Combing%20through%20the%20genome%2C%20researchers,2%20coronavirus%20into%20our%20cells

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