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Human Communication 6e Judy C. Pearson Paul e. nelson sCott titsworth angela M. hosek

listening

CritiCal

thinking

sPeaking

PerCePtion

soCial

Media

Human Communication

SIXTH EDITION

Judy C. Pearson North Dakota State University, emeritus

Paul E. Nelson North Dakota State University, emeritus

Scott Titsworth Ohio University

Angela M. Hosek Ohio University

HUMAN COMMUNICATION, SIXTH EDITION Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2013, 2011, and 2008. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States.

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

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All credits appearing on page are considered to be an extension of the copyright page.

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iv Part Two Fundamentals of Communication Studies

Your life is punctuated with critical moments in which communication plays an important role. Whether you are talking to a potential employer

during a job interview, a loved one about an important issue facing your family, or an instructor about an assignment, what you say and how you say it can dramatically shape the outcome of an interac- tion. Our goal in writing Human Communication is to help you feel confident in any situation. We want you to have the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to be a successful communicator.

We want you to be ready to • Communicate effectively in novel and uncertain situations

• Assess who you are talking to and establish common ground • Listen effectively and respond appropriately • Practice the skills appropriate to a variety of relationships and

cultures • Adapt your communication using technologies that enhance,

express, and transmit your messages • Speak with confidence and clarity on important topics

Human Communication draws on the best available research to help you develop the knowledge you need to communicate effec- tively in a variety of situations. The research-based theories we present in this text, coupled with the street savvy you have devel- oped over the course of your life, will equip you with a strong

foundation for reading situations, acting appropriately, and adapting your communication behaviors. As instructors in the field of communication, we believe that

personal improvement in communication begins with a clear under- standing of your own attitudes and of the relationships you build with others. Human Communication will help you develop the skills you need to tell the story of your life and serve as a foundation for lifelong success.

— Judy C. Pearson — Paul E. Nelson — Scott Titsworth

— Angela M. Hosek

From the Authors

iv

Brief Contents v

Part 1 Fundamentals of Communication Studies

Chapter 1 Introduction to Human Communication 2

Chapter 2 Perception, Self, and Communication 26

Chapter 3 Language and Meaning 48

Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication 66

Chapter 5 Listening and Critical Thinking 90

Part 2 Communication Contexts

Chapter 6 Interpersonal Communication 114

Chapter 7 Intercultural Communication 144

Chapter 8 Small-Group Communication 162

Chapter 9 Workplace Communication 192

Part 3 Fundamentals of Public Speaking

Chapter 10 Topic Selection and Audience Analysis 222

Chapter 11 Being Credible and Using Evidence 242

Chapter 12 Organizing Your Presentation 270

Chapter 13 Delivery and Visual Resources 300

Chapter 14 Informative Presentations 322

Chapter 15 Persuasive Presentations 346

Glossary 366

Index 374

brief contents

vi Contents

contents

From the Authors iv Preface xvii Acknowledgments xxvii

Part 1 Fundamentals of Communication Studies

Chapter 1 Introduction to Human Communication 2 The Study of Communication Is Essential 3 Defining Communication 8 Components of Communication 9

People 10 The Message 10 The Channel 10 Feedback 10 Code 11 Encoding and Decoding 11 Noise 11 Situation 11

Communication Principles 12 Communication Begins with the Self 12 Communication Involves Others 13 Communication Has Both a Content and a Relational Dimension 14 Communication Involves Choices 14 Communication Quantity Does Not Increase Communication Quality 14 Communication Is Pervasive 15 Communication Cannot Be Reversed 15

Communication Contexts 15 Intrapersonal Communication 15 Interpersonal Communication 16 Public Communication 16 Mass Communication 16 Digitally Mediated Communication 18

Goals of Communication Study 18 Understanding Communication Competence 18 Understanding Ethical Communication 19 Understanding Communication Theory and Research 20 Communication Skills and Your Career 20

Chapter Review & Study Guide 22 Summary 22 Key Terms 22

“With SmartBook, I remember more of what I read.”

Contents vii

Study Questions 23 Critical Thinking 23 Sizing Things Up Scoring and Interpretation 24 References 24

Chapter 2 Perception, Self, and Communication 26 Defining Perception 27 Differences in Perception 28

Identity Factors 28 Temporal Conditions 29 Past Experiences and Roles 29 Present Feelings and Circumstances 29

The Perceptual Process 30 Selection 30 Organization 31 Interpretation 34

Errors in Our Perceptions 35 Stereotyping 36 First Impressions 37

Who Are You? 39 How You Became Who You Are 39 Learning More About Yourself 41

How You Present Yourself 42

Chapter Review & Study Guide 44 Summary 44 Key Terms 44 Study Questions 44 Critical Thinking 46 Sizing Things Up Scoring and Interpretation 46 References 46

“I like applying what I’ve read by answering

the questions in SmartBook.”

Chapter 3 Language and Meaning 48 Defining Language 49

Language Has Rules 49 Language and Culture Are Intertwined 50 Language Organizes and Classifies Reality 51 Language Is Arbitrary 52 Language Is Abstract 53

Language to Avoid When Speaking 53 Grammatical Errors 53

Slang 54 Clichés 54 Euphemisms 55 Profanity 55 Jargon 56 Regionalisms 56 Gender-Biased, Racist, Heterosexist, and Ageist Language 57

Improving Language Skills 58 Use Descriptiveness 58 Use Concrete Language 60 Differentiate Between Observations and Inferences 61

Chapter Review & Study Guide 63 Summary 63 Key Terms 63 Study Questions 63 Critical Thinking 64 Sizing Things Up Scoring and Interpretation 64 References 65

viii Contents

“SmartBook helps me identify what we are

going to be covering in class.”

Chapter 4 Nonverbal Communication 66 Defining Nonverbal Communication 67 How Verbal and Nonverbal Communication Are Related 68 The Ambiguity of Nonverbal Codes 69

One Code Communicates a Variety of Meanings 69 A Variety of Codes Communicate the Same Meaning 69

Nonverbal Codes 70 Bodily Movement and Facial Expression 70 Physical Attraction 72 Space 73 Time 75 Touching 76 Vocal Cues 78 Clothing and Artifacts 80

Ways to Improve Nonverbal Communication 81

Chapter Review & Study Guide 84 Summary 84 Key Terms 85 Study Questions 85 Critical Thinking 86 Sizing Things Up Scoring and Interpretation 86 References 87

Chapter 5 Listening and Critical Thinking 90 The Importance of Listening in Our Lives 91 Defining Listening 92 The Process of Listening 94

Attention 94 Working Memory 95 Short-Term Memory 95 Long-Term Memory 96

Barriers to Listening 97 Ways to Become a Better Listener 98

Recognize Differences in Listening 99 Listen and Think Critically 100 Use Nonverbal Communication Effectively 101 Use Verbal Communication Effectively 103 Check Your Understanding 104

Effective Listening in Different Situations 105 Listening in the Workplace 105 Listening in the Classroom 106 Listening to Media 107 Listening in a Second Language 108

Ways to Be an Ethical Listener 109

Chapter Review & Study Guide 110 Summary 110 Key Terms 110 Study Questions 111 Critical Thinking 111 Sizing Things Up Scoring and Interpretation 112 References 112

Contents ix

“SmartBook lets me know I am retaining the information.”

Part 2 Communication Contexts

Chapter 6 Interpersonal Communication 114 The Nature of Communication in Interpersonal Relationships 116

Defining Interpersonal Communication 116 Defining Interpersonal Relationships 117 The Importance of Interpersonal Relationships 118 The Dark Side of Interpersonal Relationships 120 Self-Disclosure in the Development of Interpersonal Relationships 120

Friendship 123 The Value of Friendships 123 Friendships and New Technology 124 Cross-Cultural Relationships 125

The Stages in Interpersonal Relationships 126 Developing Relationships 126 Maintaining Relationships 126 When Relationships Deteriorate 128

Motivations for Initiating, Maintaining, and Terminating Relationships 129 Motivations for Initiating Relationships 129 Motivations for Maintaining Relationships 130 Motivations for Terminating Relationships 131

Essential Interpersonal Communication Behaviors 133 Using Affectionate and Supportive Communication 133 Influencing Others 134 Developing a Unique Relationship 134

The Possibilities for Improvement 135 Bargaining 135 Maintaining Behavioral Flexibility 136

Chapter Review & Study Guide 138 Summary 138 Key Terms 138 Study Questions 138 Critical Thinking 139 Sizing Things Up Scoring and Interpretation 139 References 140

x Contents

Chapter 7 Intercultural Communication 144 The Importance of Studying Intercultural Communication 146 Defining Cultures 147

The Goals of Non-Dominant Cultural Communication 148 Intercultural Communication Problems 149

Ethnocentrism 150 Stereotyping 150 Prejudice 151

Characteristics of Different Cultures 152 Individualistic Versus Collectivist Cultures 152 Uncertainty-Accepting Versus Uncertainty-Rejecting Cultures 154 On-Time Versus Sometime Cultures 154

Strategies for Improving Intercultural Communication 155

“SmartBook helps me feel more prepared for class.”

Chapter Review & Study Guide 158 Summary 158 Key Terms 158 Study Questions 158 Critical Thinking 159 Sizing Things Up Scoring and Interpretation 159 References 160

Contents xi

Chapter 8 Small-Group Communication 162 The Importance of Learning About Small Groups 164 Defining Small-Group Communication 166 The Types and Functions of Small Groups 167 Establishing Culture in Small Groups 168

The Development of Group Norms 168 The Development of Roles for Group Members 170 Group Cohesiveness 172 The Effect of Diversity on Group Culture 174

The Role of Leadership in Small Groups 176 Defining Leadership 176 Ways of Enacting Leadership 177

Problem Solving and Decision Making 179 Effective Group Problem Solving 180 Other Work to Accomplish in Groups 182

Technology and Group Communication Processes 183 How to Communicate in Small Groups 185 Being an Ethical Group Member 186

Chapter Review & Study Guide 188 Summary 188 Key Terms 188 Study Questions 189 Critical Thinking 189 Sizing Things Up Scoring and Interpretation 190 References 190

Chapter 9 Workplace Communication 192 Defining Workplace Communication 193

Types of Organizations 194 Communication Networks 195

“I am a big fan of how SmartBook

emphasizes the topics I struggle with.”

Preparing for the Job Market 196 Conducting a Self-Inventory 196 Creating a Personal Network 197 Searching for a Job 198 Preparing Cover Letters 199 Preparing Résumés and Other Credentials 199

Preparing for the Interview 203 Gather Information 204 General Interviewing Strategies 204 Answering Questions Effectively and Ethically 206 Asking Questions Effectively and Ethically 207 Preparing for Illegal Questions 207 The Postinterview Stage 208

Communication Skills Needed on the Job 209 Workplace Communication Competence 209 Specific Workplace Communication Skills 210

Ethical Dimensions in the Workplace 215 Aggressive Communication 215 Honesty 215 Sexual Harassment 216

Chapter Review & Study Guide 217 Summary 217 Key Terms 218 Study Questions 218 Critical Thinking 219 Sizing Things Up Scoring and Interpretation 219 References 219

xii Contents

Part 3 Fundamentals of Public Speaking

Chapter 10 Topic Selection and Audience Analysis 222

How to Select a Topic Appropriate for You and Your Audience 223 Use Brainstorming 224 Survey Your Interests 224 Assess Your Knowledge of the Topic 224 Evaluate Your Commitment to the Topic 225 Consider the Age of the Topic and of the Audience 225 Determine Your Topic’s Importance to Your Audience 226 Topic Selection for English Language Learners 226

Practice Narrowing Your Topic 227

“Reviewing with SmartBook about once

a week is a good way to refresh my memory.”

Analyze Your Audience 229 Observation 229 Inference 230 Research on Your Audience 230 The Questionnaire 231

Adapt to the Audience 235 Adapting Yourself 235 Adapting Your Language 236 Adapting Your Topic 236 Adapting Your Purpose and Goal 236

Chapter Review & Study Guide 239 Summary 239 Key Terms 239 Study Questions 239 Critical Thinking 240 Sizing Things Up Scoring and Interpretation 240 References 241

Contents xiii

Chapter 11 Being Credible and Using Evidence 242 Source Credibility and Its Importance 243 Dimensions of Credibility 245

Competence 245 Trustworthiness 245 Dynamism 246 Common Ground 246 Strategies for Improving Credibility 247

How to Be Strategic in Finding Information 248 Principles for Effective Research 248 Locating Information for Your Presentation 250

Types of Supporting Material 257 Examples 257 Narratives 258 Surveys 258 Testimony 259 Numbers and Statistics 259 Analogies 260 Explanations 260

Definitions 261 Think About the Mix 261

“I feel the homework activities in SmartBook are

most helpful because I need that extra push when learning.”

How to Cite Sources of Information 262 Ethical Principles to Follow for Credibility and Research 263

Ethics and Source Credibility 263 Ethics and Supporting Material 264

Chapter Review & Study Guide 266 Summary 266 Key Terms 266 Study Questions 267 Critical Thinking 268 Sizing Things Up Scoring and Interpretation 268 References 268

xiv Contents

Chapter 12 Organizing Your Presentation 270 The Introduction 271

Gaining and Maintaining Audience Attention 271 Arousing Audience Interest 273 Stating the Purpose or Thesis 274 Establishing Your Credibility 275 Forecasting Development and Organization 276

The Body 276 The Principles of Outlining 277 The Rough Draft 279 The Sentence Outline 280 The Key-Word Outline 281 Organizational Patterns 284 Transitions and Signposts 291

The Conclusion 292 The References 294

Chapter Review & Study Guide 297 Summary 297 Key Terms 297 Study Questions 298 Critical Thinking 298 Sizing Things Up Scoring and Interpretation 299 References 299

“I like the SmartBook assignments because

they keep me on track.”

Chapter 13 Delivery and Visual Resources 300 Defining Delivery 301

The Extemporaneous Method 302 The Impromptu Method 302 The Manuscript Method 303 The Memorized Method 303

Behaviors that Influence Delivery 304 The Vocal Aspects of Delivery 304 Nonverbal Aspects of Presentation 307 Delivery Tips for Non-Native Speakers 310

Ways to Reduce Your Fear of Presenting 311 When to Use Visual Resources 313 Design Principles to Follow When Using Visual Resources 315

Chapter Review & Study Guide 319 Summary 319 Key Terms 319 Study Questions 320 Critical Thinking 320 Sizing Things Up Scoring and Interpretation 321 References 321

Contents xv

Chapter 14 Informative Presentations 322 Preparing an Informative Presentation 323

Identifying Your Goal 323 Identifying Your Purpose 326

Presenting Information Effectively 327 Creating Information Hunger 327 Demonstrating Information Relevance 327 Revealing Extrinsic Motivation 328 Designing Informative Content 328 Avoiding Information Overload 329 Organizing Content 330

Skills for Informative Speaking 330 Defining 331 Describing 331 Explaining 332 Narrating 332 Demonstrating 333

Three Examples of Informative Presentations 333

Chapter Review & Study Guide 342 Summary 342 Key Terms 343 Study Questions 343 Critical Thinking 344 Sizing Things Up Scoring and Interpretation 344 References 345

xvi Contents

Chapter 15 Persuasive Presentations 346 Preparing for a Persuasive Presentation 347

Identifying Your Immediate Purpose 348 Identifying Your Long-Range Goal 348

Persuading Effectively 348 Revealing the Purpose of the Presentation 348 Identifying Your Reason for Persuading 349 Advantages of the Classroom Setting 349

Methods of Persuasion 350 Using Argument to Persuade: Fact, Policy, and Value 350 The Difference Between Evidence and Proof 350 How to Test Evidence 351

Forms of Proof 353 Logos, or Logical Proof 353 Ethos, or Source Credibility 354 Pathos, or Emotional Proof 354 Persuasion Through Visualization 355

Organizing Your Persuasive Message: The Monroe Motivated Sequence 356

Ethical Considerations 357 An Outline of a Persuasive Presentation 359 How to Resist Persuasion 361

Chapter Review & Study Guide 363 Summary 363 Key Terms 363 Study Questions 364 Critical Thinking 364 Sizing Things Up Scoring and Interpretation 365 References 365

Glossary 366 Index 374

xvii Preface xvii

McGraw-Hill Connect: An Overview McGraw-Hill Connect offers full-semester access to comprehensive, reliable content and learning resources for the communication course. Connect’s deep integration with most learning management systems (LMSs), including Blackboard and Desire2Learn (D2L), offers single sign-on and deep gradebook synchronization. Data from Assignment Results reports synchronize directly with many LMSs, allowing scores to flow automatically from Connect into school- specific grade books, if required.

The following tools and services are available as part of Connect for the communication course.

preface

SmartBook

Connect Insight for Instructors

Connect Insight for Students

• SmartBook is an engaging and interactive reading experience for mastering fundamental communication content.

• The metacognitive component confirms learners’ understanding of the material.

• Instructors can actively connect SmartBook assignments and results to higher-order classroom work and one-on- one student conferences.

• Learners can track their own understanding and mastery of course concepts and identify gaps in their knowledge.

• Connect Insight for Instructors is an analytics resource that produces quick feedback related to learner performance and learner engagement.

• It is designed as a dashboard for both quick check-ins and detailed performance and engagement views.

• Connect Insight for Students is a powerful data analytics tool that provides at-a-glance visualizations to help learners understand their performance on Connect assignments.

• SmartBook is an adaptive reading experience designed to change the way learners read and learn. It creates a personalized reading experience by highlighting the most impactful concepts a student needs to learn at that moment in time.

• SmartBook creates personalized learning plans based on student responses to content question probes and confidence scales, identifying the topics learners are struggling with and providing learning resources to create personalized learning moments.

• SmartBook includes a variety of learning resources tied directly to key content areas to provide students with additional instruction and context. This includes video and media clips, interactive slide content, mini- lectures, and image analyses.

• SmartBook Reports provide instructors with data to quantify success and identify problem areas that require addressing in and out of the classroom.

• Learners can access their own progress and concept mastery reports.

• Connect Insight for Instructors offers a series of visual data displays that provide analysis on five key insights:

• How are my students doing?

• How is this one student doing?

• How is my section doing?

• How is this assignment doing?

• How are my assignments doing?

• Connect Insight for Students offers details on each Connect assignment to learners. When possible, it offers suggestions for the learners on how they can improve scores. These data can help guide learners to behaviors that will lead to better scores in the future.

Tool Instructional Context Description

xviii Preface

Tool Instructional Context Description

• The Speech Capture tool allows instructors to easily and efficiently set up speech assignments for their course that can easily be shared and repurposed, as needed, throughout their use of Connect.

• Customizable rubrics and settings can be saved and shared, saving time and streamlining the speech assignment process from creation to assessment.

• Speech Capture allows users, both students and instructors, to view videos during the assessment process. Feedback can be left within a customized rubric or as time-stamped comments within the video- playback itself.

• Speech Capture provides instructors with a comprehensive and efficient way of managing in-class and online speech assignments, including student self- reviews, peer reviews, and instructor grading.

Speech Capture

Instructor Reports • Instructor Reports provide data that may be useful for assessing programs or courses as part of the accreditation process.

• Connect generates a number of powerful reports and charts that allow instructors to quickly review the performance of a given learner or an entire section.

• Instructors can run reports that span multiple sections and instructors, making it an ideal solution for individual professors, course coordinators, and department chairs.

Pre- and Post-Tests • Instructors can generate their own pre- and posts-tests from the Test Bank.

• Pre- and post-tests demonstrate what learners already know before class begins and what they have learned by the end.

• Instructors have access to two sets of pre- and post- tests (at two levels). Instructors can use these tests to create a diagnostic and post-diagnostic exam via Connect.

Simple LMS Integration • Connect seamlessly integrates with every learning management system.

• Learners have automatic single sign-on.

• Connect assignment results sync to the LMS’s gradebook.

Speech Preparation Tools • Speech Preparation Tools provide learners with additional support and include Topic Helper, Outline Tool, and access to third-party Internet sites like EasyBib (for formatting citations) and Survey Monkey (to create audience- analysis questionnaires and surveys).

• Speech Preparation Tools provide learners with additional resources to help with the preparation and outlining of speeches, as well as with audience- analysis surveys.

• Instructors have the ability to make tools either available or unavailable to learners.

Student Reports • Student Reports allow learners to review their performance for specific assignments or for the course.

• Learners can keep track of their performance and identify areas with which they struggle.

Tegrity • Tegrity allows instructors to capture course material or lectures on video.

• Students can watch videos recorded by their instructor and learn course material at their own pace.

• Instructors can keep track of which learners have watched the videos they post.

• Learners can watch and review lectures by their instructor.

• Learners can search each lecture for specific bites of information.

Preface xix

Instructor’s Guide to Connect for Human Communication When you assign Connect you can be confident—and have data to demonstrate—that the learners in your course, however diverse, are acquiring the skills, principles, and critical processes that constitute effective communication. This leaves you to focus on your highest course expectations.

TAILORED TO YOU. Connect offers on-demand, single sign-on access to learners—wherever they are and whenever they have time. With a single, one-time registration, learners receive access to McGraw-Hill’s trusted content. Learners also have a courtesy trial period during registration.

EASY TO USE. Connect seamlessly supports all major learning management systems with content, assignments, performance data, and LearnSmart, the leading adaptive learning system. With these tools you can quickly make assignments, produce reports, focus discussions, intervene on problem topics, and help at-risk learners—as you need to and when you need to.

Human Communication SmartBook A Personalized and Adaptive Learning Experience with Smartbook. Boost learner suc- cess with McGraw-Hill’s adaptive reading and study experience. The Human Communication SmartBook highlights the most impactful communication concepts the student needs to learn at that moment in time. The learning path continuously adapts and, based on what the individual learner knows and does not know, provides focused help through targeted question probes and learning resources.

Enhanced for the New Edition! With a suite of new learning resources and question probes, as well as highlights of key chapter concepts, SmartBook’s intuitive technology optimizes learner study time by creating a personalized learning path for improved course performance and overall learner success.

xx Preface

Hundreds of Interactive Learning Resources. Presented in a range of interactive styles, Human Communication Learning Resources support learners who may be struggling to master, or simply wish to review, the most important communication concepts. Designed to reinforce the most important chapter concepts—from nonverbal communication cues and critical thinking skills to workplace interviewing techniques and organizing presenta- tions—every Learning Resource is presented at the precise moment of need. Whether video, audio clip, or interactive mini-lesson, each of the 200-plus Learning Resources is new to the new edition and was designed to give learners a lifelong foundation in strong communication skills.

SmartBook highlights the key concepts of every chapter, offering the learner a high-impact learning experience (left). Here, highlighted text and an illustration together explain the listening process. Highlights change color (right) when a student has demonstrated his or her understanding of the concept.

Preface xxi

More than 1,000 Targeted Question Probes. Class-tested at colleges and universities nationwide, a treasury of engaging question probes—new and revised, more than 1,000 in all—gives learners the information on communication they need to know, at every stage of the learning process, in order to thrive in the course. Designed to gauge learners’ comprehension of the most important Human Communication chapter concepts, and pre- sented in a variety of interactive styles to facilitate student engagement, targeted question probes give learners immediate feedback on their understanding of the material. Each question probe identifies a learner’s familiarity with the instruction and points to areas where additional remediation is needed.

Informed by the Latest Research. The best insights from today’s leading communications scholars infuse every lesson and are integrated throughout Human Communication.

Fresh Examples Anchored in the Real World. Every chapter of Human Communication opens with a vignette exploring communication challenges in our everyday lives. Dozens of additional examples appear throughout the new edition, each demonstrating an essen- tial element of the communication process. Whether learners are reading a chapter, responding to a question probe, or reviewing key concepts in a learning resource, their every instructional moment is rooted in the real world. McGraw-Hill research shows that high-quality examples reinforce academic theory throughout the course. Relevant examples and practical scenarios—reflecting interactions in school, the workplace, and beyond— demonstrate how effective communication informs and enhances students’ lives and careers.

A Greater Emphasis on Creativity. A new feature, Communicating Creatively, illustrates ways in which originality—from effective collaboration strategies, to emphasizing one’s personality, to using music to boost a message—can be used to augment the communi- cation skills addressed in the chapters.

xxii Preface

New Annotated Student Speech. The Informative Presentations chapter includes three compelling student speeches on contemporary topics, includ- ing an informative presentation new to the new edition. Each speech models how a speaker can increase audience members’ awareness of an issue, integrate sources and other supporting material, and organize the message to help listen- ers better understand a topic.

Tips for Embracing Diverse Cultures. To help stu- dents navigate the communication challenges of a multicultural society, Engaging Diversity boxes offer guidance on topics such as nonverbal cues, disabilities, bilingualism, new technologies, and pro- vocative speech.

Guidance for a Lifetime. The end-of-chapter fea- ture, Be Ready . . . for What’s Next, stresses the lifelong application of communication skills and how mastery of these skills can help learners in other classes, the workplace, and life.

Speech Capture Designed for use in face-to-face, real-time classrooms, as well as online courses, Speech Capture allows you to evaluate your learners’ speeches using fully customizable rubrics. You can also create and manage peer review assignments and upload videos on behalf of learners for optimal flexibility.

Learners can access rubrics and leave com- ments when preparing self-reviews and peer reviews. They can easily upload a video of their speech from their hard drive or use Connect’s built- in video recorder. Learners can even attach and upload additional files or documents, such as a works cited page or a PowerPoint presentation.

Peer Review. Peer review assignments are easier than ever. Create and manage peer review assign- ments and customize privacy settings.

Speech Assessment. Connect Speech Capture lets you customize the assignments, including self- reviews and peer reviews. It also saves your fre- quently used comments, simplifying your efforts to provide feedback.

Self-Reflection. The self-review feature allows learners to revisit their own presentations and com- pare their progress over time.

40 Part One Fundamentals of Communication Studies

in their school experience are more satisfied with school, believe in their abilities, and perform significantly better on national exams like the ACT.25 How can personal identity research be applied to communication? When a speaker creates a message that highlights shared values with listeners, then the listeners perceive a social group identity match and are more likely to be persuaded by the message. Other factors may interfere with this cause–effect relationship, however. For example, if the shared values are unexpected because of someone’s political party membership or other social group affiliations, the message may be rejected and the persuasive attempt may fail.26 Your awareness of who you are develops in your communication with yourself, that is, your intrapersonal communication. Shedletsky writes that intrapersonal communication includes “our perceptions, memories, experiences, feelings, interpretations, inferences, evaluations, attitudes, opinions, ideas, strategies, images, and states of consciousness.”27 Intrapersonal communication can be viewed as talking to ourselves; it is also synonymous with thinking. Intrapersonal communication appears to be the most common context of communication, the foundation for the other contexts. Your awareness of who you are also develops in your communication with others. Once you mastered language, symbolic interactionism—the process of development of the self through the messages and feedback received from others28—shaped you in ways that made you what you are today. You may have been punished for acting up in class, rewarded for athletic skill, or ignored for saying too little. The result is the person you see in the mirror today. To explore who you are, you may

be assigned a speech of self- introduction. This speech may be the first one you deliver in class. Since you know more about yourself than does anyone else in the classroom, you will probably feel very little anxiety about this assignment. Of course, you will want to provide some basic infor- mation about yourself—your name, where you are from, and your current major in college—but this is also an opportunity to share aspects of your personal identity with your classmates. Instead of beginning your speech of introduction with basic information, consider providing some information that is provocative and that will gain the attention of your audience. For example, one student began, “How many people do you know who fly an airplane and have also jumped out of one?” Another speaker stated, “I’ve been in 40 of the 50 states.” A third noted, “I have never lived anyplace but in this city.” These three students found some aspect about themselves to be unique. In one case, the student was adventuresome and a risk taker; the

symbolic interactionism The process in which the self develops through the messages and feedback received from others.

communicating creatively Memorable Message About College As a way to celebrate International Women’s Day, YouTube encouraged people to empower young women with the #DearMe campaign. The #DearMe campaign asks digital creators around the world to upload “video letters” to their younger selves that provide the advice and encouragement that they wish they had heard when they were younger. The campaign encouraged people to use the hashtag #DearMe on social media to share their mes- sages. Although the initial focus was on young girls, these video letters apply to anyone wishing to tell their younger selves or oth- ers a supportive, clarifying, and/or realistic message. A quick search of the videos yields an array of messages, perspectives, and identities. In this section, you have been learning about how your self-perceptions and others’ perceptions of you have, in part, formed who you are. Perhaps you can take the time to create a video or write a handwritten letter to your younger self. What would your letter say? What part does perception play in your message to your younger self?

Source: Brouwer, B. (2015, March). YouTube launches #DearMe campaign for International Women’s Day. Tubefilter (www.tubefilter.com/2015/03/03/ youtube-dearme- campaign-international-womens-day/).

Preface xxiii

Data Analytics Connect Insight provides at-a-glance analysis on five key insights, available at a moment’s notice from your tablet device. The first and only analytics tool of its kind, Insight will tell you, in real time, how individual students or sections are doing (or how well your assign- ments have been received) so you can take action early and keep struggling students from falling behind.

Instructors can see how many learners have completed an assignment, how long they spent on the task, and how they scored.

xxiv Preface

Connect Reports Instructor Reports allow instructors to quickly monitor learner activity, making it easy to identify which learners are struggling and to provide immediate help to ensure those learn- ers stay enrolled in the course and improve their performance. The Instructor Reports also highlight the concepts and learning objectives that the class as a whole is having difficulty grasping. This essential information lets you know exactly which areas to target for review during your limited class time.

Some key reports include:

Progress Overview report—View learner progress for all modules, including how long learners have spent working in the module, which modules they have used outside any that were assigned, and individual learner progress.

Missed Questions report—Identify specific probes, organized by chapter, that are problematic for learners.

Most Challenging Learning Objectives report—Iden- tify the specific topic areas that are challenging for your learners; these reports are organized by chapter and include specific page references. Use this infor- mation to tailor your lecture time and assignments to cover areas that require additional remediation and practice.

Metacognitive Skills report—View statistics showing how knowledgeable your learners are about their own comprehension and learning.

Classroom Preparation Tools Whether before, during, or after class, there is a suite of Pearson products designed to help instructors plan their lessons and to keep learners building upon the foundations of the course.

Annotated Instructor’s Edition. The Annotated Instructor’s Edition provides a wealth of teaching aids for each chapter in Human Communication. It is also cross-referenced with SmartBook, Connect, and other supplements that accompany Human Communication.

Instructors can see, at a glance, individual learner performance: analytics showing learner investment in assignments, and success at completing them, help instructors identify, and aid, those who are at risk.

Preface xxv

Powerpoint Slides. The PowerPoint presentations for Human Communication provide chap- ter highlights that help instructors create focused yet individualized lesson plans.

Test Bank. The Test Bank is a treasury of more than 1,000 examination questions based on the most important communication concepts explored in Human Communication; more than 100 of the questions are new or revised for this edition.

Support to Ensure Success • Digital Success Academy—The Digital Success

Academy on Connect offers a wealth of training and course creation guidance for instructors and learners alike. Instructor support is presented in easy-to-navigate, easy-to-complete sections. It includes the popular Connect how-to videos, step- by-step Click through Guides, and First Day of Class materials that explain how to use both the Connect platform and its course-specific tools and features. http:// createwp.customer.mheducation. com/wordpress-mu/success-academy/

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