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Introduction to human communication pdf

06/01/2021 Client: saad24vbs Deadline: 7 Days

# 159341 Cust: OUP Au: Beauchamp Pg. No. i Title: Introduction to Human Communication, 1e


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Introduction to Human Communication


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# 159341 Cust: OUP Au: Beauchamp Pg. No. ii Title: Introduction to Human Communication, 1e


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# 159341 Cust: OUP Au: Beauchamp Pg. No. iii Title: Introduction to Human Communication, 1e


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New York Oxford OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS


Introduction to Human Communication


PERCEPTION, MEANING, AND IDENTITY


Susan R. Beauchamp Bryant University


Stanley J. Baran Bryant University


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# 159341 Cust: OUP Au: Beauchamp Pg. No. iv Title: Introduction to Human Communication, 1e


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Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.


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Published by Oxford University Press 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 http://www.oup.com


Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press.


All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press.


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Beauchamp, Susan R., author. Introduction to human communication : perception, meaning, and identity / Susan R. Beauchamp, Bryant University; Stanley J. Baran, Bryant University. pages cm ISBN 978-0-19-026961-6 1. Communication. 2. Interpersonal communication. I. Baran, Stanley J., author. II. Title. P90.B3385 2017 153.6—dc23 2015028104


Printing number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper


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http://www.oup.com/us/he

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# 159341 Cust: OUP Au: Beauchamp Pg. No. v Title: Introduction to Human Communication, 1e


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Mom, every chapter of this book is, in so many ways,


influenced by your unwavering dedication to family.


We love you beyond measure.


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# 159341 Cust: OUP Au: Beauchamp Pg. No. vi Title: Introduction to Human Communication, 1e


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vii


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Preface xix


PART 1 FOUNDATIONS OF COMMUNICATION


1 The Communication Process: Perception, Meaning, and Identity 3


2 Communication Research and Inquiry 27


3 Verbal Communication 49


4 Nonverbal Communication 71


5 Listening 93


PART 2 COMMUNICATION CONTEXTS


6 Relational and Conflict Communication 115


7 Communicating in Small Groups 143


8 Organizational Communication 165


9 Intercultural Communication 187


10 Mass Communication 209


11 Media Literacy 235


12 Social Media and Communication Technologies 259


13 Persuasion and Social Influence 285


14 Health Communication 311


15 Public Speaking: An Overview 339


Glossary G-1 References R-1 Credits C-1 Index I-1


Brief Contents


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Preface xix


PART 1 FOUNDATIONS OF COMMUNICATION


CHAPTER 1 The Communication Process: Perception, Meaning, and Identity 3


The Process of Creating Meaning 4 The Evolution of Communication Models 5 Transmissional, Constitutive, and Ritual Views of Communication 7


The Power of Culture 9


Communication and Perception 11


Signs and Symbols 14


Communication and Identity 17 Symbolic Interaction and the Looking Glass 18 Frame Analysis 19


What Does Communication Give You the Power to Do? 22


Review of Learning Objectives 24


Key Terms 25


Questions for Review 25


Questions for Discussion 25


COMMUNICATION IN THE WORKPLACE: Communicating Well to Land the Job 10


ETHICAL COMMUNICATION 13


PERSONALLY RESPONSIBLE COMMUNICATION 17


SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE COMMUNICATION 22


CHAPTER 2 Communication Research and Inquiry 27


Theory and Scientific Inquiry 28 Defining Theory 28 Scientific Inquiry 31


Contents


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Three Philosophical Questions that Shape Scientific Inquiry 33


Traditions of Communication Inquiry 35 Postpositivist Theory and Research 35 Interpretive Theory and Research 37 Critical Theory and Research 37


Tools of Observation: Research Methods 39 Experiments 40 Surveys 41 Textual Analysis 43 Mixing Methods and Traditions 43


Review of Learning Objectives 46


Key Terms 47


Questions for Review 47


Questions for Discussion 47


COMMUNICATION IN THE WORKPLACE: The Benefits of Critical Thinking 32


PERSONALLY RESPONSIBLE COMMUNICATION: Solving Not-So-Well-Posed Problems 35


SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE COMMUNICATION: Communication Inquiry Needs to Be Bigger! 39


ETHICAL COMMUNICATION: Where Do You Draw the Line? 45


CHAPTER 3 Verbal Communication 49


The Structure of Language 50


Language and Thought 52 Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis 53 Metaphor 54 The Ladder of Abstraction 56


The Functions of Language 58


Language and Meaning Making 62 Situational, Social, and Cultural Meaning 62 Syntactic Ambiguity 64 Euphemisms 65


Language and Protecting Self-Identity: Politeness Theory 66


Review of Learning Objectives 68


Key Terms 69


Questions for Review 69


Questions for Discussion 69


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SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE COMMUNICATION: War! What Is It Good For? 57


COMMUNICATION IN THE WORKPLACE: Speaking Well to Do Well 59


ETHICAL COMMUNICATION: Lying 60


PERSONALLY RESPONSIBLE COMMUNICATION: Speaking Inclusively 67


CHAPTER 4 Nonverbal Communication 71


What Is Nonverbal Communication? 72 Similarities to Verbal Communication 73 Differences from Verbal Communication 74


Theory of Nonverbal Coding Systems 75


Types of Nonverbal Coding Systems 76 Proxemics 76 Haptics 78 Chronemics 81 Kinesics 82 Vocalics 84 Oculesics 84 Facial Expressions 85 Physical Appearance 86 Artifacts 86 Environmental Factors 88 Silence 89


The Role of Nonverbal Communication in Creating Meaning and Identity 89


Review of Learning Objectives 90


Key Terms 91


Questions for Review 91


Questions for Discussion 91


PERSONALLY RESPONSIBLE COMMUNICATION: Touching in the Workplace 79


COMMUNICATION IN THE WORKPLACE: On-the-Job Nonverbal Communication 81


SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE COMMUNICATION: How We Spend Our Time 83


ETHICAL COMMUNICATION: Freedom of Expression versus Professional Appearance 87


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CHAPTER 5 Listening 93


What is Listening? 94


Misconceptions About Listening 96


The Components of Effective Listening 100


Barriers to Effective Listening 101 Physical Noise 102 Psychological Noise 102 Physiological Noise 104 Semantic Noise 104 External Distractions 104 Counterproductive Listening Styles 105


Types of Listening 106


Becoming an Effective Listener 109


Review of Learning Objectives 112


Key Terms 113


Questions for Review 113


Questions for Discussion 113


COMMUNICATION IN THE WORKPLACE: The 80/20 Rule 96


PERSONALLY RESPONSIBLE COMMUNICATION: Being an Active Listener 102


ETHICAL COMMUNICATION: The Ethics of Listening 107


SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE COMMUNICATION: Questioning Our Cultural Speakers 108


PART 2 COMMUNICATION CONTEXTS


CHAPTER 6 Relational and Conflict Communication 115


The Value of Relationships 116


The Role of Interpersonal Communication 118


Developing and Maintaining Relationships 120 Uncertainty Reduction Theory 121 Social Penetration Theory 122 Social Exchange Theory 126 Relational Dialectics Theory 127


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Interpersonal Communication and Conflict 129 Types of Conflict 131 Stages of Interpersonal Conflict 132 Conflict Management Styles 133


Resolving Conflict: What to Do and What Not to Do 135 What to Do 135 What Not to Do 137


Review of Learning Objectives 139


Key Terms 140


Questions for Review 141


Questions for Discussion 141


COMMUNICATION IN THE WORKPLACE: Mastering the Soft Skills 117


PERSONALLY RESPONSIBLE COMMUNICATION: It Takes Two to Tango, but Someone Has to Lead 119


SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE COMMUNICATION: Beauty Is Only Screen Deep 123


ETHICAL COMMUNICATION: Sugar-Coated Hostility 138


CHAPTER 7 Communicating in Small Groups 143


Types of Groups 144


Dynamics of Group Structure 145 Informal and Formal Communication in Groups 148 Structuration Theory 148 The Five Stages of Group Development 149 Group Cohesion and Breakdown 152 Systems Theory 153


Leadership and Power 154 Styles of Leadership 155 Forms of Power 156


Improving Your Group Communication Skills 159


Review of Learning Objectives 161


Key Terms 163


Questions for Review 163


Questions for Discussion 163


SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE COMMUNICATION: Forming a Group 146


PERSONALLY RESPONSIBLE COMMUNICATION: You Make the Rules 150


ETHICAL COMMUNICATION: Our Responsibility to the Group 155


COMMUNICATION IN THE WORKPLACE: 12 Cs for Successful Teamwork 160


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CHAPTER 8 Organizational Communication 165


Defining Organizational Communication 166


Types and Movement of Organizational Messages 167 Upward Messages 168 Downward Messages 170 Horizontal Messages 170


The Organization as a System 173


Positive and Negative Organizational Communication Traits 175


Organizational Climate and Culture 177 Strong Organizational Cultures 181 Dealing with Diversity in an Organizational Culture 182


Review of Learning Objectives 184


Key Terms 185


Questions for Review 185


Questions for Discussion 185


ETHICAL COMMUNICATION: Could You Blow the Whistle? 169


PERSONALLY RESPONSIBLE COMMUNICATION: Status Update: I’ve Just Been Fired 172


COMMUNICATION IN THE WORKPLACE: Dealing with On-the-Job Conflict 178


SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE COMMUNICATION: Doing Well by Doing Good 180


CHAPTER 9 Intercultural Communication 187


What Is Intercultural Communication? 188


Obstacles to Intercultural Communication 189


The “Naturalness” of Prejudice: Two Theories of Culture and Identity 192 Social Identity Theory 192 Identity Negotiation Theory 193


Accelerators of Intercultural Communication 194


How Cultural Values Shape Communication 197


Attitudes Toward Diversity and the Problem with Tolerance 202


Review of Learning Objectives 206


Key Terms 207


Questions for Review 207


Questions for Discussion 207


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SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE COMMUNICATION: Stereotyping versus Generalizing 190


PERSONALLY RESPONSIBLE COMMUNICATION: Cultural Participation 196


ETHICAL COMMUNICATION: What Would You Say? 197


COMMUNICATION IN THE WORKPLACE: Improving On-the-Job Intercultural Communication 199


CHAPTER 10 Mass Communication 209


What Is Mass Communication? 210 Why Study Mass Communication? 211 Interpersonal Communication versus Mass Communication 212


Culture, Communication, and Mass Media 215


Characteristics of Media Consumers 219


Characteristics of Media Industries 221


Theories of Mass Communication 226


Review of Learning Objectives 231


Key Terms 232


Questions for Review 232


Questions for Discussion 232


PERSONALLY RESPONSIBLE COMMUNICATION: The Third-Person Effect 217


ETHICAL COMMUNICATION: The Role of the Photojournalist 222


COMMUNICATION IN THE WORKPLACE: Finding a Career in the Media 226


SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE COMMUNICATION: Media Conduct 229


CHAPTER 11 Media Literacy 235


What Is Media Literacy? 236 Media Literacy Scholarship 238 Some Core Concepts of Media Literacy 242


Media Literacy Questions 244


What Does It Mean to Be Media Literate? 246 Characteristics of Media-Literate People 246 The Skill of Being Media Literate 251


Media Literacy and Meaning Making 253 Media Literacy and Identity 253 Media Literacy and Democracy 255


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