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tturse Strategies for Creating Success in College and in . Life
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On Course: Strategies for Creating Success in College and in life, Eighth Edition
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To Carol, my compass
Preface xv Acknowledgments xxv
Travel with Me xxv11
1 Getting On Course to Your Success 1 College Smart-Start Guide 2
Money Matters 5
Managing Money: The Big Picture 6
Increase Money Flowing In 7
Decrease Money Flowing Out 11
• TECH TIPS: MONEY 14
Understanding the Culture of Higher Education 14
The Surface Culture of Higher Education 16
One Dozen College Customs 16
Write a Great Life 20
JOURNAL ENTRY 1 21
Understanding the Expectations of College and University Educators 22
Eight Key Expectations 23
• JOURNAL ENTRY 2 28
Understanding Yourself 29
What Does Success Mean to You? 29
Ingredients of Success 30
Assess Your Soft Skills for College Success 31
Forks in the Road 36
A Few Words of Encouragement 36
JOURNAL ENTRY 3 38
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Jalayna Onaga 38
• Soft Skills AT WORK 39
2 Accepting Personal Responsibility 41 • CASE STUDY IN CRITICAL THINKING The Late Paper 42
Adopting a Creator Mindset 43
Victim and Creator Mindsets 44
Responsibility and Culture 45
Responsibility and Choice 46 vii
• JOURNAL ENTRY 4 48
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Taryn Rossmiller 49
Mastering Creator Language 50
The Language of Responsibility 53
• JOURNAL ENTRY 5 55
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Alexsandr Kanevskiy 56
Making Wise Decisions 57
The Wise Choice Process 58
JOURNAL ENTRY 6 61
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Freddie Davila 62
• Personal Responsibility AT WORK 62
• TECH TIPS: PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY 64
Believing In Yourself Change Your Inner Conversation 65 The Curse of Stinkin' Thinkin' 65
Disputing Irrational Beliefs 67
Stereotype Threat 68
• JOURNAL ENTRY 7 69
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Dominic Grasseth 70
3 Discovering Self-Motivation 71 • CASE STUDY IN CRITICAL THINKING Popson's Dilemma 72
Creating Inner Motivation 74
A Formula for Motivation
Value of College Outcomes
Value of College Experiences
JOURNAL ENTRY 8 79
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Chee Meng Vang 80
Designing a Compelling Life Plan 81
Roles and Goals 81
How to Set a Goal 82
Discover Your Dreams 84
Your Life Plan 84
• JOURNAL ENTRY 9 86
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Brandon Beavers 87
Committing to Your Goals and Dreams 88
Commitment Creates Method 88
Visualize Your Ideal Future 89
How to Visualize 90
• JOURNAL ENTRY 10 91
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY James Terrell 92
• Self-Motivation AT WORK 93
• TECH TIPS: SELF-MOTIVATION 95
Believing In Yourself Write a Personal Affirmation 96 Claiming Your Desired Personal Qualities 97
Living Your Affirmation 98
8 JOURNAL ENTRY 11 99
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Tina Steen 100
4 Mastering Self-Management 101 • CASE STUDY IN CRITICAL THINKING The Procrastinators 102
Acting on Purpose 103
Harness the Power of Quadrant II 103
What to Do in Quadrants I and II 105
• JOURNAL ENTRY 12 106
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Jason Pozsgay 107
Creating a Leak-Proof Self-Management System 108
Time and Culture 108
Weekly Calendar: For Tracking Recurring Scheduled Events 109
Monthly Calendar: For Tracking One-Time Scheduled Events 109
Next Actions List: For Tracking One-Time Unscheduled Events 110
Tracking Form: For Tracking Actions That Need to Be Repeated Numerous Times 111
Waiting-For List: For Tracking Commitments That Others Have Made to You 112
Project Folder: For Tracking and Managing Progress Toward a Large Goal 112
The Rewards of Effective Self-Management 113
JOURNAL ENTRY 13 114
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Allysa LePage 119
Developing Self-Discipline 119
Staying Focused 120
Being Persistent 121
Avoiding Procrastination 122
JOURNAL ENTRY 14 124
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Holt Boggs 127
• Self-Management AT WORK 127
• TECH TIPS: SELF-MANAGEMENT 129
Believing In Yourself Develop Self-Confidence 130 Create a Success Identity 130
Celebrate Your Successes and Talents 131
Visualize Purposeful Actions 131
• JOURNAL ENTRY 15 133
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Ashley Freeman 134
5 Employing Interdependence 135 • CASE STUDY IN CRITICAL THINKING Professor Rogers's Trial 136
Creating a Support System 137
A Sign of Maturity 137
Seek Help from Your Instructors 139
Get Help from College Resources 139
Create a Project Team 140
Start a Study Group 141
The Difference Between Heaven and Hell 142
• JOURNAL ENTRY 16 143
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Mitch M ull 144
Strengthening Relationships with Active Listening 145
How to Listen Actively 146
Use Active Listening in Your College Classes 146
8 JOURNAL ENTRY 17 147
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Teroa Paselio 148
Respecting Cultural Differences 149
Showing Respect 150
a JOURNAL ENTRY 18 154 • Interdependence AT WORK 155
• TECH TIPS: INTERDEPENDENCE 157
Believing In Yourself Be Assertive 157 Leveling 158
Making Requests 159
Saying #No" 160
• JOURNAL ENTRY 19 161
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Amy Acton 162
6 Gaining Self-Awareness 163 • CASE STUDY IN CRITICAL THINKING Strange Choices 164
Recognizing When You Are Off Course 165
The Mystery of Self-Sabotage 165
Unconscious Forces 166
• JOURNAL ENTRY 20 167
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Sarah Richmond 168
Identifying Your Scripts 168
Anatomy of a Script 169
How We Wrote Our Scripts 170
Self-Defeating Habit Patterns 172
• JOURNAL ENTRY 21 173
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY James Florio/Ii 174
Rewriting Your Outdated Scripts 174
The Impact of Outdated Beliefs 175
Doing the Rewrite 176
• JOURNAL ENTRY 22 176
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Annette Vafle 180
• Self-Awareness AT WORK 181
• TECH TIPS: SELF-AWARENESS 183
Believing In Yourself Write Your Own Rules 183 Three Success Rules 184
Changing Your Habits 185
• JOURNAL ENTRY 23 186
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Brandee Huigens 186
7 Adopting Lifelong Leaming 188 • CASE STUDY IN CRITICAL THINKING A Fish Story 189
Developing a Leaming Orientation to Life 190
Growth Mindsets and Fixed Mindsets 191
How to Develop a Growth Mindset 193
JOURNAL ENTRY 24 195
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Jessie Maggard 196
Discovering Your Preferred Ways of Leaming 196
Self-Assessment: How I Prefer to Learn 197
JOURNAL ENTRY 25 200
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Melissa Thompson 204
Employing CriticalThinking 204
Constructing Logical Arguments 205
Asking Probing Questions 206
Applying Critical Thinking 207
JOURNAL ENTRY 26 209
• Lifelong Learning AT WORK 209
• TECH TIPS: LIFELONG LEARNING 212
Believing In Yourself Develop Self-Respect 213 Live with Integrity (i.e., No Cheating or Plagiarizing) 213
Keep Commitments 215
• JOURNAL ENTRY 27 217
8 Developing Emotional Intelligence 218 • CASE STUDY IN CRITICAL THINKING After Math 219
Understanding Emotional Intelligence 220
Four Components of Emotional Intelligence 221
Knowing Your Own Emotions 222
JOURNAL ENTRY 28 223
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Lindsey Beck 223
Reducing Stress 224
What Is Stress? 224
What Happens When Stress Persists? 225
Unhealthy Stress Reduction 225
Healthy Stress Reduction 226
Choose Your Attitude 232
• JOURNAL ENTRY 29 233
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Jaime Sanmiguel 233
Increasing Happiness 234
Limits on Happiness 234
Savoring Pleasures 235
Strawberry Moments 238
• JOURNAL ENTRY 30 239
• Emotional Intelligence AT WORK 240
• TECH TIPS: EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE 242
Believing In Yourself Develop Self-Acceptance 242 Self-Esteem and Core Beliefs 243
Know and Accept Yourself 244
• JOURNAL ENTRY 31 245
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Wynda Allison Paulette 245
9 Staying On Course to Your Success 247 Planning Your Next Steps 248
Assess Yourself, Again 248
JOURNAL ENTRY 32 253
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Stephan J. Montgomery 254
s A Toolbox for Active Learners 257 Becoming an Active Learner 257
Assess Your Study Skills for College Success 257
How the Human Brain Learns 261
Three Principles of Deep and Lasting Learning 262
The CORE Learning System 264
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Kase Cormier 267
Reading 268 Reading: The Big Picture 268
Strategies to Improve Reading 269
Before Reading 269
While Reading 271
Taking Notes 272
274 Taking Notes: The Big Picture 274
Strategies to Improve Taking Notes 275
Before Taking Notes 275
While Taking Notes 276
After Taking Notes 281
Organizing Study Materials 282 Organizing Study Materials: The Big Picture 282
Strategies to Improve Organizing Study Materials 282
Before Organizing Study Materials 282
While Organizing Study Materials 283
After Organizing Study Materials 288
Rehearsing and Memorizing Study Materials 290 Rehearsing and Memorizing Study Materials: The Big Picture 290
Strategies to Improve Rehearsing and Memorizing Study Materials 291
Before Rehearsing and Memorizing Study Materials 291
While Rehearsing and Memorizing Study Materials 291
After Rehearsing and Memorizing Study Materials 295
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Michael Chapasko 295
Taking Tests 297 Taking Tests: The Big Picture 297
Strategies to Improve Taking Tests 297
Before Taking Tests 298
While Taking Tests 298
After Taking Tests 304
• ONE STUDENT'S STORY Ashley E. Bennet 306
Writing 307 Writing: The Big Picture 308
Strategies to Improve Writing 308
Before Writing 308
While Writing 311
After Writing 313
• TECH TIPS: ACTIVE LEARNING 315
Assess Your Study Skills for College Success-Again 316 Conversation with the Author 321
Bibliography 325 Index 327
On Course is intended for college students of any age who want to create success in college and in life. Whether students are taking a student success or fust-year seminar course, a writing course, or an "inward-looking" course in psychol- ogy, self-exploration, or personal growth, On Course is an instruction manual for dramatically improving the quality of their outcomes and experiences. In each chapter, students learn essential study skills; however, that's just the begin- ning. Through self-assessments, articles, guided journals, case studies in critical thinking, and inspiring stories from fellow students, On Course empowers stu- dents with time-proven strategies for creating a great life- academic, personal, and professional. Students learn the techniques that have helped many thou- sands of students create extraordinary success!
I am grateful that in the years since its first publication in 1996, On Course has becon1e a market leader in the crowded field of student success texts. Increasingly, educators are finding (as I have) that empowering students to become active, responsible learners produces significant increases in both stu- dent academic success and retention. In addition, the process empowers the1n to create great things in their personal and professional lives. My goal is to make this new edition of On Course even more helpful to the success of students and educators alike.
What's New in This Edition of On Course: Highlights
• College Smart-Start Guide. Too many students get off course in their very first week of college. Author Skip Downing polled nearly 2,000 college and university educators, asking them, "What do you recommend that your students do in the first week of college to get off to a good start?" The resulting"Smart-Start Guide" provides students with essential first- week actions recommended by the collective wisdom of this large group of educators. A new activity in the On Course Facilitator's Manual engages students in figuring out which of the actions these instructors thought were the 1nost important. When students follow through on these actions, they will lay an early foundation for their academic success.
• Understanding the Expectations of College and University Educators. This essay and related journal entry help students better understand how to succeed in the culture of higher education. In this section, they learn "Eight Key Expectations" and "A Dozen Differences
[On Course) is the absolute best approach for a first-year seminar/ college success class that there is. The philosophy and textbook are exactly what students need.
Catherine Eloranto, Clinton Community College
W e wanted a curriculum that went beyond study skills to address the foundational needs of first- year college students. On Course causes students to examine and reflect on the causes of their successes and setbacks. It challenges students to go beyond the obvious and really delves into their motivations and mindsets. Oh, yeah, and it does a great job addressing study skills too.
Ann Heiny, Armstrong State University
There's nothing better than On Course, as far as I'm concerned.
Lisa Marks, Ozarks Technical Community
On Course has made a huge difference in the students I work with. Most of them see themselves throughout the book, and they are willing to make changes to improve their lives because of the content of On Course.
Tanya Stanley, San Jacinto College
The study skills sections are clear, logically organized and more adaptable as a "how-to" guide than any other texts of similar intent.
Judith Willner, Coppin State University
between High School and College Culture:' This information helps stu- dents quickly understand which behaviors they can continue doing and which they will need to modify, change, or abandon.
• Tech Tips. Many websites and apps are available to help students achieve greater success. Most chapters now feature a Tech Tips section that pro- vides suggestions for free websites and apps that can help students employ the soft skills of personal responsibility, self-motivation, self-management, interdependence, self-awareness, lifelong learning, emotional intelligence, and believing in oneself, as well as hard skills related to effective studying.
• Discussion about Avoiding Procrastination. Procrastination is the bane of many students' success. This discussion helps students understand why procrastination is so tempting and offers specific methods for not putting off until tomorrow what they would benefit from doing today. Included in the discussion is research from Dr. Dan Ariely, Professor of Psychology and Behavioral Economics at Duke University.
• A Sign of Maturity. This discussion offers an explanation about the various kinds of relationships in whicl1 people engage: dependent, co-dependent, independent, and interdependent. Advantages and disad- vantages of each are explained, and students are urged to use college to develop independence but also to recognize that there are many occasions when choosing interdependence is a true sign of maturity (not to mention improving one's chances of achieving a goal or dream).
• Increasing Happiness. This new article and accompanying journal entry explore the emotional intelligence skill of maximizing happiness. Drawn from the scientific research of positive psychologists, students learn a number of choices they can make to increase their happiness. This topic has recently gained much interest on college campuses. For example, when a course in Positive Psychology was first offered at Harvard University, it immediately became the university's most popular course.
• Toolbox for Active Learners. Many On Course instructors asked that study skills be presented in one section (rather than distributed through- out the book). This edition honors that request. Unlike texts that present a long menu of study options, On Course organizes study skills based on the logical learning steps as identified by research on the brain and effective methods for learning. This section begins with a presentation of the CORE Learning Process, the four principles that-consciously or unconsciously- all good learners employ to create deep and lasting learning. Students discover how to use these four principles to learn any subject or skill. Each section of the Toolbox presents effective techniques for one of the study skills covered (reading, taking notes, organizing study materials, rehearsing and memorizing study materials, taking tests, and writing college-level assignments) and ends with an exercise to reinforce the study strategies presented therein.
• Study Skills Self-Assessment. In addition to placing all of the study skills in one section, this edition also offers a new Study Skills Self- Assessment. Students can take this self-assessment before learning about study skills and discover areas in which they are weak. At the end of the course, they can retake the assessment to see where they have grown as learners and where they may still need to improve. Students have the option of completing the assessment in either the text or MindTap•.
• "One Student's Stories.n A popular feature in earlier editions, these short essays -now numbering 29 in all- are authored by students who used what they learned from On Course to improve the quality of their outcomes and experiences in college and in life. Videos of many of the student-authors reading their essays may be viewed in Mind Tap.
• Convers ation with the Author. Since the first edition of On Course was published more than two decades ago, many students have contacted the author with thoughtful questions. This section includes some of those questions and Skip Downing's answers.
What's New in This Edition of On Course: Chapter by Chapter Chapter 1
• New "College Smart-Start Guide" provides students with 13 actions that are important to getting off to a good start in college; recommendations are the result of a poll of 2,000 college educators.
• At the request of a number of On Course instructors, "Money Matters" has been moved to Chapter l, thus helping students early in the semester to reduce struggles caused by financial difficulties.
• New Journal Entry #2.
• New cartoon in "Understanding the Culture of Higher Education:'
• New "Tech Tips: Money:'
• New article, "Understanding the Expectations of College and University Educators:' including a discussion of Eight Key Expectations and A Dozen Differences between High School and College Culture.
• New article, "Understanding Yourself,' including a section on Ingredients of Success.
• Revised #7 of the Self-Assessment: "Whether I'm happy or not depends mostly on me:'
• Moved article "Develop Self-Acceptance" and Journal 4 to Chapter 8.
I think these a re very powerful stories .. .. It's good for students to hear that other students have faced the same struggles that they are going through and they have achieved success.
Kathryn Burk, Jackson College
On Course is life-changing for my students. I have seen students evolve in ways they never imagined in a matter of a semester thanks to On Course. I cannot imagine using another book. No other book encompasses the reflective, introspective, and success attributes that On Course does. On Course walks students through their journey of self-discovery and allows them to grow into the student they have always wanted to become.
Joselyn Gonzalez, El Centro College
Arr.tone who can teach students personal responsibility is high on my list
Debbie Unsold, Washington State
O n several occasions, I have had various members of the same family in different semesters of my [On Course) class because they value the learning so much that they recommend it to sisters/brothers/ children/uncles.
Sandra Lancaster, Grand Rapids Community College
I 1ove On Course, and I use it in my personal life as well as preaching it in all of my classes ... I have even used it with the classes that I teach in a women's shelter. The concept of moving from Victim to Creator puts the individual in charge of their life and I love that mindset
Pat Grissom, San Jacinto College
• New One Student's Story by Taryn Rossmiller, Boise State University, ID.
• New cartoon in "Making Wise Decisions" section.
• New "Tech Tips: Personal Responsibility:'
• New One Student's Story by Brandon Beavers, Highland Community CoUege, KS.
• New"Tech Tips: Self-Motivation:'
• New One Student's Story by Tina Steen, Chaffey College, CA.
• Added Weekly Calendar to "Creating a Leak-Proof Self-Management System:'
• Repositioned "Time and Culture" section, discussing how cultures differ in their beliefs and attitudes about time and what college culture's expec- tations are about time.
• New information on avoiding procrastination in the "Developing Self-Discipline" article.
• New"Tech Tips: Self-Management:'
• Added information to "Creating a Support System" on the importance of choosing wisely among various kinds of relationships: dependent, co-dependent, independent, and interdependent.
• Added parable, "The Difference between Heaven and HeU;' in the "Creat- ing a Support System" article.
• New One Student's Story by Mitch MulJ, Asheville-Buncombe Technical and Community College, NC.
• New One Student's Story by Teroa Paselio, Windward Community College, HI.
• New "Tech Tips: Interdependence:'
• New"Tech Tips: Self-Awareness:'
• New "Tech Tips: Lifelong Learning."
• New article, "Increasing Happiness," presents research from scientific studies within the new field of positive psychology, including both the limits on increasing happiness as well as ways to become more happy.
• New Journal Entry 30 regarding "Increasing Happiness."
• New "Tech Tips: Emotional Awareness~
• Moved article, "Develop Self-Acceptance; and Journal Entry 4 (now Journal Entry 31) here from Chapter 1.
• Revised #7 of the Self-Assessment: "Whether I'm happy or not depends ti .. 1nos yon me.
Study Skills: A Toolbox for Active Learners
• Repositioned study skills materials into one comprehensive section, offer- ing many strategies for Becoming an Active Learner, Reading, Taking Notes, Organizing Study Materials, Rehearsing and Memorizing Study Materials, Taking Tests, and Writing.
• New Self-Assessment of Study Skills, which students can take both before and after they explore the many strategies presented in the Toolbox for Active Learners. When the self-assessment is taken as a pre-test, students learn their strengths and weaknesses when it comes to learning. When the self-assessment is taken as a post-test, students learn which areas they have strengthened and which areas still need improvement.
• New One Student's Story by Michael Chapasko, Blinn College, TX.
• New One Student's Story by Ashley E. Bennet, Heartland Community College, IL.
Proven Features of On Course The Eighth Edition includes all of the best features of On Course, updated and revised fro1n the previous edition.
• Self-Assessment. On Course begins and ends with a self-assessment questionnaire of important non-cognitive skills ("soft skills"). Scores are provided for self-responsibility, self-motivation, self-management, inter- dependence, self-awareness, lifelong learning, emotional intelligence, and belief in oneself. Imagine working with students '"'ho develop strengths in all of these inner qualities! Imagine how these qualities will affect the choices the students make and the outcomes and experiences they cre- ate. By completing the initial questionnaire, students immediately see areas of weakness that need attention. By completing the concluding