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Managerial economics and organizational architecture 4th edition pdf

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MANAGERIALS IXTH ED I T ION

AND ORGANIZATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

JAMES A. BRICKLEY CLIFFORD W. SMITH JEROLD L. ZIMMERMAN

ECONOMICS

Managerial Economics and Organizational Architecture

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Managerial Economics and Organizational Architecture Sixth Edition

JAMES A. BRICKLEY CLIFFORD W. SMITH JEROLD L. ZIMMERMAN

William E. Simon Graduate School of Business Administration

University of Rochester

MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS AND ORGANIZATIONAL ARCHITECTURE, SIXTH EDITION

Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2009, 2007, and 2004. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Brickley, James A. Managerial economics and organizational architecture / James A. Brickley, Clifford

W. Smith, Jerold L. Zimmerman, William E. Simon, Graduate School of Business Administration, University of Rochester.—Sixth edition.

pages cm.—(The McGraw-Hill series in economics) ISBN 978-0-07-352314-9 (alk. paper)

1. Managerial economics. 2. Organizational effectiveness. I. Title. HD30.22.B729 2015 658—dc23

2014043202

The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.

Dedicated to our children— London, Nic, Alexander, Taylor, Morgan, Daneille, and Amy.

PREFACE The past few decades have witnessed spectacular business failures and scandals. In 2001 and 2002, Enron, WorldCom, Arthur Andersen, as well as other prominent com- panies imploded in dramatic fashion. Internationally, scandals emerged at companies such as Parmalat, Royal Dutch Shell, Samsung, and Royal Ahold. In 2007 and 2008, prominent financial institutions around the world shocked financial markets by reporting staggering losses from subprime mortgages. Société Générale, the large French bank, reported over $7 billion in losses due to potentially fraudulent securities trading by one of its traders. JPMorgan Chase bailed out Bear Stearns, a top-tier in- vestment bank, following their massive subprime losses. Washington Mutual and Lehman Brothers were added to the list of “top business failures of all time.”

Due to these cases and others, executives now face a more skeptical investment community, additional government regulations, and stiffer penalties for misleading public disclosures. A common perception is that bad people caused many of these problems. Others argue that the sheer complexity of today’s world has made it virtu- ally impossible to be a “good” manager. These views have raised the cry for in- creased government regulation, which is argued to be a necessary step in averting fu- ture business problems.

We disagree with this view. We suggest that many business problems result from poorly structured organizational architectures. The blueprints for many of these prominent business scandals were designed into the firms’ “organizational DNA.” This book, in addition to covering traditional managerial economic topics, examines how firms can structure organizations that channel managers’ incentives into actions that create, rather than destroy, firm value. This topic is critical to anyone who works in or seeks to manage organizations—whether for-profit or not-for-profit.

New Demands: Relevant Yet Rigorous Education Thirty years ago, teaching managerial economics to business students was truly a “dis- mal science.” Many students dismissed standard economic tools of marginal analysis, production theory, and market structure as too esoteric to have any real relevance to the business problems they anticipated encountering. Few students expected they would be responsible for their prospective employers’ pricing decisions. Most sought positions in large firms, eventually hoping to manage finance, operations, marketing, or information systems staffs. Traditional managerial economics courses offered few insights that obviously were relevant for such careers. But a new generation of economists began applying traditional economic tools to problems involving corporate governance, merg- ers and acquisitions, incentive conflicts, and executive compensation. Their analysis fo- cused on the internal structure of the firm—not on the firm’s external markets. In this book, we draw heavily from this research and apply it to how organizations can create value through improved organizational design. In addition, we present traditional economic topics—such as demand, supply, markets, and strategy—in a manner that emphasizes their managerial relevance within today’s business environment.

Today’s students must understand more than just how markets work and the prin- ciples of supply and demand. They also must understand how self-interested parties within organizations interact, and how corporate governance mechanisms can control these interactions. Consequently, today’s managerial economics course must cover a broader menu of topics that are now more relevant than ever to aspiring managers facing this post-Enron world. Yet, to best serve our students, offering

vi

Preface vii

relevant material must not come at the expense of rigor. Students must learn how to think logically about both markets and organizations. The basic tools of economics offer students the skill set necessary for rigorous analysis of business problems they likely will encounter throughout their careers.

Besides the heightened interest in corporate governance, global competition and rapid technological change are prompting firms to undertake major organizational restructurings as well as to produce fundamental industry realignments. Firms now attack problems with focused, cross-functional teams. Many firms are shifting from functional organizational structures (manufacturing, marketing, and distribution) to flatter, more process-oriented organizations organized around product or region. Moreover, this pace of change shows no sign of slowing. Today’s students recognize these issues; they want to develop skills that will make them effective executives and prepare them to manage organizational change.

Business school programs are evolving in response to these changes. Narrow tech- nical expertise within a single functional area—whether operations, accounting, fi- nance, information systems, or marketing—is no longer sufficient. Effective man- agers within this environment require cross-functional skills. To meet these challenges, business schools are becoming more integrated. Problems faced by man- agers are not just finance problems, operations problems, or marketing problems. Rather, most business problems involve facets that cut across traditional functional areas. For that reason, the curriculum must encourage students to apply concepts they have mastered across a variety of courses.

This book provides a multidisciplinary, cross-functional approach to managerial and organizational economics. We believe that this is its critical strength. Our interests span economics, finance, accounting, information systems, and financial in- stitutions; this allows us to draw examples from a number of functional areas to demonstrate the power of this underlying economic framework to analyze a variety of problems managers face regularly.

We have been extremely gratified by the reception afforded the first five editions of Managerial Economics and Organizational Architecture. Adopters report that the earlier editions helped them transform their courses into one of the most popular courses within their curriculum. This book has been adopted in microeconomics, human resources, and strategy courses in addition to courses that focus specifically on organizational economics. The prior editions were founded on powerful economic tools of analysis that examine how managers can design organizations that motivate self-interested individuals to make choices that increase firm value. Our sixth edition continues to focus on the fundamental importance of markets and organizational de- sign. We use the failures of Enron (Chapter 1), Société Générale (Chapter 1), Arthur Andersen (Chapter 22), and Adelphia (Chapter 10) as case studies to illustrate how poorly designed organizational architectures can be catastrophic. Other books provide little coverage of such managerially critical topics as developing effective organiza- tional architectures, including performance-evaluation systems and compensation plans; assigning decision-making authority among employees; and managing transfer- pricing disputes among divisions. Given the increased importance of corporate gover- nance, this omission has been both significant and problematic. Our primary objective in writing this book is to provide current and aspiring managers with a rigorous, sys- tematic, comprehensive framework for addressing such organizational problems. To that end, we have endeavored to write the underlying theoretical concepts in simple, intuitive terms and illustrate them with numerous examples—most drawn from actual company practice.

viii Preface

The Conceptual Framework Although the popular press and existing literature on organizations are replete with jargon—TQM, reengineering, outsourcing, teaming, venturing, empowerment, and cor- porate culture—they fail to provide managers with a systematic, comprehensive frame- work for examining organizational problems. This book uses economic analysis to develop such a framework and then employs that framework to organize and integrate the important organizational problems, thereby making the topics more accessible.

Throughout the text, readers will gain an understanding of the basic tools of eco- nomics and how to apply them to solve important business problems. While the book covers the standard managerial economics problems of pricing and production, it pays special attention to organizational issues. In particular, the book will help read- ers understand:

• How the business environment (technology, regulation, and competition in input and output markets) drives the firm’s choice of strategy.

• How strategy and the business environment affect the firm’s choice of organi- zational design—what we call organizational architecture.

• How the firm’s organizational architecture is like its DNA; it plays a key role in determining a firm’s ultimate success or failure, since it affects how people in the organization will behave in terms of creating or destroying firm value.

• How corporate policies such as strategy, financing, accounting, marketing, in- formation systems, operations, compensation, and human resources are inter- related and thus why it is critically important that they be coordinated.

• How the three key features of organizational architecture—the assignment of decision-making authority, the reward system, and the performance-evaluation

system—can be structured to help managers to achieve their desired results.

These three components of or- ganizational architecture are like three legs of the accompanying stool. Firms must coordinate each leg with the other two so that the stool remains functional. More- over, each firm’s architecture must match its strategy; a balanced stool in the wrong setting is dysfunc- tional: Although milking stools are quite productive in a barn, tavern owners purchase taller stools.

Reasons for Adopting Our Approach This book focuses on topics that we believe are most relevant to managers. For in- stance, it provides an in-depth treatment of traditional microeconomic topics (demand, supply, pricing, and game theory) in addition to corporate governance topics (assign- ing decision-making authority, centralization versus decentralization, measuring and

The components of organizational architecture are like three legs of a stool. It is important that all three legs be designed so that the stool is balanced. Changing one leg without the careful consideration of the other two is typically a mistake.

Performance Evaluation (What are the key performance measures

used to evaluate managers and employees?)

Rewards (How are people rewarded for meeting performance goals?)

Decision-Rights Assignment (Who gets to make what decisions?)

Preface ix

rewarding performance, outsourcing, and transfer pricing). We believe these topics are more valuable to prospective managers than topics typically covered in economics texts such as public-policy aspects of minimum-wage legislation, antitrust policy, and income redistribution. A number of other important features differentiate this book from others currently available, such as:

• Our book provides a comprehensive, cross-functional framework for analyzing organizational problems. We do this by first describing and integrating important research findings published across several functional areas, then demonstrating how to apply the framework to specific organizational problems.

• This text integrates the topics of strategy and organizational architecture. Students learn how elements of the business environment (technology, compe- tition, and regulation) drive the firm’s choice of strategy as well as the interaction of strategy choice and organizational architecture.

• Reviewers, instructors, and students found the prior editions accessible and engaging. The text uses intuitive descriptions and simple examples; more technical material is provided in appendices for those who wish to pursue it.

• Numerous examples drawn from the business press and our experiences illus- trate the theoretical concepts. For example, the effect of the 9/11 terrorist attacks on demand curves is described in Chapter 4 and how one devastated company located in the World Trade Center responded is discussed in Chapter 14. These illustrations, many highlighted in boxes, reinforce the underlying principles and help the reader visualize the application of more abstract ideas. Each chapter begins with a specific case history that is used throughout the chapter to unify the material and aid the reader in recalling and applying the main constructs.

• Nontraditional economics topics dealing with strategy, outsourcing, leader- ship, organizational form, corporate ethics, and the implementation of man- agement innovations are examined. Business school curricula often are criti- cized for being slow in covering topics of current interest to business, such as corporate governance. The last six chapters examine recent management trends and demonstrate how the book’s framework can be used to analyze and understand topical issues.

• Problems, both within and at the end of chapter, are drawn from real organiza- tional experience—from the business press as well as our contact with execu- tive MBA students and consulting engagements. We have structured exercises that provide readers with a broad array of opportunities to apply the framework to problems like ones they will encounter as managers.

Organization of the Book • Part 1: Basic Concepts lays the groundwork for the book. Chapter 2 summa-

rizes the economic view of behavior, stressing its management implications. Chapter 3 presents an overview of markets, provides a rationale for the exis- tence of organizations, and stresses the critical role of the distribution of knowledge within the organization.

• Part 2: Managerial Economics applies the basic tools of economic theory to the firm. Chapters 4 through 7 cover the traditional managerial-economics top- ics of demand, production and cost, market structure, and pricing. These four chapters provide the reader with a fundamental set of microeconomic tools and

use these tools to analyze basic operational policies such as input, output, and product pricing decisions. Chapters 8 and 9 focus on corporate strategy—the former on creating and capturing values and the latter on employing game the- ory methods to examine the interaction between the firm and its competitors, suppliers, as well as other parties. These chapters also provide important background material for the subsequent chapters on organizations: A robust understanding of the market environment is important for making sound orga- nizational decisions. Chapter 10 examines conflicts of interest that exist within firms and how contracts can be structured to reduce or control these conflicts.

• Part 3: Designing Organizational Architecture develops the core frame- work of the book. Chapter 11 provides a basic overview of the organiza- tional-design problem. Chapters 12 and 13 focus on two aspects of the as- signment of decision rights within the firm—the level of decentralization chosen for various decisions followed by the bundling of various tasks into jobs and then jobs into subunits. Chapters 14 and 15 examine compensation policy. First we focus on the level of compensation necessary to attract and retain an appropriate group of employees. We then discuss the composition of the compensation package, examining how the mix of salary, fringe ben- efits, and incentive compensation affects the value of the firm. In Chapters 16 and 17, we analyze individual and divisional performance evaluation. Part 3 concludes with a capstone case on Arthur Andersen.

• Part 4: Applications of Organizational Architecture uses the framework that we have developed to provide insights into contemporary management is- sues. Chapters 18 through 23 discuss the legal form of organization, outsourc- ing, leadership, regulation, ethics, and management innovations.

Fitting the Text into the Business Curriculum Our book is an effective tool for a variety of classes at the MBA, executive MBA, and undergraduate level. Although this text grew out of an MBA elective course in the eco- nomics of organizations at the University of Rochester, the book’s modular design al- lows its use in a variety of courses. We have been encouraged by the creativity instruc- tors have shown in the diversity of courses adopting this text. Besides the introductory microeconomics course, this book also is used in elective courses on corporate gover- nance, strategy, the economics of organizations, and human resources management. The basic material on managerial economics is presented in the first 10 chapters. The tools necessary for understanding and applying the organizational framework we de- velop within this text have been selected for their managerial relevance. In our experi- ence, these economics tools are invaluable for those students with extensive work experience, and for those who didn’t major in economics as an undergraduate. Those with an economics background may choose to forgo components of this material. We have structured our discussions of demand, production/cost, market structure, pricing, and strategy to be optional. Thus, readers who do not require a review of these tools can skip Chapters 4 through 9 without loss of continuity.

We strongly recommend that all readers cover Chapters 1 through 3 and 10; these chapters introduce the underlying tools and framework for the text. Chapters 4 through 9, as we noted above, cover the basic managerial-economics topics of demand, costs, production, market structure, pricing, and strategy. Chapters 11 through 17 develop the organizational architecture framework; we recommend that these be covered in

x Preface

sequence. Finally, Chapters 18 through 23 cover special managerial topics: outsourc- ing, leadership, regulation, ethics, and the process of management innovation and man- aging organizational change. They are capstone chapters—chapters that apply and il- lustrate the framework. Instructors can assign them based on their specific interests and available time.

Sixth Edition This book is noted for using economics to analyze real-world management problems. The sixth edition maintains and extends this focus. Changes from the fifth edition include:

• Learning objectives have been added to focus on the core concepts of the chap- ter to aid in the assessment of learning outcomes.

• Extended and more in-depth coverage of important managerial economics concepts, including supply and demand analysis, comparative advantage, con- stant versus increasing cost industries, price competition with differentiated products, inter-temporal decisions (Fisher Separation Theorem) and behav- ioral economics.

• Managerial applications, examples, exhibits, and other boxed materials have been updated.

• Key managerial insights from important recent research in organizational economics have been added.

• Data has been updated, where appropriate.

• We have responded in various ways to reader feedback from earlier editions.

Supplements The following ancillaries are available for quick download and convenient access via the Instructor Library material available through McGraw-Hill Connect®.

• PowerPoint Presentations: Fully updated for the sixth edition, each chapter’s PowerPoint slides are closely tied to the book material and are enhanced by animated graphs. You can edit, print, or rearrange the slides to fit the needs of your course.

• Test Bank: The test bank offers hundreds of questions categorized by level of difficulty, AACSB learning categories, Bloom’s taxonomy, and topic.

• Computerized Test Bank: McGraw-Hill’s EZ Test is a flexible and easy-to- use electronic resting program that allows you to create tests from book- specific items. It accommodates a wide range of question types and you can add your own questions. Multiple versions of the test can be created and any test can be exported for use with course management systems. EZ Test Online gives you a place to administer your EZ Test-created exams and quizzes online. Addition- ally, you can access the test bank through McGraw-Hill Connect®.

• Instructor’s Manual: The instructor’s Manual provides chapter overviews, teaching tips, and suggested answers to the end-of-chapter Self-Evaluation Problems and Review Questions.

Preface xi

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xii Preface

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Preface xiii

xiv

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS No textbook springs from virgin soil. This book has its intellectual roots firmly planted in the work of dozens who have toiled to develop, test, and apply organiza- tion theory. As we detailed in the preface to the first edition, the genesis of this book was a course William Meckling and Michael Jensen taught on the economics of or- ganizations at the University of Rochester in the 1970s. Bill’s and Mike’s research and teaching stimulated our interest in the economics of organizations, prompted much of our research focused on organizational issues, and had a profound effect on this text. No amount of citation or acknowledgments can adequately reflect the encouragement and stimulation that they provided, both personally and through their writings.

Bill and Mike emphasized three critical features of organizational design: (1) the assignment of decision rights within the organization, (2) the reward system, and (3) the performance-evaluation system. These three elements, which we call organi- zational architecture, serve as an important organizing device for this book. As read- ers will discover, this structure offers a rich body of knowledge useful for managerial decision making.

Important contributions to the literature on the economics of organizations have been made by a host of scholars. Through the work of these individuals, we have learned a tremendous amount. A number of our colleagues at Rochester also con- tributed to the development of the book. Ray Ball, Rajiv Dewan, Shane Heitzman, Scott Keating, Stacey Kole, Andy Leone, Glenn MacDonald, Larry Matteson, David Mayers, Kevin Murphy, Michael Raith, Mike Ryall, Greg Schaffer, Ronald Schmidt, Larry Van Horn, Karen Van Nuys, Ross Watts, Gerald Wedig, Michael Weisbach, and Ron Yeaple offered thoughtful comments and suggestions that helped to clarify our thinking on key issues. Don Chew, editor of the Journal of Applied Corporate Fi- nance, provided invaluable assistance in publishing a series of articles based on the book; his assistance in writing these articles improved the exposition of this book enormously. Our collaboration with Janice Willett on Designing Organizations to Create Value: From Strategy to Structure (McGraw-Hill, 2003) enriched our under- standing and exposition of many important topics.

This project also has benefited from an extensive development effort. In addition to generations of Simon School students, dozens of colleagues both in the United States and overseas formally reviewed the manuscript and gave us detailed feedback, for which we are very grateful. We offer our sincere thanks to following reviewers, for their thorough and thoughtful suggestions:

Avner Ben-Ner, University of Minnesota Arnab Biswas, University of West Florida Ben Campbell, The Ohio State University Xiujian Chen, Binghampton University Kwang Soo Cheong, John Hopkins University Abbas Grammy, California State University—Bakersfield Charles Gray, University of Saint Thomas Folke Kafka, University of Pittsburgh Brian Kench, University of Tampa Tom Lee, California State University—Northridge Matthew Metzgar, University of North Carolina Ronald Necoechea, Roberts Wesleyan College Harlan Platt, Northeastern University

Acknowledgments xv

Farhad Rassekh, University of Hartford Amit Sen, Xavier University Richard Smith, University of California—Riverside Neil Younkin, Saint Xavier University

We owe special thanks to Henry Butler, Luke Froeb, Mel Gray, and Chris James; each provided insightful comments on the material. In addition, we are grateful for feedback from over 500 individuals who completed various surveys. Their thoughts served to guide our refinement of this work. We appreciate the efforts of Kathleen DeFazio who provided secretarial support. Finally, we wish to thank our colleagues at McGraw-Hill/Irwin—especially Mike Junior—for their encouragement to pursue this project. Through their vision and publishing expertise, they provided us with insights and feedback to help expand our audience while adhering to our mission.

This book represents the current state of the art. Nonetheless, development is on- going as the research evolves and as we continue to learn. Managerial Economics and Organizational Architecture covers an exciting, dynamic area. We hope that a small portion of that excitement is communicated through this text. Reviewers, instructors, and students frequently mention the relevance of material to the business community, the accessibility of the text, and the logical flow within the text’s framework. However, in the final analysis, it is instructors and their students who will determine the true value of our efforts.

We appreciate the extensive feedback we have received from many readers; their generous comments have improved this edition substantially. Although we had a def- inite objective in mind as we wrote this book, it is important to be open to sugges- tions and willing to learn from others who are traveling a similar yet distinct path. Al- though we are unlikely to please everyone, we will continue to evaluate suggestions critically and to be responsive where consistent with our mission. If readers would like to share their thoughts on this work or their classroom experiences, please feel free to contact any of us at the University of Rochester. Many thanks in advance for the assistance.

jim.brickley@simon.rochester.edu cliff.smith@simon.rochester.edu

jerry.zimmerman@simon.rochester.edu

xvi

Contents in Brief

Part 1: Basic Concepts

Chapter 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter 2 Economists’ View of Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Chapter 3 Exchange and Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Part 2: Managerial Economics

Chapter 4 Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Chapter 5 Production and Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Chapter 6 Market Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Chapter 7 Pricing with Market Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Chapter 8 Economics of Strategy: Creating and Capturing Value . . . . . . . . . . 257 Chapter 9 Economics of Strategy: Game Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 Chapter 10 Incentive Conflicts and Contracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329

Part 3: Designing Organizational Architecture

Chapter 11 Organizational Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 Chapter 12 Decision Rights: The Level of Empowerment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376 Chapter 13 Decision Rights: Bundling Tasks into Jobs and Subunits . . . . . . . . 410 Chapter 14 Attracting and Retaining Qualified Employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438 Chapter 15 Incentive Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469 Chapter 16 Individual Performance Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502 Chapter 17 Divisional Performance Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537

Capstone Case Study on Organizational Architecture: Arthur Andersen LLP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571

Part 4: Applications of Organizational Architecture

Chapter 18 Corporate Governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578 Chapter 19 Vertical Integration and Outsourcing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615 Chapter 20* Leadership: Motivating Change within Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . 654 Chapter 21 Understanding the Business Environment:

The Economics of Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 655 Chapter 22 Ethics and Organizational Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684 Chapter 23* Organizational Architecture and the Process

of Management Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 714

Index 715

Glossary* G-1

*These Web chapters and the Glossary can be found online via the Instructor Library material available through McGraw-Hill Connect®.

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Contents

Part 1: Basic Concepts Chapter 1: Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Managerial Economics and Organizational Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Organizational Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Economic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4

Economic Darwinism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Survival of the Fittest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Economic Darwinism and Benchmarking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Purpose of the Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Our Approach to Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10

Chapter 2: Economists’ View of Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Economic Behavior: An Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15

Economic Choice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Marginal Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Opportunity Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Creativity of Individuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18

Graphical Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Individual Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Indifference Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Opportunities and Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Individual Choice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Changes in Choice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Motivating Honesty at Merrill Lynch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Managerial Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Alternative Models of Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Only-Money-Matters Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Happy-Is-Productive Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Good-Citizen Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Product-of-the-Environment Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Which Model Should Managers Use? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Behavioral Economics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Decision Making under Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Expected Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Variability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Risk Aversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Certainly Equivalent and Risk Premium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Risk Aversion and Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Appendix A: Consumer Choice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Appendix B: Inter-Temporal Decisions and the Fisher Separation Theorem . . . . . . 61

xviii Contents

Chapter 3: Exchange and Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Goals of Economic Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Property Rights and Exchange in a Market Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Dimensions of Property Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Gains from Trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

Basics of Supply and Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 The Price Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Shifts in Curves versus Movements along Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 Using Supply and Demand Analysis for Qualitative Forecasts . . . . . . . . . . . .79 Linear Supply and Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

Supply and Demand—Extended Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 Price versus Quantity Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 Short-Run versus Long-Run Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 Industry Cost Increases and Price Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86

Prices as Social Coordinators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Efficient Exchange and Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 Measuring the Gains from Trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Government Intervention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Externalities and the Coase Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

Markets versus Central Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 General versus Specific Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Knowledge Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 Specific Knowledge and the Economic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Incentives in Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

Contracting Costs and Existence of Firms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Contracting Costs in Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Contracting Costs within Firms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

Managerial Decisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Appendix: Shareholder Value and Market Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

Part 2: Managerial Economics Chapter 4: Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Demand Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Demand Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

Law of Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Elasticity of Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Linear Demand Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

Other Factors That Influence Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Prices of Related Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Other Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

Industry versus Firm Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Network Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Product Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Product Life Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Demand Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

Interviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Price Experimentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142

Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Appendix: Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

Chapter 5: Production and Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Production Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

Returns to Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158 Returns to a Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159

Choice of Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162 Production Isoquants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162 Isocost Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164 Cost Minimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165 Changes in Input Prices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167

Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168 Cost Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169 Short Run versus Long Run . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171 Minimum Efficient Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175 Learning Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177 Economies of Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178

Profit Maximization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179 Factor Demand Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180 Cost Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185 Appendix: The Factor-Balance Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191

Chapter 6: Market Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195 Competitive Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195

Firm Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195 Competitive Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198

Barriers to Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201 Incumbent Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202 Incumbent Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203 Exit Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204

Monopoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204 Monopolistic Competition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .206 Oligopoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208

Nash Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208 Output Competition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .210 Price Competition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .212 Empirical Evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213 Cooperation and the Prisoners’ Dilemma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217

Chapter 7: Pricing with Market Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Pricing Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .224 Benchmark Case: Single Price per Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .225

Profit Maximization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .225 Estimating the Profit-Maximizing Price . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228 Potential for Higher Profits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231

Contents xix

Homogeneous Consumer Demands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232 Block Pricing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232 Two-Part Tariffs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233

Price Discrimination—Heterogeneous Consumer Demands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .234 Exploiting Information about Individual Demands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236 Using Information about the Distribution of Demands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .239

Bundling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .242 Other Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244

Multiperiod Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244 Strategic Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .246 Legal Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247

Implementing a Pricing Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .248 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250

Chapter 8: Economics of Strategy: Creating and Capturing Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257

Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .258 Value Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259

Production and Producer Transaction Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .261 Consumer Transaction Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .261 Other Ways to Increase Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262 New Products and Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265 Cooperating to Increase Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265 Converting Organizational Knowledge into Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266 Opportunities to Create Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267

Capturing Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269 Market Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270 Superior Factors of Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .273 A Partial Explanation for Walmart’s Success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .278 All Good Things Must End . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280

Economics of Diversification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .282 Benefits of Diversification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .282 Costs of Diversification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284 Management Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284

Strategy Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286 Understanding Resources and Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286 Understanding the Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286 Combining Environmental and Internal Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287 Strategy and Organizational Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .288 Can All Firms Capture Value? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .290

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .291

Chapter 9: Economics of Strategy: Game Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 Game Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .297 Simultaneous-Move, Nonrepeated Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .299

Analyzing the Payoffs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .299 Dominant Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .300 Nash Equilibrium Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .301 Competition versus Coordination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .303 Mixed Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .306 Managerial Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .308

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Sequential Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .310 First-Mover Advantage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312 Strategic Moves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312 Managerial Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .313

Repeated Strategic Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314 Strategic Interaction and Organizational Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318 Appendix: Repeated Interaction and the Teammates’ Dilemma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .323

Chapter 10: Incentive Conflicts and Contracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 Firms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .330 Incentive Conflicts within Firms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .332

Owner-Manager Conflicts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .332 Other Conflicts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .334

Controlling Incentive Problems through Contracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .334 Costless Contracting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .335 Costly Contracting and Asymmetric Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .338 Postcontractual Information Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .340 Precontractual Information Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .343

Implicit Contracts and Reputational Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347 Incentives to Economize on Contracting Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .349 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .350

Part 3: Designing Organizational Architecture

Chapter 11: Organizational Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 The Fundamental Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .357

Architecture of Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .357 Architecture within Firms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .358

Architectural Determinants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .360 Changing Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .364 Interdependencies and Complementarities within the Organization . . . . . . .365

Corporate Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .366 When Management Chooses an Inappropriate Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .370 Managerial Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .371

Evaluating Management Advice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .372 Benchmarking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .372

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .373

Chapter 12: Decision Rights: The Level of Empowerment . . . . . . . 376 Assigning Tasks and Decision Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .378 Centralization versus Decentralization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .380

Benefits of Decentralization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .380 Costs of Decentralization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .382 Illustrating the Trade-offs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .385 Management Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .389

Lateral Decision-Right Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .393

xxii Contents

Assigning Decision Rights to Teams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .394 Benefits of Team Decision Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .394 Costs of Team Decision Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .395 Management Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .395

Decision Management and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .397 Decision-Right Assignment and Knowledge Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .399 Influence Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .403 Appendix: Collective Decision Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .407

Chapter 13: Decision Rights: Bundling Tasks into Jobs and Subunits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .410

Bundling Tasks into Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .411 Specialized versus Broad Task Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .411 Productive Bundling of Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .415

Bundling of Jobs into Subunits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .416 Grouping Jobs by Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .417 Grouping Jobs by Product or Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .419 Trade-offs between Functional and Product or Geographic Subunits . . . . . .420 Environment, Strategy, and Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .423 Matrix Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .424 Mixed Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .426 Network Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .426 Organizing within Subunits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .426

Recent Trends in Assignments of Decision Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .427 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .432 Appendix: Battle of the Functional Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .436

Chapter 14: Attracting and Retaining Qualified Employees . . . . . . 438 Contracting Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .440 The Level of Pay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .441

The Basic Competitive Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .441 Human Capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .442 Compensating Differentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .444 Costly Information about Market Wage Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .446

Internal Labor Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .447 Reasons for Long-Term Employment Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .447 Costs of Internal Labor Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .448

Pay in Internal Labor Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .449 Careers and Lifetime Pay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .449 Influence Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .454

The Salary–Fringe Benefit Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .455 Employee Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .455 Employer Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .457 The Salary–Fringe Benefit Choice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .457

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .463

Chapter 15: Incentive Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469 The Basic Incentive Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .470

Incentives from Ownership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .473 Optimal Risk Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .474

Contents xxiii

Effective Incentive Contracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .476 Principal-Agent Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .476 Informativeness Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .482 Group Incentive Pay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .483 Multitasking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .485 Forms of Incentive Pay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .486 Incentive Compensation and Information Revelation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .487 Selection Effects of Incentive Contracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .488

Does Incentive Pay Work? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .489 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .493 Appendix: Multitasking Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .498

Chapter 16: Individual Performance Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502 Setting Performance Benchmarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .505

Time and Motion Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .506 Past Performance and the Ratchet Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .506

Measurement Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .507 Opportunism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .509

Gaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .510 Horizon Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .511

Relative Performance Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .511 Within-Firm Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .512 Across-Firm Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .513

Subjective Performance Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .513 Multitasking and Unbalanced Effort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .514 Subjective Evaluation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .515 Problems with Subjective Performance Evaluations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .517

Combining Objective and Subjective Performance Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .520 Team Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .521

Team Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .522 Evaluating Teams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .524

Government Regulation of Labor Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .525 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .527 Appendix: Optimal Weights in a Relative Performance Contract . . . . . . . . . . . . . .533

Chapter 17: Divisional Performance Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537 Measuring Divisional Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .539

Cost Centers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .539 Expense Centers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .542 Revenue Centers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .543 Profit Centers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .544 Investment Centers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .544

Transfer Pricing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .549 Economics of Transfer Pricing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .550 Common Transfer-Pricing Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .556 Reorganization: The Solution If All Else Fails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .560

Internal Accounting System and Performance Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .560 Uses of the Accounting System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .560 Trade-offs between Decision Management and Decision Control . . . . . . . . .561

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .564 Capstone Case Study on Organizational Architecture: Arthur Andersen LLP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571

Part 4: Applications of Organizational Architecture

Chapter 18: Corporate Governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578 Publicly Traded Corporations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .580

Corporate Form of Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .580 Stock Exchanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .581 Stock Ownership Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .581 Governance Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .582

Separation of Ownership and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .582 Incentive Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .582 Survival of Corporations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .583 Benefits of Publicly Traded Corporations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .583

Top-Level Architecture in U.S. Corporations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .584 Sources of Decision Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .585 Shareholders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .586 Board of Directors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .591 Top Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .594 External Monitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .598

International Corporate Governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .601 Market Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .604 Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .606 Corporate Governance: An Historical Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .608 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .610 Web Appendix: Choosing among the Legal Forms of Organization . . . . . . . . . . . A-1

Chapter 19: Vertical Integration and Outsourcing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615 Vertical Chain of Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .617 Benefits of Buying in Competitive Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .620 Reasons for Nonmarket Transactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .621

Contracting Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .621 Market Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .624 Taxes and Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .626 Other Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .627

Vertical Integration versus Long-Term Contracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .627 Incomplete Contracting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .628 Ownership and Investment Incentives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .628 Specific Assets and Vertical Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .629 Asset Ownership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .632 Other Reasons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .633 Continuum of Choice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .634

Contract Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .635 Contracting with Distributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .636

Free-Rider Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .636 Double Markups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .638 Regulatory Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .641

xxiv Contents

Trends in Outsourcing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .642 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .645 Appendix: Ownership Rights and Investment Incentives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .650

Web Chapter 20: Leadership: Motivating Change within Organizations . . . . . . 654

Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-3 Vision Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-3 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-4

Decision Making within Firms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-5 Incentive Problems and Organizational Politics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-5 Understanding Attitudes toward Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-5

Changing Organizational Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-7 Proposal Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-9

Maintaining Flexibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-9 Commitment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-10 Distributional Consequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-10

Marketing a Proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-11 Careful Analysis and Groundwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-11 Relying on Reputation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-11 Emphasizing a Crisis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-13

Organizational Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-14 Sources of Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-14 Tying the Proposal to Another Initiative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-17 Coalitions and Logrolling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-18 Is Organizational Power Bad? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-19

The Use of Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-20 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-21 Appendix: Strategic Value of Commitment and Crisis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20-23

Chapter 21: Understanding the Business Environment: The Economics of Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .655

Importance of Regulation to Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .656 Economic Motives for Government Intervention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .658

Defining and Enforcing Property Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .658 Redressing Market Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .660 Redistributing Wealth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .666

Economic Theory of Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .668 Demand for Regulation: Special Interests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .669 Supply of Regulation: Politicians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .669 Market for Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .671 Deadweight Losses, Transaction Costs, and Wealth Transfers . . . . . . . . . . . .674

Managerial Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .675 Restricting Entry and Limiting Substitutes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .675 Forming Coalitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .678 On Business Participation in the Political Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .679

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .681

Chapter 22: Ethics and Organizational Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . 684 Ethics and Choices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .687

Contents xxv

Corporate Mission: Ethics and Policy Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .689 Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .689 Value Maximization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .690 Corporate Social Responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .692 Economists’ View of Social Responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .693 Corporate Policy Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .695 Mechanisms for Encouraging Ethical Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .698

Contracting Costs: Ethics and Policy Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .702 Codes of Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .704

Altering Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .705 Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .706 Corporate Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .709

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .710

Web Chapter 23: Organizational Architecture and the Process of Management Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .714

Management Innovations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23-3 The Demand for Management Innovations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23-5

The Rise of TQM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23-6 Other Innovations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23-7

Why Management Innovations Often Fail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23-8 Marketing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23-8 Underestimating Costs of Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23-11 Failure to Consider Other Legs of the Stool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23-12

Managing Changes in Organizational Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23-16 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23-19

Index 715

Web Glossary G-1

xxvi Contents

chapter

1 C H A P T E R O U T L I N E

Managerial Economics and Organizational Architecture

Organizational Architecture

Economic Analysis

Economic Darwinism

Survival of the Fittest

Economic Darwinism and Benchmarking

Purpose of the Book

Our Approach to Organizations

E nron Corporation was created in 1985 by the merger of two gas pipeline companies. Convinced that impending deregulation of the energy business would create opportunities for firms with the vi- sion to recognize and the willingness to exploit them, Enron moved

aggressively to build and implement an innovative business model. It was a pioneer in the trading of derivative securities tied to assets like natural gas, electricity, and coal. In its transformation from a traditional, capital- intensive gas pipeline company, it established a dramatically smaller re- liance on hard assets, a flatter management structure, and an entrepreneur- ial, risk-taking environment—one that was quite open to creative and unconventional products and practices. It garnered tremendous recognition for these accomplishments; for six years in a row, it was named “Most In- novative” among Fortune’s Most Admired Companies list.

By 2000, Enron operated in several different business segments: transportation and distribution, supplying gas and electric transmission ser- vices; wholesale services, providing energy services and other products to energy suppliers and other firms; retail services, offering business cus- tomers energy products and services; broadband services, providing various service providers with access to a fiber-optic cable network; and other busi- nesses, including water resources and wind energy. In 1990, 80 percent of Enron’s revenues came from its regulated gas pipeline business, but by 2000, over 90 percent of revenues came from its wholesale energy opera- tions and services segment. Enron’s management argued that vertically integrated giants—like ExxonMobil, whose balance sheet was awash with oil reserves, gas stations, refineries, and other hard assets—were dinosaurs. “In the old days, people worked for the assets,” said CEO Jeffrey Skilling. “We’ve turned it around—what we’ve said is the assets work for the people.”

To finance this rapidly expanding array of businesses Enron relied on its bright young CFO, Andrew Fastow. In addition to tapping traditional sources of debt and equity capital, Fastow made extensive use of sophisti- cated partnerships whose financing details were kept off Enron’s balance

Introduction

L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S

1. Define organizational architecture and discuss how economics can be used to help managers solve organizational problems and structure more effective orga- nizational architectures.

2. Define Economic Darwinism and discuss its implications related to the bench- marking of business practices.

P A R T O N E B a s i c C o n c e p t s

2 Part 1 Basic Concepts

sheet.1 For example, to finance its water business, Enron formed Azurix Corporation and raised $695 million by selling one-third of the company to public investors. Enron also formed a partnership called the Atlantic Water Trust in which it held a 50 percent stake. Enron’s partner was Marlin Water Trust, which was marketed to in- stitutional investors. To help attract lenders, Enron guaranteed the debt with its own stock: If Enron’s credit rating fell below investment grade and the stock fell below a stipulated price, Enron itself would be responsible for the partnership’s $915 million debt.

So long as Enron prospered, these guarantees appeared to cost the company little. But several of Enron’s business segments began to experience significant problems. In late summer of 2000, a power shortage in California resulted in blackouts. Enron (along with other energy companies) was blamed by state politicians: California launched an investigation into price gouging by Enron and other power marketers. Enron’s investment in water concessions in Brazil and England ran into political ob- stacles. For instance, British regulators cut the rates that it was allowed to charge its customers. Enron had a 65 percent stake in a $3 billion power project in India. But the power plant became embroiled in a dispute with its largest customer, who refused to pay for electricity. Following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the pre- cipitous fall in oil prices generated losses for Enron’s trading operations, and tech- nology changes produced a glut of broadband services.

After reaching a peak of nearly $70 billion in August 2000, Enron’s market value collapsed. Its bankruptcy filing in December 2001 is one of the most spectacular business failures ever seen.2 November 2004 saw it emerge from one of the most complex bankruptcies in U.S. history. After 2006 Enron existed as an assetless shell corporation.

What went wrong? According to BusinessWeek,

Enron didn’t fail just because of improper accounting or alleged corruption at the top. . . . The unrelenting emphasis on earnings growth and individual initiative, coupled with a shocking absence of the usual corporate checks and balances, tipped the culture from one that rewarded aggressive strategy to one that increasingly relied on unethical corner cutting. In the end, too much leeway was given to young, inexperienced managers without the necessary controls to minimize failures. This was a company that simply placed a lot of bad bets on businesses that weren’t so promising to begin with.

Thus, BusinessWeek suggests, Enron’s problems were rooted in a fundamentally flawed organizational design. At fault were three key aspects of the company’s cor- porate structure. First, in the course of flattening its management structure, Enron delegated an extraordinary level of decision-making authority to lower-level em- ployees without retaining an appropriate degree of oversight. Second, performance was evaluated largely on near-term earnings growth and success in closing deals. Third, the company offered enormous compensation to its top performers, which en- couraged excessive risk taking. Enron’s internal risk management group was charged with reviewing deals, but the performance appraisals of the 180 employees within the group were based in part on the recommendations of the very people who

1It should be noted that Fastow was recognized by CFO Magazine in October 1999 with their CFO Excellence Award for Capital Structure Management.

2While the largest U.S. corporate bankruptcy at the time, Enron is now far from the largest. Lehman Brothers ($691 billion in 2008), Washington Mutual ($327 billion in 2008), WorldCom ($103.9 billion in 2002), General Motors ($91 billion in 2009 and CIT Group ($80.4 billion in 2009) were all greater in size.

Chapter 1 Introduction 3

generated the deals. Enron’s problems appear to stem, at least in part, from its organizational design.

Managerial Economics and Organizational Architecture Standard managerial economics books address a number of questions that are im- portant for organizational success:

• Which markets will the firm enter?

• How differentiated will the firm’s products be?

• What mix of inputs should the firm use in its production?

• How should the firm price its products?

• Who are the firm’s competitors, and how are they likely to respond to the firm’s product offerings?

Addressing these questions is certainly important—and in this book, we do—yet this tale of Enron’s implosion suggests that this list is woefully incomplete. It is also im- portant to address questions about the internal organization of the firm. A poorly de- signed organization can result in lost profits and even in the failure of the institution.

With the benefit of hindsight, it seems easy to identify elements of Enron’s orga- nization that, if changed, might have reduced the likelihood of its collapse. But the critical managerial question is whether before the fact one reasonably could be ex- pected to identify the potential problems and to structure more productive organiza- tions. We believe the answer to this fundamental managerial question is a resound- ing yes. To examine these issues, a rich framework that can be applied consistently is required.

We are not, of course, the first to recognize the importance of corporate organiza- tion or to offer analysis of how to improve it. The business section of any good book- store displays a virtually endless array of prescriptions: benchmarking, empower- ment, total quality management, reengineering, outsourcing, teaming, corporate culture, venturing, matrix organizations, just-in-time production, and downsizing. The authors of all these books would strongly agree that the firm’s organization and the associated policies, adopted by management, can have profound effects on per- formance and firm value; and all buttress their recommendations with selected sto- ries of firms that followed their advice and realized fabulous successes.

The problem with such approaches, however, is that each tends to focus on a par- ticular facet of the organization—whether it be quality control, or worker empower- ment, or the compensation system—to the virtual exclusion of all others. As a con- sequence, the suggestions offered by the business press are regularly myopic. These publications tend to offer little guidance as to which tools are most appropriate in which circumstances. The implicit assumption of most is that their technique can be successfully adopted by all companies. This presumption, however, is invariably wrong. Ultimately, this literature fails to provide managers with a productive frame- work for identifying and resolving organizational problems.

Organizational Architecture

In contrast to the approach of most business best sellers, we seek to provide a sys- tematic framework for analyzing such issues—one that can be applied consistently in addressing organizational problems and structuring more effective organizations.

4 Part 1 Basic Concepts

In this book, we offer a framework that identifies three critical aspects of corporate organization:

• The assignment of decision rights within the company • The methods of rewarding individuals • The structure of systems to evaluate the performance of both individuals and

business units

Not coincidentally, these are the same three aspects of the organization we identified in the Enron case.

We introduce the term organizational architecture to refer specifically to these three key aspects of the firm. We hesitate to simply use “organization” to refer to these three corporate features because common usage of that term refers only to the organization’s hierarchical structure—that is, decision-right assignments and report- ing relationships—while it generally ignores the performance-evaluation and reward systems. We thus use organizational architecture to help focus specific attention on all three of these critical aspects of the organization.

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