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Sequential persuasion

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Persuasion Sequential Persuasion


Sequential Persuasion


 A class of persuasive tactics that depend on requests and persuasive statements being carried out in a specific sequence


Sequential Persuasion


 Tactics aimed at getting people to comply


A list of 64 compliance-gaining strategies. Kellermann, K. & Cole, T. (1994). Classifying compliance gaining messages: Taxonomic disorder and strategic confusion. Communication Theory, 1, 3-60.


Overview


 Tactics aimed at getting people to comply


• Pregiving


• Foot-in-the-Door


• Door-in-the-Face


• That’s-Not-All


• Lowball


• Bait-and-Switch


• Disrupt-Then-Reframe


• Legitimizing paltry contributions


Pregiving


 Getting someone to comply by doing favors for him/her in advance


• Favors and gifts create a sense of indebtedness and returning favors is


culturally universal


Why Does Pregiving Work?


 The persuader


• Liking: the pregiver is perceived as a good, kind person


• Physical attractiveness: the pregiver is perceived to be more attractive


 The persuadee


• Impression management: people do not want to be perceived as ungrateful


freeloaders


• Internalized social norm: returning a favor makes people feel good about


themselves


Why Does Pregiving Work?


 The process


• Gratitude: pregiving leads to positive emotional states that motivates


favor return


• Perceived ulterior motives: pregiving is less effective when it is seen as a


tool of manipulation


The Foot-in-the-Door Tactic (FITD)


 A person who agrees to a small, initial request is more likely to comply with a subsequent larger request


Why Does FITD Work?


 Self-perception theory: people make self-attributions based on their own behavior


• You see yourself as an altruistic person when you agree to comply with a


small request, which then leads to consistency of compliance with the


second request


• Activating relevant attitudes is important (“you are so thoughtful.” “You are


so generous.”)


When Does FITD Work?


 Requests


• Prosocial requests: the strategy works best with prosocial causes


• Social labeling: Positive labels help activate relevant attitudes


• No external incentives: there should be no external inducements such as


payment or rewards


• Size of the 1st request: must be small enough, but not so small as to appear


trivial


• Time delay: a time delay between the 1st and 2nd requests may help activate


relevant attitudes


When Does FITD Work?


 The persuader


• The 1st and 2nd requests need not be made by the same requester


 The persuadee


• People with a high need for consistency/high self-concept clarity are more


susceptible


The Door-in-the-Face Tactic (DITF)


 A person is presented with an initial, large request which she/he is inclined to reject, the person thereby becomes more likely to comply with a second, more reasonable request


Why Does DITF Work?


 The persuadee


• Self-presentation: the target doesn’t want to be perceived negatively by


others


• Guilt: the target feels guilty


 The Request


• Perceptual contrast phenomenon: the 2nd request seems much more


reasonable by comparison


• Reciprocal concessions: the target perceives he/she is engaged in a


bargaining situation


When Does DITF Work?


 The Request


• Prosocial requests: the tactic works best with prosocial causes


• Size of the initial request: the 1st request must be large enough to be


rejected, but not ludicrous


• Size of the follow-up request: the 2nd request must be unambiguously


smaller than the 1st


• Time delay: the 2nd request should follow right after the 1st


When Does DITF Work?


 The persuader


• The 1st and 2nd requests must be made by the same requester


 The persuadee


• DITF works best with “exchange-oriented” people


The That’s-Not-All Tactic


 Free extras sweeten the deal and add perceived value to an offer


• “The first 20 callers will also receive…”


• “The original price is xxx but you will received a discount of xxx”


• Contrast: the revised deal may seem much better than it actually is


• Reciprocity: people may feel obligated to return the favor


That’s-Not-All vs. Door-in-the-Face


 That’s-Not-All


• The product or service is the same, but at a reduced price


• The that’s-not-all operates before the target makes a decision


 Door-in-the-Face


• The product or service in the second offer is different and at a reduced price


• The door-in-the-face operates after the first request was declined


The Lowball Tactic


 Increasing price of adding conditions to an offer that is “too good to be true” in the last minute


• There may be outright deception: “there was a mistake in the ad, the wine is


$19.99 per bottle, not $1.99”


• There may “hidden strings” attached: the advertised price for a cruise


doesn’t include tips, shore excursions, alternative dining, onboard activities,


internet, etc.


• Once people are psychologically committed, it is hard to back out


• People who initially agreed feel obligated to keep their promise


The Bait-and-Switch Tactic


 Advertising an offer that is “too good to be true” but offering something else later


• When the consumer tries to buy the low-priced item, the item is no longer


available, and the consumer is persuaded to purchase a more expensive item


instead


• “Sorry, we’re out of your size, but…”


Lowball vs. Bait-and-Switch


 Lowball


• The product or service is the same, but at a higher price


• The low ball operates after the target becomes psychologically committed


 Bait-and-switch


• The product or service is different and at a higher price


• The bait lures the target in before she/he is psychologically committed


The Disrupt-then-Reframe Tactic (DTR)


 A quirky statement disrupts cognitive processing


• “My soccer team’s candy is $5. That’s only 500 pennies.”


• The disruption inhibits counterarguing


Legitimizing Paltry Contributions


 Pre-empts potential objections


• “Even a penny will help!”, “No donation is too small.”


• The tactic induces guilt if the target declines


• Produces a large quantity of smaller donations


• More effective when combined with other tactics like social proofing (i.e.,


descriptive norm influence) or when used face-to-face


• Less effective for requests to donate time, rather than money


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