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Ober / Newman Business Communication: In Person, In Print, Online 8e

Current, fast-paced, & interesting – Just like business itself.

The business world is evolving rapidly, and you deserve a textbook that keeps pace. Business Communication: In Person, In Print, Online presents innovative content that refl ects the variety of communication technology used in today’s workplace. The text moves beyond describing new media to helping you use social media and other emerging communication technologies. With engaging examples and an innovative, visual format, this edition grabs your attention and makes you want to read.

Business Communication: In Person, In Print, Online, 8e

• Refl ects how people communicate in business today.

• Illustrates principles with current, real-world examples.

• Engages readers with creative visuals and an accessible writing style.

• Reinforces learning and promotes skill-building with a variety of online resources.

Business Communication: In Person, In Print, Online

33168_00_fm_pi-xxxiii_SE.indd i33168_00_fm_pi-xxxiii_SE.indd i 13/12/11 2:35 PM13/12/11 2:35 PM

Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).

Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Refl ects How People Communicate in Business Today

Business Communication: In Person, In Print, Online prepares you for challenging situations you will face in the digital workplace. Effective, accurate written and oral communication skills are still paramount. But in today’s competitive business environment, you need to be more than a successful communicator; you need to use communication to differentiate yourself.

Prepares You for Today’s Digital Workplace

Get more familiar with communicating through social media.

g y p

• Sending important information in a meeting • Providing instant reminders24

Social Media Perhaps the more interesting technologies for communication are social media. Web 2.0, which encourages online interaction, has opened the door for people to participate on the web. This is quite different from the one- way communication of the early Internet, when companies would post brochure-like websites for people to consume.

The real value of social media for companies is the opportunity to con- nect with people online. Social media is about the conversation. To promote interaction, companies use 2.0 technologies, for example, blogs, wikis, video, and social networking sites. These tools are used on the Internet (for the public), on a company’s intranet (for employee access only), and on extranets (private networks for people outside the company, e.g., custom- ers or franchisees). Examples of social media are shown in Figure 6.

For many companies, social media focuses on user-generated content (UGC), also called consumer-generated media (CGM). This content can be blog entries, product reviews, videos, or other messages posted about a company. As we discussed earlier in the Glassdoor example, this content isn’t always positive. In Chapter 7, we’ll explore how to respond to negative online comments.

The Fortune Global 100 companies are using social media actively. Seventy- nine percent are using at least one of four main social platforms—Twitter, videos, Facebook, and blogs—to communicate with customers.25 Of these tools, Twitter is the most frequently used.26 As a student, you may not be excited about Twitter (the average Twitter user is 39 years old),27 but this has proved useful for companies,

Companies use social media to have a conversation with internal and external audiences.

After introducing a few examples here, we’ll discuss social media— and other technologies—where relevant throughout the book. For example, we’ll explore wikis for team communication; social networking for interpersonal communication; email, blogs, and instant messaging for written communication; user- generated content for customer communication; and video for oral presentations.

as we’ll discuss later. The Fortune Global 100’s frequency of social media activity is shown in Figure 7.28

Blogs Companies use blogs to connect with employees and customers. Successful blogs are updated regularly with news or commentary, and many encourage inter- activity through comments, email subscriptions, and RSS (Really Simple Syndica- tion) feeds to share news and other content.

Wegmans, a regional supermarket, has an active blog called “Fresh Stories” to educate and engage customers—and keep them coming back. The blog includes videos, photos, and posts by CEO Danny Wegman. In one recent post, the CEO wrote,

With the spring season upon us (we hope! It’s been a cold April in the Roches- ter area), I wanted to kick off the season with a fresh story from the farm. I’m hoping you’ll start sharing your growing stories and questions as we experi- ence this new season together!29

With a blog, a CEO can build direct relationships with customers and personal- ize the company, particularly with a conversational style such as Danny Wegman’s.

The Wegmans blog also allows open comments, which are not always positive. Following the earthquake and tsunami disasters in Japan, one customer wrote,

Visit the author’s blog at www.bizcominthenews .com for current communication examples.

Figure 7 How Fortune

Learn how to listen to and engage online audiences.

33168_00_fm_pi-xxxiii_SE.indd ii33168_00_fm_pi-xxxiii_SE.indd ii 13/12/11 2:35 PM13/12/11 2:35 PM

Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).

Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Ober / Newman Business Communication: In Person, In Print, Online 8e

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Newman / Ober Business Communication: In Person, In Print, Online 8e

new content

• Move from diversity to inclusion.

• Adapt communication to multicultural and international audiences.

• Participate in online (web) meetings and videoconferences.

• Create PowerPoint® “decks” and represent ideas using creative graphics.

• Manage your online reputation.

New Content Helps You:

Understand how to communicate ethically and avoid legal consequences of communication.

front of a jury about the content of this email I am about to send?’ If the answer is anything other than an unqualifi ed ‘yes,’ it is not an email that should be sent.”40

You might ask yourself the same question for all communications related to your company.

ETHICS AND COMMUNICATION Beyond the legal requirements, companies will expect you to communicate ethi- cally. Consider this situation: Brian Maupin, a Best Buy employee, posted videos about the company on YouTube.41 His fi rst cartoon video, which received over 3.3 million views within two weeks, mocked a customer of “Phone Mart,” desperate for the latest version of the iPhone (Figure 12).

Before Maupin was invited back after being suspended, he created another video poking fun at the company’s policies. This interaction, between the store employee and the woman who “run[s] the ethics department” at the corporate offi ce, illustrates gray areas in communication ethics—and the importance of social media policies.

Was Maupin’s behavior ethical? Most corporate executives would consider the videos disparaging to the company. Although Maupin didn’t expect the videos to be such a huge success, he still publicly disagreed with sales policies, questioned loyalty to a top Best Buy supplier (Apple), and insulted customers. Things worked

Communicate ethically.

thi-- eoss

overr atee

Ethics in Communication

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Maupin: How is it any business of Phone Mart’s what I do in my spare time?

Head of Corporate Ethics Department: If it hurts us or one of our Phone Mart partners, like Apple, then it hurts all the Phone Mart employees and stockholders, and we must take action to protect the company from these attacks, James Cameron.

You iPhone4 vs HTC Evo tinywatchproductions

tinywatchproductions 4,707,322 views

Figure 12 Best Buy Employee Posts a Video

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Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).

Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

• Use email, instant messaging, and texting effectively at work.

• Respond to customer comments and complaints online.

• Answer behavioral interview questions and prepare for a case interview.

New Content Helps You:

Delete Junk Reply Reply All Forward Print

Email

From:

To:

Subject: Need More Detailed Bio by FridayUses a clear, specific subject line.

Uses a greeting that is standard within

the company.

Provides specific suggestions in bullets so

they are easy to skim.

Gives clear instructions: email by Friday.

Includes a simple, standard closing.

Uses a professional signature line.

Includes information that is useful to complete

the request.

Provides context for the request.

Gives a rationale for the deadline.

EmaEmaililil

Figure 12 Well-Written Email

© CENGAGE LEARNING 2013

space.?123 return ©

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See Chapter 12, Employment Communication, for tips on phone and video interviews.

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Figure 11 Tips for Using VoIP

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Thanks for at least using my name.

They really care what I think.

Wow! You really read my review!

Reply Delete Block User

“What TO Do” – A simple and personal thank you

Figure 13 Yelp’s Advice to Managers for Responding to a Positive Customer Post

The Plymouth manager’s response (at the bottom of Figure 12) could be more substantive, but her response is brief and funny. For informal social media interac- tions, this works just fi ne to connect with the writer and other prospective custom- ers. Considering the reviewer’s casual post, it might look odd for the manager to respond with something longer and more formal.

Yelp offers the example in Figure 13 with good advice for responding to posi- tive feedback online. For an authentic approach, personalize the response: provide a photo and your own name (not just the company’s name), mention the writer’s name, thank the writer for the post, address specifi c comments from the post, and offer solutions or other ways to stay in touch.

33168_00_fm_pi-xxxiii_SE.indd iv33168_00_fm_pi-xxxiii_SE.indd iv 13/12/11 2:35 PM13/12/11 2:35 PM

Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).

Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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Ober / Newman Business Communication: In Person, In Print, Online 8eNewman / Ober Business Communication: In Person, In Print, Online 8e

Illustrates Principles with Current, Real-World Examples Business Communication: In Person, In Print, Online is interesting to read. Principles and skills come alive with many examples of communication at work. You’ll learn how companies use communication to their advantage—and how companies struggle with communication.

Sample annotated letters, emails, blog posts, and other messages illustrate what works well and what could be improved.

cashiers to not ask me 50 times to barrassing to the company, at least the ty to respond, as someone did quickly: nce at the checkout. Our cashiers have me of them have done so on their own. t War- rs also

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Figure 8 Kevin Smith’s Tweet About Southwest Airlines

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Figure 9 Southwest’s Response to Kevin Smith

CITIES SERVED: DAILY DEPARTURES: HEADQUARTERS: EMPLOYEES:

CONNECT WITH SWA ELSEWHE

MOST RECENT RECOGNITION

• Examples are integrated right into the paragraph text, such as Best Buy’s suspension of an employee for a video posted on YouTube, Toyota’s response to safety recalls, McDonald’s adaptation to interna- tional markets, Google’s strategy for hiring, and more.

FREE SHIPPING

Personalizes the message to a select group of

customers.

Uses the indirect plan to provide history and context

for the decision.

Explains the Chapter 11 decision.

Uses headings to address customers’ questions.

Uses a conversational style and a personal approach

from the company’s leader.

Highlights customers’ most prevalent concerns.

Reassures customers with a positive, forward-looking

tone

FREE SHIPPING

Figure 12 Borders Updates Reward Customers During the Bankruptcy Process

the paragraph f l

Figure 10 McDonald’s India Website

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Companies customize their websites in other ways, too. Site navigation for high-context cultures, for example, might include subtle guidance and new pages opening in several new browser windows. This strategy allows the user to select new entry points for further exploration. But for low-context cultures, which tend to have more linear thought patterns, navigational cues may be more explicit, and new pages will open within the current window, to allow the user to go back and forth easily.23

We all interpret events through our own mental fi lter, and that fi lter s based on our unique knowledge,

experiences, and perspectives. For example, the language of time is as different among cultures as the lan- guage of words. Americans, Canadi- ans, Germans, and Japanese are very time conscious and precise about appointments; Latin American and Middle Eastern cultures tend to be more casual about time. For example, f your Mexican host tells you that he

or she will meet with you at 3:00, it’s most likely más o menos (Spanish for more or less”) 3:00.

33168_00_fm_pi-xxxiii_SE.indd v33168_00_fm_pi-xxxiii_SE.indd v 13/12/11 2:35 PM13/12/11 2:35 PM

Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).

Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

• A companion blog, BizCom in the News (www.bizcominthenews.com), spotlights communication issues that make headlines. Browse stories by chapter or by topic, and access stories on the book’s Facebook page (www.facebook.com/bizcominthenews).

Illustrates Principles with Current, Real-World Examples

• Expanded end-of-chapter exercises include six new company scenarios that help you develop skills that will transfer to the workplace. For example, Aggresshop prepares you to respond to a customer complaint on the company’s blog and select the appropriate channel to communicate organizational change.

CHAPTER 1 Understanding Business Communication 33

Aggresshop Imagine you work for Aggresshop, an upscale women’s clothing boutique with 16 stores throughout the United States. At www.cengagebrain.com, you’ll fi nd Aggresshop’s company blog for customers and employees.

As you’ll read in the scenario, Aggresshop is experiencing many customer com- plaints about its sales associates’ overly aggressive techniques (two posts are shown below). The CEO decides to change the sales compensation structure to address this issue.

On the blog, you’ll see examples of several communication concepts discussed in Chapter 1: directions of communication, communication media, barriers to communica- tion, and ethics in communication. This scenario will also help you learn to do the following:

• Respond to customer complaints on a company blog.

• Communicate a change internally.

• Tailor message content and tone for different audiences and communication channels.

To help you practice your business communication your instructor may assign the

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Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).

Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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Ober / Newman Business Communication: In Person, In Print, Online 8eNewman / Ober Business Communication: In Person, In Print, Online 8e

Current, fast-paced, & interesting – Just like business itself.

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• Engaging model documents help you learn the many types of writing—both in print and online. Models provide marginal callouts with detailed writing instructions.

CHAPTER 12 Employment Communication 417

Chooses present tense verbs to describe current

responsibilities.

Includes relevant skills and hobbies (optional).

Starts with educational background, most relevant for a graduating student.

Education Moraine Valley Community College, Palos Hills, IL • Associate in Science Degree (A.S.), 3.8 G.P.A.,

Expected Graduation 2012 • Dean’s List All Semesters • Coursework: International Business, Fundamentals of

Accounting, Business Mathematics, Financial Accounting, Computer Applications in Accounting

The American International University in Rome Study Abroad, High School Program, Summer 2010 • Lived with a host family for three weeks • Studied Italian and Introduction to Business

Management

Employment Moraine Valley Community College Teaching Assistant, Computer Applications in Accounting, (2011-present) • Assist professor with grading 150 papers each semester • Hold daily office hours for students • Provide tutoring on challenging course material

Lakewatch Apartments Property Accountant (2009-2012) • Processed all accounts payable including taxes,

mortgages, and monthly bills • Maintained cash receipt journals for various properties • Processed and deposited rental income • Maintained general ledger and reconciled all bank

statements • Produced special reports for the partners and investors

Other • Notary Public, State of Illinois • Proficient in Peachtree and Microsoft Word, Excel,

and Outlook • Proficient Italian • Hobbies include guitar, tennis, model airplanes

Highlights experience to differentiate his candidacy.

Uses a simple, creative design; includes clear

contact information and a professional email address.

Marcus C. Benini

Uses bold type to emphasize job title, which is more

important than the names of this applicant’s employers.

Chooses past tense verbs to describe previous

experience.

Figure 4 Sample Résumé 1 (Chronological)

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Creative visuals enhance your learning experience and aid in retention.

Engages with Creative Visuals & an Accessible

Writing Style With strong visual appeal, this edition encourages you to read. Where appropriate, content is presented visually— in tables and graphics. Written in a professional, conversational style, Business Communication: In Person, In Print, Online aids comprehension and refl ects business writing in companies today.

33168_00_fm_pi-xxxiii_SE.indd vii33168_00_fm_pi-xxxiii_SE.indd vii 13/12/11 2:36 PM13/12/11 2:36 PM

Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).

Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Reinforces Learning & Promotes Skill-Building with a Variety of Innovative Digital Resources

The eighth edition of Business Communication: In Person, In Print, Online integrates the most advanced new technology for effi cient and effective study opportunities.

CengageNOW™ is an integrated, online learning system that gives you more control over your success. This innovative, intuitive tool combines the best of current technology to help you plan and study more effectively.

33168_00_fm_pi-xxxiii_SE.indd viii33168_00_fm_pi-xxxiii_SE.indd viii 13/12/11 2:36 PM13/12/11 2:36 PM

Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).

Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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Ober / Newman Business Communication: In Person, In Print, Online 8eNewman / Ober Business Communication: In Person, In Print, Online 8e

digital tools

• A diagnostic Personalized Study Plan helps you identify troublesome concepts and creates individualized study plans for better class preparation and grades.

• With CengageNOW you also get PowerPoint® slides, videos, digital fl ash

cards, games, and an integrated ebook to make studying business communication more effective and convenient.

CengageNOW:

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Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).

Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Innovative Digital Resources

CourseMate is a unique website, created to support this text, to make course concepts come alive with interactive learning, study, and exam preparation tools. CourseMate delivers what you need, including an interactive eBook, quizzes, videos, KnowNOW!, Career Transitions interactive tool, and more!

Log in through www.cengagebrain.com to see what is available.

• Pretests

• Posttests

• PowerPoint study slides

• Flash cards

• Multimedia company scenarios

• BizComInTheNews.com

Through CourseMate,

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Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).

Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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Ober / Newman Business Communication: In Person, In Print, Online 8e

digital tools Newman / Ober Business Communication: In Person, In Print, Online 8e

Helpful tools including fl ash cards, crossword puzzles, and videos are at your fi ngertips!

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Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).

Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Business Communication: In Person, In Print, Online 8e www.cengagebrain.com

Find free resources and more at CengageBrain.com

Buy, Download orRENT

TEXTBOOKS and save

up to60% on

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Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).

Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Business Communication In Person, In Print, Online

8e

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Business Communication In Person, In Print, Online

AMY NEWMAN Cornell University

SCOT OBER Ball State University

8e

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© 2013, 2009 South-Western, Cengage Learning

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Library of Congress Control Number: 2011941238

ISBN-13: 978-1-111-53316-8

ISBN-10: 1-111-53316-4

South-Western 5191 Natorp Boulevard Mason, OH 45040 USA

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Business Communication: In Person, In Print, Online 8e Newman Ober

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xvii

Brief Contents PART 1

FOUNDATIONS OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

1 Understanding Business Communication 2

2 Team and Intercultural Communication 36

3 Interpersonal Communication Skills 70

PART 2 DEVELOPING YOUR BUSINESS WRITING SKILLS

4 The Writing Process 104

5 Revising Your Writing 140

PART 3 WRITTEN MESSAGES

6 Neutral and Positive Messages 180

7 Persuasive Messages 208

8 Bad-News Messages 248

PART 4 REPORT WRITING

9 Planning the Report and Managing Data 284

10 Writing the Report 324

PART 5 ORAL AND EMPLOYMENT COMMUNICATION

11 Oral Presentations 366

12 Employment Communication 412

REFERENCE MANUAL A LANGUAGE ARTS BASICS 468 B FORMATTING BUSINESS DOCUMENTS 503 C COMMON TYPES OF BUSINESS REPORTS 524 D GLOSSARY 532

Index 536

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

xix

Contents

Part 1 FOUNDATIONS OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION 3

1 Understanding Business Communication 2 Communicating in Organizations 4 The Components of Communication 5

The Communication Model 5 Directions of Communication 7

Communication Barriers 10 Verbal Barriers 10 Nonverbal Barriers 12

Communication Media Choices 13 Traditional Communication Channels 14 Technology-Based Communication Media 14 Choosing Communication Media 18 Convergence of Communication Media 19

Potential Legal Consequences of Communication 20 Ethics and Communication 21

What Affects Ethical Behavior 22 Ethics Pays 22 Framework for Ethical Decision Making 23 Communicating Ethically 24

Introducing the 3Ps (Purpose, Process, Product) Model 24

The 3Ps In Action: An Ethical Decision from the Movie Up in the Air 25 The 3Ps In Practice: Media Choices in the Movie Up in the Air 26 Summary 27 Exercises 27 Company Scenario: Aggresshop 33 Notes 34

2 Team and Intercultural Communication 36 Work Team Communication 38

The Variables of Group Communication 38 Initial Group Goals 38 Giving Constructive Feedback 39 Con� ict Resolution 40 The Ethical Dimension of Team Communication 41

Collaboration on Team Writing Projects 42 Applying Strategies for Team Writing 42 Commenting on Peers’ Writing 43 Using Technology for Work in Teams 44

Intercultural Communication 45 Cultural Differences 46 Group-Oriented Behavior 49 Strategies for Communicating Across Cultures 50

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Contentsxx

Diversity Within the United States 51 The Value of Diversity 51 Ethnicity Issues in Communication 53 Gender Issues in Communication 54 Communicating with People with Disabilities 56 Communicating Across Generations 58

The 3Ps In Action: Addressing Disrespectful Comments 59 The 3Ps In Practice: Tailoring a Message to Different Audiences 60 Summary 61 Exercises 61 Company Scenario: Dewey, Wright, and Howe 68 Notes 69

3 Interpersonal Communication Skills 70 Nonverbal Communication 72

Body Movement 72 Physical Appearance 73 Voice Qualities 73 Time 74 Touch 74 Space and Territory 74

Listening 75 The Value of Listening 75 The Problem of Poor Listening Skills 76 Keys to Better Listening 77

Using Social Media to Build Business Relationships 79 Engaging Customers Online 79 Engaging Employees Online 81

Communicating by Voice and Text Messaging 82 Business Meetings 84

Determining the Meeting Format 84 Planning the Meeting 87 Facilitating the Meeting 90 Participating in the Meeting 90 Following Up the Meeting 91

The 3Ps In Action: Listening to Customers 93 The 3Ps In Practice: Planning a Meeting 95 Summary 96 Exercises 96 Company Scenario: In the Loop Soup Kitchen 102 Notes 103

Part 2 DEVELOPING YOUR BUSINESS WRITING SKILLS 105

4 The Writing Process 104 An Overview of the Writing Process 106 Audience Analysis 107

Who Is the Primary Audience? 107 What Is Your Relationship with the Audience? 107

33168_00_fm_pi-xxxiii_SE.indd xx33168_00_fm_pi-xxxiii_SE.indd xx 13/12/11 2:36 PM13/12/11 2:36 PM

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Contents xxi

How Will the Audience Likely React? 108 What Does the Audience Already Know? 108 What Is Unique About the Audience? 108 Example of Audience Analysis 109 Ethical Persuasion 110

Planning 110 Purpose 110 Content 111 Organization 112

Drafting 114 Letting Go 115 Overcoming Writer’s Block 116 Writing for Different Media 117

Revising 123 Revising for Content 123 Revising for Style 124 Revising for Correctness 124

Proofreading 124

The 3Ps In Action: Responding to the Embarrassing Sign at a National Fast-Food Restaurant 126 The 3Ps In Practice: Announcing Writing Skills Workshops 128 Summary 129 Exercises 129 Company Scenario: Writeaway Hotels 137 Notes 138

5 Revising Your Writing 140 What Do We Mean by Style? 142 Choosing the Right Words 142

Write Clearly 142 Write Concisely 147

Writing Effective Sentences 151 Use a Variety of Sentence Types 151 Use Active and Passive Voice Appropriately 152 Use Parallel Structure 153

Developing Logical Paragraphs 154 Keep Paragraphs Uni� ed and Coherent 155 Control Paragraph Length 157

Creating an Appropriate Tone 158 Write Con� dently 158 Use a Courteous and Sincere Tone 159 Use Appropriate Emphasis and Subordination 160 Use Positive Language 162 Stress the “You” Attitude 163

The 3Ps In Action: Revising Content for an Entertainment Company Website 166 The 3Ps In Practice: Revising an Email to Employees 167 Summary 168 Exercises 168 Company Scenario : Writeaway Hotels 178 Notes 179

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Contentsxxii

Part 3 WRITTEN MESSAGES 181

6 Neutral and Positive Messages 180 Types of Neutral and Positive Messages 182 Planning a Neutral or Positive Message 182 Organizing a Neutral Message 182

Major Idea First 183 Explanation and Details 184 Friendly Closing 185

Sending Instant Messages for Neutral Messages 186 When to IM at Work 186 How to IM at Work 187

Responding to a Neutral Message 187 Composing Goodwill Messages 190

Recognition Notes 191 Congratulatory Notes 191 Thank-You Notes 191 Sympathy Notes 193

Addressing Customer Comments Online 194 Deciding Whether to Respond 194 Responding to Positive Reviews 195 Anticipating Customer Needs Online 196

The 3Ps In Action: Responding to a Request for Information 198 The 3Ps In Practice: Responding to Online Feedback 199 Summary 200 Exercises 200 Company Scenario: In the Loop 206 Notes 207

7 Persuasive Messages 208 Planning Persuasive Messages 210 Analyzing Your Audience 210

Knowing Your Audience 210 Applying Persuasion Principles 211

Writing a Short Persuasive Message 214 Determining How to Start the Message 214 Justifying Your Idea or Request 217 Dealing with Obstacles 219 Motivating Action 219

Writing a Sales Letter 220 Selecting a Central Selling Theme 220 Gaining the Reader’s Attention 222 Creating Interest and Building Desire 223 Motivating Action 227

Writing and Responding to Negative Customer Feedback 228 Writing Customer Complaint Letters and Online Reviews 230 Responding to Negative Feedback 232

The 3Ps In Action: A Sales Letter to Automobile Customers 235 The 3Ps In Practice: Requesting a Visit to Another Dealership 237

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Contents xxiii

Summary 238 Exercises 238 Company Scenario: PersuadeCafé 245 Notes 246

8 Bad-News Messages 248 Planning the Bad-News Message 250

Organizing to Suit Your Audience 251 Justifying Your Decision 255 Giving the Bad News 257 Closing on a Pleasant Note 258

Composing Bad-News Replies 259 Rejecting an Idea 260 Refusing a Favor 261 Refusing a Customer Request 261

Announcing Bad News 263 Bad News About Normal Operations 264 Bad News About the Organization 266 Bad News About Jobs 267

The 3Ps In Action: Rejecting an Idea to Spin Off a Company Division 269 The 3Ps In Practice: Announcing the Close of a Division 271 Summary 272 Exercises 272 Company Scenario: Aggresshop 280 Notes 282

Part 4 REPORT WRITING 285

9 Planning the Report and Managing Data 284 Who Reads and Writes Reports 286 Finding Sources for Your Report 286

Identifying Types of Data 288 Searching for Relevant Sources 289 Evaluating Sources of Information 289

Collecting Data Through Questionnaires 293 Constructing the Questionnaire 294 Writing the Cover Letter or Email 297

Displaying Quantitative Information 298 Constructing Tables 299 Preparing Charts 303

Interpreting Data 309 Making Sense of the Data 309 Considering the Ethical Dimension 311

The 3Ps In Action: Displaying Nutritional Information 312 The 3Ps In Practice: Developing a Questionnaire about Dessert Items 313 Summary 314 Exercises 314 Company Scenario: PersuadeCafé 322 Notes 323

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Contentsxxiv

10 Writing the Report 324 Planning the Report 326

Selecting a Report Format 326 Organizing the Report 329 Outlining the Report 334

Drafting the Report 336 Drafting the Body 336 Drafting Supplementary Sections 339

Developing an Effective Writing Style 342 Tone 342 Pronouns 343 Verb Tense 343 Emphasis and Subordination 343 Coherence 344

Documenting Your Sources 346 Why We Document Sources 346 What Has to Be Documented 346 How to Document Sources 347 Distortion by Omission 348

Refi ning Your Draft 349 Revising 349 Formatting 350 Proofreading 350

The 3Ps In Action: Interpreting Data for Consumers 352 The 3Ps In Practice: Writing an Executive Summary for a PowerPoint Report 353 Summary 354 Exercises 354 Company Scenario: PersuadeCafé 364 Notes 365

Part 5 ORAL AND EMPLOYMENT COMMUNICATION 367

11 Oral Presentation 366 The Role of Business Presentations 368 Planning the Presentation 368

Purpose 369 Audience Analysis 370 Delivery Method 372

Organizing the Presentation 374 The Opening 374 The Body 376 The Ending 378 Humor in Business Presentations 378

Planning Team and Online Presentations 379 Team Presentations 379 Online Presentations 380

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Contents xxv

Developing Visual Support for Business Presentations 381 Creating Presentation Slides 381 Using Presentation Slides 388 Using Video 390 Creating and Using Handouts 390

Practicing and Delivering the Presentation 391 Practicing the Presentation 391 Delivering the Presentation 392

The 3Ps In Action: Giving Feedback to a Speaker 396 The 3Ps In Practice: Preparing for a TED Conference Presentation 398 Summary 399 Exercises 399 Company Scenario: PersuadeCafé 409 Notes 410

12 Employment Communication 412 Putting Your Best Self Forward 414 Preparing Your Résumé 414

Résumé Length 414 Résumé Format 418 Résumé Content 420 Résumés on the Web 428

Writing Cover Letters and Inquiry Emails 431 Cover Letters 431 Inquiry Emails 435

Preparing for a Job Interview 437 Researching the Organization 437 Practicing Interview Questions 437 Managing a Video or Phone Interview 441 Preparing Your Own Questions 441 Dressing for Success 442

Conducting Yourself During the Interview 443 Following Up Throughout the Process 445 Practicing Business Etiquette 448

Meeting and Greeting 448 Dining 449 Giving Gifts 451 Managing Your Online Reputation 451 Working in an Of� ce 452

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