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The song of the wreck charles dickens analysis

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Literature S H O R T E R T H I R T E E N T H E D I T I O N

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Kelly J. Mays

B W . W . N O R T O N & C O M P A N Y

N e w Yo r k , L o n d o n

U N I V E R S I T Y O F N E VA D A , L A S V E G A S

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Editor: Sarah Touborg Proj ect Editor: Christine D’Antonio Assistant Editor: Madeline Rombes Manuscript Editor: Rebecca Caine Managing Editor, College: Marian Johnson Managing Editor, College Digital Media: Kim Yi Production Man ag ers: Ashley Horna, Stephen Sajdak Media Editor: Carly Fraser Doria Media Editorial Assistants: Alexander Lee, Joshua Bianchi Ebook Production Manager: Danielle Lehmann Marketing Man ag er, Lit er a ture: Kimberly Bowers Media Project Editor: Cooper Wilhelm Design Director: Lissi Sigillo Book Designer: Pamela Schnitter Photo Editor: Ted Szczepanski Photo Research: Julie Tesser Director of College Permissions: Megan Schindel Permissions Clearer: Margaret Gorenstein Composition: Westchester Publishing Services Manufacturing: LSC Communications

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2016, 2013, 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998, 1995, 1991, 1986, 1981, 1977, 1973 by W. W. Norton & Com pany, Inc.

All rights reserved Printed in the United States of Amer i ca

Permission to use copyrighted material is included in the permissions acknowl edgments section of this book, which begins on page A27.

Library of Congress Cataloging- in- Publication Data Names: Mays, Kelly J., editor. Title: The Norton introduction to lit er a ture / [edited by] Kelly J. Mays, University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Description: Shorter thirteenth edition. | New York : W. W. Norton & Com pany, 2018. | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2018004891 | ISBN 9780393664928 (pbk.) Subjects: LCSH: Lit er a ture— Collections. Classification: LCC PN6014 .N67 2018 | DDC 808.8— dc23

LC rec ord available at https:// lccn . loc . gov / 2018004891

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W. W. Norton & Com pany has been in de pen dent since its founding in 1923, when William Warder Norton and Mary D. Herter Norton first published lectures delivered at the People’s Institute, the adult education division of New York City’s Cooper Union. The firm soon expanded its program beyond the Institute, publishing books by celebrated academics from Amer i ca and abroad. By mid- century, the two major pillars of Norton’s publishing program— trade books and college texts— were firmly established. In the 1950s, the Norton family transferred control of the com pany to its employees, and today— with a staff of four hundred and a comparable number of trade, college, and professional titles published each year— W. W. Norton & Com pany stands as the largest and oldest publishing house owned wholly by its employees.

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Cover design: Pete Garceau


Brief Table of Contents

Preface for Instructors xxviii Introduction 1

PART ONE Fiction 1 Fiction: Reading, Responding, Writing 16


2 Plot 75

3 Narration and Point of View 169

4 Character 210

5 Setting 282

6 Symbol and Figurative Language 380

7 Theme 429


8 The Author’s Work as Context: Flannery O’Connor 512

9 Cultural and Historical Contexts: Women in Turn- of- the- Century Amer i ca 564

10 Critical Contexts: Tim O’Brien’s “The Things They Carried” 607


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PART TWO Poetry 11 Poetry: Reading, Responding, Writing 730


12 Speaker: Whose Voice Do We Hear? 769

13 Situation and Setting: What Happens? Where? When? 795

14 Theme and Tone 830

15 Language: Word Choice and Order 854

16 Visual Imagery and Figures of Speech 866

17 Symbol 884

18 The Sounds of Poetry 899

19 Internal Structure 930

20 External Form 951


21 The Author’s Work as Context: Adrienne Rich 986

22 The Author’s Work as Context: William Blake’s Songs of Innocence and of Experience 1055

23 Cultural and Historical Contexts: The Harlem Re nais sance 1065

24 Critical Contexts: Sylvia Plath’s “ Daddy” 1102


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PART THREE Drama 25 Drama: Reading, Responding, Writing 1194


26 Ele ments of Drama 1221


27 The Author’s Work as Context: William Shakespeare 1332

28 Cultural and Historical Contexts: Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun 1496

29 Critical Contexts: Sophocles’s Antigone 1600


PART FOUR Writing about Lit er a ture 30 Basic Moves: Paraphrase, Summary, Description 1914

31 The Lit er a ture Essay 1918

32 The Writing Pro cess 1938

33 The Lit er a ture Research Essay 1951

34 Quotation, Citation, and Documentation 1962

35 Sample Research Essay 1992

Critical Approaches A1

Permissions Acknowl edgments A27

Index of Authors A45

Index of Titles and First Lines A52

Glossary/Index of Literary Terms A61

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Preface for Instructors xxviii Introduction 1

What Is Lit er a ture? 1

What Does Lit er a ture Do? 3

John Keats, On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer 4 What Are the Genres of Lit er a ture? 4

Why Read Lit er a ture? 6

Why Study Lit er a ture? 9

Hai- Dang Phan, My Father’s “Norton Introduction to Lit er a ture,” Third Edition (1981) 10


John Crowe Ransom, Bells for John Whiteside’s Daughter 13

PART ONE Fiction 1 Fiction: Reading, Responding, Writing 16

anonymous, The Elephant in the Village of the Blind 17 Reading and Responding to Fiction 20 linda brewer, 20/20 20

SAMPLE WRITING: Annotation and Notes on “20/20” 21

Reading and Responding to Graphic Fiction 23 jules feiffer, Superman 23 Writing about Fiction 27 raymond carver, Cathedral 28

SAMPLE WRITING: Reading Notes on “Cathedral” 39

SAMPLE WRITING: Response Paper on “Cathedral” 42

SAMPLE WRITING: Essay on “Cathedral” 45

Telling Stories: An Album 49 grace paley, A Conversation with My Father 50


anton chekhov, Gooseberries 55 tim o’brien, The Lives of the Dead 63

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2 Plot 75 Plot versus Action, Sequence, and Subplot 75 Pace 76 Conflicts 76 gary trudeau, Doonesbury 77 jacob and wilhelm grimm, The Shroud 77 The Five Parts of Plot 78 Common Plot Types 82 ralph ellison, King of the Bingo Game 83 james baldwin, Sonny’s Blues 91 joyce carol oates, Where Are You Going, Where Have You

Been? 114 AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Joyce Carol Oates 126

viet thanh Nguyen, I’d Love You to Want Me 127 SAMPLE WRITING: Essay on “King of the Bingo Game” 141

Initiation Stories: An Album 144 toni cade bambara, The Lesson 146

AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Toni Cade Bambara 152

alice munro, Boys and Girls 152 john updike, A & P 163


3 Narration and Point of View 169 Types of Narration 170 Tense 171 Narrator versus Implied Author 171 edgar allan poe, The Cask of Amontillado 173 george saunders, Puppy 179

AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: George Saunders 186

virginia woolf, The Mark on the Wall 186 adam johnson, In ter est ing Facts 192

4 Character 210 Heroes and Villains versus Protagonists and Antagonists 211 Major versus Minor Characters 212 Flat versus Round and Static versus Dynamic Characters 212 Stock Characters and Archetypes 213 Reading Character in Fiction and Life 213 william faulkner, Barn Burning 217 toni morrison, Recitatif 230

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AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Toni Morrison 244

david foster wallace, Good People 245 alissa nutting, Model’s Assistant 250

Monsters: An Album 259 margaret atwood, Lusus Naturae 260 karen russell, St. Lucy’s Home for Girls Raised by Wolves 265 jorge luis borges, The House of Asterion 277

AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Jorge Luis Borges 280

5 Setting 282 Temporal and Physical, General and Par tic u lar Setting 282 Functions of Setting 282 Vague and Vivid Settings 283 italo calvino, from Invisible Cities 284 margaret mitchell, from Gone with the Wind 284 Traditional Expectations of Time and Place 285 alice randall, from The Wind Done Gone 286 james joyce, Araby 288 amy tan, A Pair of Tickets 293 judith ortiz cofer, Volar 306 annie proulx, Job History 308

SAMPLE WRITING: Annotation and Close Reading on “Araby” 314

The Future: An Album 317 william gibson, The Gernsback Continuum 318

AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: William Gibson 327

ray bradbury, The Veldt 328 AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Ray Bradbury 339

octavia E. butler, Bloodchild 340 AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Octavia E. Butler 354

jennifer egan, Black Box 355 AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Jennifer Egan 378

6 Symbol and Figurative Language 380 Literary Symbolism 381 Figures of Speech 382 Interpreting Symbolism and Figurative Language 383 nathaniel hawthorne, The Birth- Mark 385 a. s. byatt, The Thing in the Forest 397 edwidge danticat, A Wall of Fire Rising 412

SAMPLE WRITING: Comparative Essay on “The Birth- Mark” and

“The Thing in the Forest” 425

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x ii CoNTeNTS

7 Theme 429 aesop, The Two Crabs 429 Theme(s): Singular or Plural? 430 Be Specific: Theme as Idea versus Topic or Subject 430 Don’t Be Too Specific: Theme as General Idea 431 Theme versus Moral 431 stephen crane, The Open Boat 433 gabriel garcÍa mÁrquez, A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings:

A Tale for Children 451 yasunari kawabata, The Grasshopper and the Bell Cricket 456 junot dÍaz, Wildwood 459

Cross- Cultural Encounters: An Album 477 bharati mukherjee, The Management of Grief 478

AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Bharati Mukherjee 491

jhumpa lahiri, Interpreter of Maladies 491 AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Jhumpa Lahiri 507

david sedaris, Jesus Shaves 508


8 The Author’s Work as Context: Flannery O’Connor 512 Biographical Approaches to Lit er a ture 513 Implied Author or Narrator 514 Style and Tone 515 Three Stories by Flannery O’Connor 516 A Good Man Is Hard to Find 516 Good Country People 527 Every thing That Rises Must Converge 540 Passages from Flannery O’Connor’s Essays and Letters 550 Critical Excerpts 554 mary gordon, from Flannery’s Kiss 554 ann e. reuman, from Revolting Fictions: Flannery O’Connor’s

Letter to Her Mother 557 eileen pollack, from Flannery O’Connor and the

New Criticism 560

9 Cultural and Historical Contexts: Women in Turn- of- the- Century Amer i ca 564 Women at the Turn of the Century: An Overview 565 Women Writers in a Changing World 567 kate chopin, The Story of an Hour 568 charlotte perkins gilman, The Yellow Wall paper 571

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CoNTeNTS xiii

susan glaspell, A Jury of Her Peers 582 Contextual Excerpts 599 charlotte perkins gilman, from Similar Cases 599 from Women and Economics 600 barbara boyd, from Heart and Home Talks: Politics and Milk 601 mrs. arthur lyttelton, from Women and Their Work 601 rheta childe dorr, from What Eight Million Women Want 602 The New York Times, from Mrs. Delong Acquitted 603 The Washington Post, from The Chances of Divorce 603 charlotte perkins gilman, from Why I Wrote “The Yellow

Wall - paper” 604 The Washington Post, The Rest Cure 604 The Washington Post, from Egotism of the Rest Cure 604

10 Critical Contexts: Tim O’Brien’s “The Things They Carried” 607 tim o’brien, The Things They Carried 609 Critical Excerpts 622 steven kaplan, from The Undying Uncertainty of the Narrator in

Tim O’Brien’s The Things They Carried 622 lorrie n. smith, from “The Things Men Do”: The Gendered Subtext

in Tim O’Brien’s Esquire Stories 627 susan farrell, from Tim O’Brien and Gender: A Defense of

The Things They Carried 637

READING MORE FICTION 643 louise erdrich, Love Medicine 643 william faulkner, A Rose for Emily 658 ernest hemingway, Hills Like White Elephants 665 franz kafka, A Hunger Artist 669 jamaica kincaid, Girl 675 bobbie ann mason, Shiloh 677 guy de maupassant, The Jewelry 687 herman melville, Bartleby, the Scrivener: A Story of Wall Street 693 eudora welty, Why I Live at the P.O. 719

PART TWO Poetry 11 Poetry: Reading, Responding, Writing 730

Defining Poetry 731 lydia davis, Head, Heart 732

AUTHORS ON THEIR CR AF T: Billy Collins 733

Poetic Subgenres and Kinds 734

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x iv CoNTeNTS

edwin arlington robinson, Richard Cory 735 robert frost, “Out, Out—” 736 thomas hardy, The Ruined Maid 737 william words worth, I wandered lonely as a cloud 738 frank o’hara, Poem [Lana Turner has collapsed!] 739 phillis wheatley, On Being Brought from Africa to Amer i ca 741 emily dickinson, The Sky is low— the Clouds are mean 742 billy collins, Divorce 742 bruce springsteen, Nebraska 743 robert hayden, A Letter from Phillis Wheatley 744 Responding to Poetry 746 aphra behn, On Her Loving Two Equally 746 Writing about Poetry 753

SAMPLE WRITING: Response Paper on “On Her Loving Two Equally” 755

SAMPLE WRITING: Essay on “On Her Loving Two Equally” 757

The Art of (Reading) Poetry: An Album 761 howard nemerov, Because You Asked about the Line between Prose

and Poetry 761 archibald macleish, Ars Poetica 762 czeslaw milosz, Ars Poetica? 763

AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Czeslaw Milosz 764

elizabeth alexander, Ars Poetica #100: I Believe 764 marianne moore, Poetry 765 julia alvarez, “Poetry Makes Nothing Happen”? 766 billy collins, Introduction to Poetry 767


12 Speaker: Whose Voice Do We Hear? 769 Narrative Poems and Their Speakers 769 etheridge knight, Hard Rock Returns to Prison from the Hospital

for the Criminal Insane 769 Speakers in the Dramatic Monologue 771 a. e. stallings, Hades Welcomes His Bride 771 The Lyric and Its Speaker 773 margaret atwood, Death of a Young Son by Drowning 773

AUTHORS ON THEIR CR AF T: Billy Collins and Sharon Olds 775

william words worth, She Dwelt among the Untrodden Ways 776 dorothy parker, A Certain Lady 776 Poems for Further Study 777 walt whitman, I celebrate myself, and sing myself 777

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langston hughes, Ballad of the Landlord 778 e. e. cummings, next to of course god amer i ca i 779 gwendolyn brooks, We Real Cool 779

AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Gwendolyn Brooks 780

lucille clifton, cream of wheat 781 Exploring Gender: An Album 783 richard lovelace, Song: To Lucasta, Going to the Wars 784 mary, lady chudleigh, To the Ladies 784 wilfred owen, Disabled 785 elizabeth bishop, Exchanging Hats 786 david wagoner, My Father’s Garden 787 judith ortiz cofer, The Changeling 788 marie howe, Practicing 789


bob hicok, O my pa- pa 791 terrance hayes, Mr. T— 792 stacey waite, The Kind of Man I Am at the DMV 793

13 Situation and Setting: What Happens? Where? When? 795 Situation 796 rita dove, Daystar 796 denise duhamel, Humanity 101 797 tracy k. smith, Sci- Fi 798 Setting 799 matthew arnold, Dover Beach 799 One Poem, Multiple Situations and Settings 801 li- young lee, Persimmons 801 One Situation and Setting, Multiple Poems 803 christopher marlowe, The Passionate Shepherd to His Love 803 sir walter raleigh, The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd 804 The Occasional Poem 805 martÍn espada, Litany at the Tomb of Frederick Douglass 806

AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Martín Espada 807

The Carpe Diem Poem 807 john donne, The Flea 807 andrew marvell, To His Coy Mistress 808 The Aubade 809 john donne, The Sun Rising 810 james richardson, Late Aubade 811 Poems for Further Study 811 terrance hayes, Carp Poem 811 natasha trethewey, Pilgrimage 812

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xv i CoNTeNTS

mahmoud darwish, Identity Card 814 yehuda amichai, On Yom Kippur in 1967 . . . 816 yusef komunyakaa, Tu Do Street 817

AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Yusef Komunyakaa 818

Homelands: An Album 821 maya angelou, Africa 821


derek walcott, A Far Cry from Africa 822 AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Derek Walcott 824

judith ortiz cofer, The Latin Deli: An Ars Poetica 825 cathy song, Heaven 826 agha shahid ali, Postcard from Kashmir 827 adrienne su, Escape from the Old Country 828

14 Theme and Tone 830 Tone 830 w. d. snodgrass, Leaving the Motel 831 Theme 832 maxine kumin, Woodchucks 832 adrienne rich, Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers 833

AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Adrienne Rich 834

Theme and Conflict 834 adrienne su, On Writing 835


Poems for Further Study 836 paul laurence dunbar, Sympathy 836 w. h. auden, Stop all the clocks, cut off the telephone 837 kay ryan, Repulsive Theory 838 maya angelou, Still I Rise 838

SAMPLE WRITING: Response Paper on Auden’s “Stop all the clocks,

cut off the telephone” 841

Family: An Album 845 simon j. ortiz, My Father’s Song 845 robert hayden, Those Winter Sundays 846 ellen bryant voigt, My Mother 846 martín espada, Of the Threads That Connect the Stars 848 emily grosholz, Eden 848 philip larkin, This Be the Verse 849

AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Philip Larkin 850

jimmy santiago baca, Green Chile 850

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CoNTeNTS xv ii

paul martínez pompa, The Abuelita Poem 851 charlie smith, The Business 852 andrew hudgins, Begotten 853

15 Language: Word Choice and Order 854 Precision and Ambiguity 854 sarah cleghorn, The golf links lie so near the mill 854 martha collins, Lies 855 Denotation and Connotation 855 walter de la mare, Slim Cunning Hands 856 theodore roethke, My Papa’s Waltz 857 Word Order and Placement 857 sharon olds, Sex without Love 859


Poems for Further Study 860 william blake, London 860 gerard manley hopkins, Pied Beauty 861 william carlos williams, The Red Wheelbarrow 861 This Is Just to Say 862

AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: William Carlos Williams 862

kay ryan, Blandeur 863 martha collins, white paper #24 864 a. e. stallings, Shoulda, Woulda, Coulda 865

16 Visual Imagery and Figures of Speech 866 david bottoms, Hubert Blankenship 867 claude mckay, The Harlem Dancer 868 lynn powell, Kind of Blue 868 Simile and Analogy 869 todd boss, My Love for You Is So Embarrassingly 869 Meta phor 870 william shakespeare, That time of year thou mayst in me

behold 870 linda pastan, Marks 871 Personification 871 emily dickinson, Because I could not stop for Death— 872 Metonymy and Synecdoche 872 william words worth, London, 1802 873 tracy k. smith, Ash 874 emma bolden, House Is an Enigma 874 Allusion 875 amit majmudar, Dothead 875 patricia lockwood, What Is the Zoo for What 876

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xv iii CoNTeNTS

Poems for Further Study 878 william shakespeare, Shall I compare thee to

a summer’s day? 878 anonymous, The Twenty- Third Psalm 878 john donne, Batter my heart, three- personed God 879 randall jarrell, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner 879 joy harjo, The Woman Hanging from the Thirteenth Floor

Window 880 john brehm, Sea of Faith 882

17 Symbol 884 The In ven ted Symbol 884 james dickey, The Leap 885 The Traditional Symbol 887 edmund waller, Song 887 dorothy parker, One Perfect Rose 888 The Symbolic Poem 889 william blake, The Sick Rose 889 Poems for Further Study 890 john keats, Ode to a Nightingale 890 robert frost, The Road Not Taken 892 howard nemerov, The Vacuum 893 adrienne rich, Diving into the Wreck 894 roo borson, After a Death 896 brian turner, Jundee Ameriki 896


sharon olds, Bruise Ghazal 898

18 The Sounds of Poetry 899 Rhyme 899 Other Sound Devices 901 alexander pope, from The Rape of the Lock 902 Sound Poems 903 helen chasin, The Word Plum 903 alexander pope, Sound and Sense 903 Poetic Meter 905 samuel taylor coleridge, Metrical Feet 907 anonymous, There was a young girl from St. Paul 910 alfred, lord tennyson, from The Charge of the Light Brigade 910 jane taylor, The Star 911 anne bradstreet, To My Dear and Loving Husband 911 jessie pope, The Call 912

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CoNTeNTS xix

wilfred owen, Dulce et Decorum Est 913 Poems for Further Study 914 william shakespeare, Like as the waves make towards

the pebbled shore 914 gerard manley hopkins, The Windhover 914 amit majmudar, Ode to a Drone 915 walt whitman, A Noiseless Patient Spider 915 kevin young, Ode to Pork 916

Word and Music: An Album 919 thomas campion, When to Her Lute Corinna Sings 920 anonymous, Sir Patrick Spens 920 dudley randall, Ballad of Birmingham 922 augustus montague toplady, A Prayer, Living and Dying 923 robert hayden, Homage to the Empress of the Blues 924 bob dylan, The Times They Are A- Changin’ 924 linda pastan, Listening to Bob Dylan, 2005 925 mos def, Hip Hop 926 jose b. gonzalez, Elvis in the Inner City 928

19 Internal Structure 930 Dividing Poems into “Parts” 930 pat mora, Sonrisas 930 Internal versus External or Formal “Parts” 932 galway kinnell, Blackberry Eating 932 Lyr ics as Internal Dramas 932 seamus heaney, Punishment 933 samuel taylor coleridge, Frost at Midnight 935 sharon olds, The Victims 937 Making Arguments about Structure 938 Poems without “Parts” 938 walt whitman, I Hear Amer i ca Singing 938 Poems for Further Study 939 william shakespeare, Th’ expense of spirit in a

waste of shame 939 percy bysshe shelley, Ode to the West Wind 940 philip larkin, Church Going 942

AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Philip Larkin 944

katie ford, Still- Life 945 kevin young, Greening 945

SAMPLE WRITING: Essay in Pro gress on “Church Going” 947

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20 External Form 951 Stanzas 951 Traditional Stanza Forms 951 robert frost, Acquainted with the Night 952 richard wilbur, Terza Rima 952 Traditional Verse Forms 953 Fixed Forms or Form- Based Subgenres 954 Traditional Forms: Poems for Further Study 955 dylan thomas, Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night 955 natasha trethewey, Myth 956 elizabeth bishop, Sestina 957 a. e. stallings, Sestina: Like 958 The Way a Poem Looks 959 e. e. cummings, l(a 959 Buffalo Bill’s 960 Concrete Poetry 960 george herbert, Easter Wings 961 may swenson, Women 962

The Sonnet: An Album 965 francesco petrarch, Upon the breeze she spread her

golden hair 966 henry constable, My lady’s presence makes the roses red 966 william shakespeare, My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun 967 Not marble, nor the gilded monuments 967 Let me not to the marriage of true minds 968 john milton, When I consider how my light is spent 968 william words worth, Nuns Fret Not 969 The world is too much with us 969 elizabeth barrett browning, How Do I Love Thee? 970 christina rossetti, In an Artist’s Studio 970 edna st. vincent millay, What lips my lips have kissed,

and where, and why 971 Women have loved before as I love now 971 I, being born a woman and distressed 972 I will put Chaos into fourteen lines 972 gwendolyn brooks, First Fight. Then Fiddle. 973 gwen harwood, In the Park 973 june jordan, Something Like a Sonnet for Phillis Miracle Wheatley 974 billy collins, Sonnet 974 harryette mullen, Dim Lady 975

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CoNTeNTS xxi

Haiku: An Album 977 Traditional Japa nese Haiku 977 chiyojo, Whether astringent 977 bashō, A village without bells— 978 This road— 978 buson, Coolness— 978 Listening to the moon 978 One Haiku, Four Translations 978 lafcadio hearn, Old pond— 978 clara a. walsh, An old- time pond 978 earl miner, The still old pond 979 allen ginsberg, The old pond 979 Con temporary English- Language Haiku 979 ezra pound, In a Station of the Metro 979 allen ginsberg, Looking over my shoulder 979 richard wright, In the falling snow 979 etheridge knight, Eastern guard tower 980 The falling snow flakes 980 Making jazz swing in 980

AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Etheridge Knight 980

mark jarman, Haiku 981 sonia sanchez, from 9 Haiku (for Freedom’s Sisters) 981 sue standing, Diamond Haiku 981 linda pastan, In the Har- Poen Tea Garden 982 Twaiku 983


21 The Author’s Work as Context: Adrienne Rich 986 The Poetry of Adrienne Rich 987 Poems by Adrienne Rich 990 At a Bach Concert 990 Storm Warnings 990 Living in Sin 991 Snapshots of a Daughter- in- Law 991

AUTHORS ON THEIR WORK: Adrienne Rich 995

Planetarium 996 For the Rec ord 997 My mouth hovers across your breasts 998 History 998 Transparencies 999

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xx ii CoNTeNTS

To night No Poetry Will Serve 1000 Passages from Rich’s Essays 1001 From When We Dead Awaken: Writing as Re- Vision 1001 From A Communal Poetry 1002 From Why I Refused the National Medal for the Arts 1003 From Poetry and the Forgotten Future 1006 A Poem for Adrienne Rich Joy HARJO, By the Way 1010

SAMPLE WRITING: Comparative Essay on Sonnets by Shakespeare

and Millay 1015

Emily Dickinson: An Album 1021 Poems by Emily Dickinson 1022 Wild Nights— Wild Nights! 1022 “Hope” is the thing with feathers— 1023 After great pain, a formal feeling comes— 1023 I heard a Fly buzz— when I died 1024 My Life had stood— a Loaded Gun— 1024 I stepped from Plank to Plank 1025 Tell all the truth but tell it slant— 1025 Poems about Emily Dickinson 1026 wendy cope, Emily Dickinson 1026 hart crane, To Emily Dickinson 1026 billy collins, Taking Off Emily Dickinson’s Clothes 1027

W. B. Yeats: An Album 1031 Poems by W. B. Yeats 1033 The Lake Isle of Innisfree 1033


All Things Can Tempt Me 1034 Easter 1916 1035 The Second Coming 1037 Leda and the Swan 1038 Sailing to Byzantium 1038 A Poem about W. B. Yeats 1040 w. h. auden, In Memory of W. B. Yeats 1040


Pat Mora: An Album 1047 Elena 1048 Gentle Communion 1049

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CoNTeNTS xxiii

Mothers and Daughters 1049 La Migra 1050 Ode to Adobe 1051

22 The Author’s Work as Context: William Blake’s Songs of Innocence and of Experience 1055 Color Insert: Facsimile Pages from Songs of Innocence and of Experience William Blake’s Songs of Innocence and of Experience Songs of Innocence 1057 Introduction 1057 The Ecchoing Green 1057 Holy Thursday 1058 The Lamb 1058 The Chimney Sweeper 1059 Songs of Experience 1059 Introduction 1059 The Tyger 1060 The Garden of Love 1061 The Chimney Sweeper 1061 Holy Thursday 1061

23 Cultural and Historical Contexts: The Harlem Renaissance 1065 Poems of the Harlem Re nais sance 1070 arna bontemps, A Black Man Talks of Reaping 1070 countee cullen, Yet Do I Marvel 1071 Saturday’s Child 1071 From the Dark Tower 1072 angelina grimkÉ, The Black Fin ger 1072 Tenebris 1073 langston hughes, Harlem 1073 The Weary Blues 1073 The Negro Speaks of Rivers 1074 I, Too 1075 helene johnson, Sonnet to a Negro in Harlem 1076 claude mckay, Harlem Shadows 1076 If We Must Die 1077 The Tropics in New York 1077 Amer i ca 1077 The White House 1078 Contextual Excerpts 1078 james weldon johnson, from the preface to The Book of American

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