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The Art of Public Speaking

Stephen E. Lucas University of Wisconsin—Madison

Paul Stob Vanderbilt University

THIRTEENTH EDITION

with

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THE ART OF PUBLIC SPEAKING, THIRTEENTH EDITION

Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright ©2020 by Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2007, 2004, 2001, 1998, 1995, 1992, 1989, 1986, 1983. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States.

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 LWI 21 20 19 18

ISBN 978-1-259-92460-6 (bound edition) MHID 1-259-92460-2 (bound edition)

ISBN 978-1-260-41293-2 (loose-leaf edition) MHID 1-260-41293-8 (loose-leaf edition)

ISBN 978-1-260-41287-1 (annotated instructor’s edition) MHID 1-260-41287-3 (annotated instructor’s edition)

Portfolio Manager: Sarah Remington Product Developer: Betty Chen Marketing Manager: Laura Young Program Manager: Marianne Musni Senior Content Project Manager: Danielle Clement Content Project Manager: Tim Coté Senior Buyer: Laura M. Fuller Designer: Egzon Shaqiri Content Licensing Specialist: Carrie Burger Cover Image: ©skyboysv/Shutterstock Compositor: Lumina Datamatics

All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Lucas, Stephen, 1946– author. | Stob, Paul, author. Title: The art of public speaking / Stephen E. Lucas with Paul Stob. Description: Thirteenth edition. | New York, NY : McGraw-Hill Education, [2019] Identifiers: LCCN 2018038517| ISBN 9781259924606 (bound edition : alk. paper) |  ISBN 1259924602 (bound edition : alk. paper) | ISBN 9781260412932 (loose-leaf edition) |  ISBN 1260412938 (loose-leaf edition) Subjects: LCSH: Public speaking. Classification: LCC PN4129.15 .L83 2019 | DDC 808.5/1—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2018038517

The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.

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iii

Stephen E. Lucas is Professor of Communication Arts and Evjue-Bascom Professor in the Humanities at the Univer-sity of Wisconsin–Madison. He received his bachelor’s degree from the University of California, Santa Barbara, and his master’s and doctorate degrees from Penn State University.

Professor Lucas has been recognized for his work as both a scholar and a teacher. His first book, Portents of Rebellion: Rhetoric and Revolution in Philadelphia, 1765–1776, received the Golden Anniversary Award of the National Communication Association and was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize. His major articles include “The Schism in Rhetorical Scholarship,” “The Renaissance of American Public Address: Text and Context in Rhetorical Criti- cism,” “The Stylistic Artistry of the Declaration of Independence,” and “The Rhetorical Ancestry of the Declaration of Indepen- dence,” for which he received the Golden Anniversary Monograph Award of the National Communication Association. His most recent book is Words of a Century: The Top 100 American Speeches, 1900–1999.

Professor Lucas has received a number of teaching awards, including the Chancellor’s Award for Excellence in Teaching at the University of Wisconsin and the National Communication Association’s Donald Ecroyd Award for Outstanding Teaching in Higher Education. He is featured in the Educational Video Group’s program on the history of American public address, and he appeared on the History Channel’s documentary on the Declaration of Independence.

Professor Lucas has directed the introductory public speaking course at the University of Wisconsin–Madison since 1973. Over the years he has been respon- sible for numerous teaching innovations and has supervised the training of hun- dreds of graduate assistants. He has also served as a judge for the major national English-language public speaking competitions in China, has lectured at numer- ous Chinese universities, has conducted workshops for Chinese instructors on teaching public speaking, and has been instrumental in the development of public speaking as a dedicated course in the English curriculum of Chinese universities. The Art of Public Speaking has been translated into several languages, including Chinese, Portuguese, Korean, Romanian, and Japanese.

Stephen Lucas and his wife, Patty, live in Madison, Wisconsin, and have two sons, Jeff and Ryan. His interests include travel, sports, art, and photography.

About the Author

Courtesy of Stephen Lucas

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Brief Contents SPEAKING AND LISTENING

1 Speaking in Public 2 2 Ethics and Public Speaking 26 3 Listening 44 4 Giving Your First Speech 60

SPEECH PREPARATION: GETTING STARTED

5 Selecting a Topic and a Purpose 74 6 Analyzing the Audience 94 7 Gathering Materials 114 8 Supporting Your Ideas 134

SPEECH PREPARATION: ORGANIZING AND OUTLINING

9 Organizing the Body of the Speech 158 10 Beginning and Ending the Speech 176 11 Outlining the Speech 196

PRESENTING THE SPEECH

12 Using Language 212 13 Delivery 230 14 Using Visual Aids 250

VARIETIES OF PUBLIC SPEAKING

15 Speaking to Inform 268 16 Speaking to Persuade 290 17 Methods of Persuasion 316 18 Speaking on Special Occasions 344 19 Presenting Your Speech Online 356 20 Speaking in Small Groups 372

APPENDIX Speeches for Analysis and Discussion A-1

iv

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v

A Note from the Author xvi Highlights of the Thirteenth Edition xvii McGraw-Hill Connect and Instructor Resources xviii Acknowledgments xxii Reviewers, Contributors, and Symposia Participants xxiii

PART ONE SPEAKING AND LISTENING

Chapter 1 Speaking in Public 2 The Power of Public Speaking 4

The Tradition of Public Speaking 5

Similarities Between Public Speaking and Conversation 6

Differences Between Public Speaking and Conversation 8

Developing Confidence: Your Speech Class 8 Nervousness Is Normal 9 Dealing with Nervousness 10

Public Speaking and Critical Thinking 16

The Speech Communication Process 17 Speaker 17 Message 18 Channel 18 Listener 18 Feedback 19 Interference 20 Situation 20 The Speech Communication Process: Example with Commentary 21

Public Speaking in a Multicultural World 21 Cultural Diversity in the Modern World 21 Cultural Diversity and Public Speaking 22 Avoiding Ethnocentrism 23

Contents

Chapter 2 Ethics and Public Speaking 26 The Importance of Ethics 28

Guidelines for Ethical Speaking 29 Make Sure Your Goals Are Ethically Sound 29 Be Fully Prepared for Each Speech 30 Be Honest in What You Say 31

Courtesy of Josh Shipp

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vi Contents

Chapter 4 Giving Your First Speech 60 Preparing Your Speech 60

Developing the Speech 60 Organizing the Speech 63

Delivering Your Speech 65 Speaking Extemporaneously 66 Rehearsing the Speech 66 Presenting the Speech 67

Sample Speeches with Commentary 68

Chapter 3 Listening 44 Listening Is Important 46

Listening and Critical Thinking 47

Four Causes of Poor Listening 48 Not Concentrating 48 Listening Too Hard 48 Jumping to Conclusions 49 Focusing on Delivery and Personal Appearance 50

How to Become a Better Listener 51 Take Listening Seriously 51 Be an Active Listener 51 Resist Distractions 51 Don’t Be Diverted by Appearance or Delivery 53 Suspend Judgment 54 Focus Your Listening 54 Develop Note-Taking Skills 56

Avoid Name-Calling and Other Forms of Abusive Language 32 Put Ethical Principles into Practice 33

Plagiarism 34 Global Plagiarism 35 Patchwork Plagiarism 35 Incremental Plagiarism 36 Plagiarism and the Internet 38

Guidelines for Ethical Listening 39 Be Courteous and Attentive 39 Avoid Prejudging the Speaker 40 Maintain the Free and Open Expression of Ideas 40

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Contents vii

Chapter 6 Analyzing the Audience 94 Audience-Centeredness 96

Your Classmates as an Audience 96

The Psychology of Audiences 97

Demographic Audience Analysis 98 Age 99 Religion 100 Racial, Ethnic, and Cultural Background 100 Gender and Sexual Orientation 101 Group Membership 102

Situational Audience Analysis 102 Size 103 Physical Setting 103 Disposition Toward the Topic 103 Disposition Toward the Speaker 105 Disposition Toward the Occasion 106

Getting Information About the Audience 107

Adapting to the Audience 109 Audience Adaptation Before the Speech 110 Audience Adaptation During the Speech 110

PART TWO SPEECH PREPARATION: GETTING STARTED

Chapter 5 Selecting a Topic and a Purpose 74 Choosing a Topic 76

Topics You Know a Lot About 76 Topics You Want to Know More About 77 Brainstorming for Topics 78

Determining the General Purpose 79

Determining the Specific Purpose 80 Tips for Formulating the Specific Purpose Statement 82 Questions to Ask About Your Specific Purpose 84

Phrasing the Central Idea 86 What Is the Central Idea? 86 Guidelines for the Central Idea 88

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viii Contents

Chapter 8 Supporting Your Ideas 134 Examples 136

Brief Examples 137 Extended Examples 137 Hypothetical Examples 138

Tips for Using Examples 138

Statistics 141 Understanding Statistics 142 Tips for Using Statistics 145

Testimony 148 Expert Testimony 149 Peer Testimony 149

Quoting Versus Paraphrasing 150 Tips for Using Testimony 150

Citing Sources Orally 153

Chapter 7 Gathering Materials 114 Using Your Own Knowledge and Experience 114

Doing Library Research 116 Librarians 116 The Catalogue 117 Reference Works 117 Newspaper and Periodical Databases 118 Academic Databases 119

Searching the Internet 120 Search Engines 120 Specialized Research Resources 120 Evaluating Internet Documents 122

Interviewing 125 Before the Interview 125 During the Interview 126 After the Interview 128

Tips for Doing Research 128 Start Early 128 Make a Preliminary Bibliography 128 Take Notes Efficiently 129 Think About Your Materials as You Research 131

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Contents ix

PART THREE SPEECH PREPARATION: ORGANIZING AND OUTLINING

Chapter 9 Organizing the Body of the Speech 158 Organization Is Important 158

Main Points 160 Number of Main Points 162 Strategic Order of Main Points 162 Tips for Preparing Main Points 167

Supporting Materials 168

Connectives 170 Transitions 171 Internal Previews 171 Internal Summaries 172 Signposts 172

Chapter 11 Outlining the Speech 196 The Preparation Outline 196

Guidelines for the Preparation Outline 198 Sample Preparation Outline with Commentary 202

The Speaking Outline 205 Guidelines for the Speaking Outline 206 Sample Speaking Outline with Commentary 208

Chapter 10 Beginning and Ending the Speech 176 The Introduction 178

Get Attention and Interest 178 Reveal the Topic 183 Establish Credibility and Goodwill 184 Preview the Body of the Speech 185 Sample Introduction with Commentary 186 Tips for the Introduction 187

The Conclusion 188 Signal the End of the Speech 188 Reinforce the Central Idea 190 Sample Conclusion with Commentary 193 Tips for the Conclusion 193

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Chapter 13 Delivery 230 What Is Good Delivery? 232

Methods of Delivery 232 Reading from a Manuscript 232 Reciting from Memory 233 Speaking Impromptu 233 Speaking Extemporaneously 234

The Speaker’s Voice 235 Volume 235 Pitch 236 Rate 236 Pauses 236 Vocal Variety 237

Pronunciation 237 Articulation 238 Dialect 239

The Speaker’s Body 239 Personal Appearance 240 Movement 240 Gestures 241 Eye Contact 242

Practicing Delivery 242

Answering Audience Questions 244 Preparing for the Question-and-Answer Session 244 Managing the Question-and-Answer Session 245

PART FOUR PRESENTING THE SPEECH

Chapter 12 Using Language 212 Meanings of Words 212

Using Language Accurately 214

Using Language Clearly 216 Use Familiar Words 216 Choose Concrete Words 217 Eliminate Clutter 218

Using Language Vividly 219 Imagery 219

Rhythm 222

Using Language Appropriately 224 Appropriateness to the Occasion 225 Appropriateness to the Audience 225 Appropriateness to the Topic 226

Appropriateness to the Speaker 226

A Note on Inclusive Language 226

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x Contents

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Chapter 14 Using Visual Aids 250 Kinds of Visual Aids 252

Objects and Models 252 Photographs and Drawings 252 Graphs 253 Charts 255 Video 255 The Speaker 256

Presentation Technology 256 Pluses and Minuses of Presentation Technology 257 Planning to Use Presentation Technology 258

Guidelines for Preparing Visual Aids 259 Prepare Visual Aids Well in Advance 259 Keep Visual Aids Simple 259 Make Sure Visual Aids Are Large Enough 259 Use a Limited Amount of Text 259 Use Fonts Effectively 260 Use Color Effectively 260 Use Images Strategically 261

Guidelines for Presenting Visual Aids 262 Display Visual Aids Where Listeners Can See Them 262 Avoid Passing Visual Aids Among the Audience 262 Display Visual Aids Only While Discussing Them 263 Explain Visual Aids Clearly and Concisely 263 Talk to Your Audience, Not to Your Visual Aid 264 Practice with Your Visual Aids 264 Check the Room and Equipment 265

PART FIVE VARIETIES OF PUBLIC SPEAKING

Chapter 15 Speaking to Inform 268 Types of Informative Speeches: Analysis and Organization 270

Speeches About Objects 270 Speeches About Processes 272 Speeches About Events 274 Speeches About Concepts 275

Guidelines for Informative Speaking 277 Don’t Overestimate What the Audience Knows 277 Relate the Subject Directly to the Audience 278 Don’t Be Too Technical 280 Avoid Abstractions 281 Personalize Your Ideas 283 Be Creative 284

Sample Speech with Commentary 285

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Contents xi

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xii Contents

Chapter 16 Speaking to Persuade 290 The Importance of Persuasion 292

Ethics and Persuasion 292

The Psychology of Persuasion 293 The Challenge of Persuasive Speaking 293 How Listeners Process Persuasive Messages 294 The Target Audience 295

Persuasive Speeches on Questions of Fact 296 What Are Questions of Fact? 296 Analyzing Questions of Fact 297 Organizing Speeches on Questions of Fact 298

Persuasive Speeches on Questions of Value 298 What Are Questions of Value? 298

Analyzing Questions of Value 299 Organizing Speeches on Questions of Value 299

Persuasive Speeches on Questions of Policy 300 What Are Questions of Policy? 300 Types of Speeches on Questions of Policy 301 Analyzing Questions of Policy 302 Organizing Speeches on Questions of Policy 304

Sample Speech with Commentary 310

Chapter 17 Methods of Persuasion 316 Building Credibility 318

Factors of Credibility 318 Types of Credibility 319 Enhancing Your Credibility 320

Using Evidence 322 How Evidence Works: A Case Study 322 Tips for Using Evidence 324

Reasoning 325 Reasoning from Specific Instances 327 Reasoning from Principle 328 Causal Reasoning 328 Analogical Reasoning 329 Fallacies 330

Appealing to Emotions 334 What Are Emotional Appeals? 334 Generating Emotional Appeal 335 Ethics and Emotional Appeal 337

Sample Speech with Commentary 338

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Contents xiii

Chapter 18 Speaking on Special Occasions 344 Speeches of Introduction 344

Speeches of Presentation 348

Speeches of Acceptance 349

Commemorative Speeches 350

Chapter 19 Presenting Your Speech Online 356

The Special Nature of the Online Environment 358

Kinds of Online Speeches 358

Guidelines for Online Speaking 359 Control the Visual Environment 359 Adapt Your Nonverbal Communication 362 Adjust Your Pacing 362 Don’t Forget Your Audience 363 Practice, Practice, Practice 363

The Technology of Real-Time Online Speeches 366 Choosing the Software 366 Learning the Software 366

Have a Backup Plan 366

Sample Speech with Commentary 367

Chapter 20 Speaking in Small Groups 372 What Is a Small Group? 374

Leadership in Small Groups 374 Kinds of Leadership 374 Functions of Leadership 376

Responsibilities in a Small Group 377 Commit Yourself to the Goals of Your Group 377 Fulfill Individual Assignments 378 Avoid Interpersonal Conflicts 378 Encourage Full Participation 379 Keep the Discussion on Track 380

The Reflective-Thinking Method 380 Define the Problem 380 Analyze the Problem 382 Establish Criteria for Solutions 383 Generate Potential Solutions 384 Select the Best Solution 384

Presenting the Recommendations of the Group 386 Oral Report 386 Symposium 387 Panel Discussion 387

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xiv Contents

Appendix Speeches for Analysis and Discussion A-1 Lady Liberty A-2

Using a Tourniquet to Save a Life A-3

The Living-Wage Solution A-5

Phony Pharmaceuticals A-7

Make a Wish A-9

Elie Wiesel A-10

Notes N1

Index I1

SPEECHES The Courtyard (Sample Speech with Commentary) 69

Fearless (Sample Speech with Commentary) 70

Supervolcanoes: The Sleeping Giants (Sample Speech with Commentary) 285

Getting the Lead Out (Sample Speech with Commentary) 310

Changing Lives Through the Literacy Network (Sample Speech with Commentary) 338

Presenting the National Teacher of the Year Award Barack Obama 348

Accepting the National Teacher of the Year Award Shanna Peeples 350

Ida B. Wells 353

charity: water (Sample Speech with Commentary) 368

Lady Liberty A-2

Using a Tourniquet to Save a Life A-3

The Living-Wage Solution A-5

Phony Pharmaceuticals A-7

Make a Wish A-9

Elie Wiesel A-10

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Contents xv

SPEECHES BY GENRE

INTRODUCTORY SPEECHES The Courtyard 69

Fearless 70

INFORMATIVE SPEECHES Space Junk (Sample Introduction with Commentary) 187

Space Junk (Sample Conclusion with Commentary) 193

Beneficial Bacteria (Sample Preparation Outline with Commentary) 203

Beneficial Bacteria (Sample Speaking Outline with Commentary) 208

Supervolcanoes: The Sleeping Giants 285

Lady Liberty A-2

Using a Tourniquet to Save a Life A-3

PERSUASIVE SPEECHES Getting the Lead Out 310

Changing Lives Through the Literacy Network 338

The Living-Wage Solution A-5

Phony Pharmaceuticals A-7

SPEECHES OF PRESENTATION Presenting the National Teacher of the Year Award Barack Obama 348

SPEECHES OF ACCEPTANCE Accepting the National Teacher of the Year Award Shanna Peeples 350

COMMEMORATIVE SPEECHES Ida B. Wells 353

Make a Wish A-9

Elie Wiesel A-10

ONLINE SPEECHES charity: water 368

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xvi

When I wrote the first edition of The Art of Public Speaking, I could not have imagined the extraordinary response the book would receive. I am deeply appreciative of the students and teachers who have made it the leading work on its subject at colleges and universities across the United States and around the world.

In preparing this edition, I have retained what readers have identified as the main strengths of the book. The Art of Public Speaking is informed by classical and contemporary theories of rhetoric, but it does not present theory for its own sake. Keeping a steady eye on the practical skills of public speaking, it offers full coverage of all major aspects of speech preparation and presentation.

It also follows David Hume’s advice that one “who would teach eloquence must do it chiefly by examples.” Whenever possible, I have tried to show the principles of public speaking in action in addition to describing them. Thus you will find in the book a large number of narratives, speech excerpts, and full sample speeches that illustrate the prin- ciples of effective public speaking.

Because the immediate task facing students is to present speeches in the classroom, I rely heavily on examples that relate directly to students’ classroom needs and experi- ences. The speech classroom, however, is a training ground where students develop skills that will serve them throughout life. Therefore, I also include a large number of illustrations drawn from the kinds of speaking experiences students will face after they graduate from college.

Because speeches are performative acts, students need to be able to view speakers in action as well as to read their words on the printed page. The Art of Public Speaking has an extensive video program that is available both on DVD and on Connect, McGraw-Hill’s online learning platform. The video program includes over 40 full stu- dent speeches, plus more than 60 speech excerpts. Eleven of the full speeches and 18 of the excerpts are new to this edition.

Connect also provides a wide range of teaching and learning resources in addition to the speech videos. These resources include SmartBook, hands-on study tools, critical-thinking exercises, speech-analysis questions, worksheets, assessment forms, and more. Taken together, The Art of Public Speaking and the digital resources available on Connect provide a time-tested interactive public speaking program that meets the needs of students and teachers alike.

The Art of Public Speaking has changed over the years in response to changes in technology, student demographics, and instructional needs. But it has never lost sight of the fact that the most important part of speaking is thinking. The ability to think critically is vital to a world in which personality and image too often substitute for thought and substance. While helping students become capable, responsible speakers, The Art of Public Speaking also aims to help them become capable, responsible thinkers who value the role of civil discourse in a democratic society.

A Note from the Author

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xvii

Highlights of the Thirteenth Edition of The Art of Public Speaking Fully updated for the thirteenth edition, the award-winning Art of Public Speaking offers a time-tested approach that has made it the most widely used college text- book on its subject in the world. Seamlessly coordinated with Connect, McGraw- Hill Education’s pathbreaking online program, it supplies a proven set of teaching and learning tools that is without parallel among public speaking books.

For experienced instructors, The Art of Public Speaking presents a solid, fully customizable foundation and an abundance of teaching aids from which to choose, allowing for complete teaching flexibility in the course. For novice instructors, its wisdom, steady hand, and unmatched ancillary package instill con- fidence and build success in the classroom from day one.

■ New chapter on presenting online speeches. This chapter gives students the guidance they need for effective online speaking. Distinguishing between recorded and real-time online speeches, it explains the unique features of each and how students can adapt to those features when preparing, rehears- ing, and delivering their speeches. Practical guidelines help students control the visual environment, create a suitable relationship with the online audi- ence, and use online presentation software skillfully and professionally. A full sample speech with commentary illustrates the principles of effective online speaking in action. Video of the speech is available on DVD and Connect, in both final and needs improvement versions.

■ New full student speeches. The Art of Public Speaking video program is designed to bridge the gap between the written page and the spoken word. Toward this end, the thirteenth edition has 11 new full speeches for analysis and discus- sion, all of which are available in both print and digital formats. They include two new speeches of self-introduction, two new informative speeches (includ- ing a demonstration speech), a new persuasive speech, a new commemorative speech, and a new online speech—plus four new needs improvement speeches.

■ Other video resources. The Art of Public Speaking’s video program also includes more than 60 speech excerpts that are fully integrated into the eBook. Stu- dents can access these excerpts—along with full speeches—as they read the book to see the principles of public speaking in action. Whether a full speech or an excerpt, each video illustrates specific skills and concepts from the text.

■ Improved coverage of introduction and conclusions. Chapter 10 features new sample introductions and conclusions with commentary, both of which are also available on video. The chapter also includes a new section on using visual aids to gain attention and interest at the start of a speech.

■ Fresh real-world examples. Every chapter of The Art of Public Speaking opens with an engaging and relevant example, and dozens of additional examples appear throughout the chapters, each demonstrating the importance of pub- lic speaking in school, business, and social settings. As in every edition, examples have been updated for currency, relevance, and interest.

■ Improved discussion of audience analysis. Chapter 6, on audience analysis, has been fine-tuned to take account of changes in audience demographics and

A Note from the Author xvii

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xviii A Note from the Author

public attitudes. This is most evident in the treatment of gender and sexual orientation, but there are changes throughout the chapter to keep it up to date.

■ Updated MLA and APA citation models. Chapter 7, on gathering materials, presents all-new sample bibliography entries, reflecting the latest MLA and APA citation formats to help students correctly cite academic, digital, and other sources. As in each edition, the chapter as a whole has been revised to reflect technological changes.

■ Enhanced discussion of presentation technology. Guidance on the use of visual aids and presentation technology has been updated in accord with current developments. Best practices are illustrated by abundant examples in the book and on speech videos.

McGraw-Hill Connect and Instructor Resources MCGRAW-HILL CONNECT McGraw-Hill Connect® is a highly reliable, easy-to-use homework and learning management solution that utilizes learning science and award-winning adaptive tools to improve student results.

Connect’s assignments help students contextualize what they’ve learned through application, so they can better understand the material and think criti- cally about it.

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SMARTBOOK WITH LEARNING RESOUCES SmartBook provides an interactive reading experience that helps students study more efficiently through adaptive highlighting and review. As a student uses SmartBook, it creates a personalized learning path that highlights the most important concepts the student needs to grasp at that moment in time. The learn- ing path continuously adapts by delivering a variety of dynamic digital learning resources that are catered to each student’s needs. These resources help students learn the material, retain more knowledge, and earn better grades.

CONNECT EBOOK The Connect eBook makes it easy for students to access their study material on smartphones and tablets. They can study on the go and don’t need Internet access to use the eBook with full functionality.

INSIGHT ANALYTICS Connect Insight® provides instructors easy-to-read reports on individual stu- dents, on the class as a whole, and on specific assignments. The Connect Insight dashboard delivers data on performance, study behavior, and effort. Instructors can quickly identify students who are struggling and can help them focus on mate- rial that they need to master.

A Note from the Author xix

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LEARNSMART REPORTS LearnSmart Instructor Reports make it easy to pinpoint the help individual stu- dents need to improve their performance. Reports also identify concepts and learning objectives that may be unclear to the class as a whole. With this informa- tion, instructors can target areas for discussion and review.

Some key LearnSmart reports include:

Progress Overview report—View student progress for all LearnSmart modules, including how long students have spent working in each module and which mod- ules they have used outside of those that were assigned.

Missed Questions report—Identify specific LearnSmart probes, organized by chapter, that are problematic for students.

Most Challenging Learning Objectives report—Learn which topics are most chal- lenging for your students. Reports are organized by chapter and include specific page references. Use this information to tailor your lecture time and assignments to cover areas that require additional attention and practice.

Metacognitive Skills report—View statistics showing how knowledgeable your students are about their own comprehension and learning.

SPEECH CAPTURE Designed for use in face-to-face, real-time classrooms, as well as online courses, Speech Capture allows instructors to evaluate their students’ speeches using fully customizable rubrics. Instructors can also create and manage peer review assign- ments and upload videos on behalf of students for optimal flexibility.

Students can access rubrics and leave comments when preparing self-reviews and peer reviews. They can easily upload a video of their speech from their hard drive or use Connect’s built-in video recorder. Students can even attach and upload addi- tional files or documents, such as a works-cited page or a PowerPoint presentation.

Peer Review—Peer review assignments are easier than ever. Create and manage peer review assignments and customize privacy settings.

Speech Assessment—Speech Capture lets instructors customize assignments, including self-reviews and peer reviews. Connect saves frequently used comments so instructors can apply them in multiple reviews.

SUPPORT TO ENSURE SUCCESS www.mheducation.com/connect

■ Connect integrates with your LMS to provide single sign-on and automatic syncing of grades. Integration with Blackboard®, D2L®, and Canvas also pro- vides automatic syncing of the course calendar and assignment-level linking.

■ Connect offers comprehensive service, support, and training throughout every phase of implementation.

■ For guidance on how to use Connect, or to learn tips and tricks from other users, instructors have access to tutorials as they work. Our Digital Faculty Consultants and Student Ambassadors offer insight into how to achieve the results instructors want with Connect.

xx A Note from the Author

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RESOURCES FOR INSTRUCTORS ■ Annotated Instructor’s Edition. The Annotated Instructor’s Edition provides a

wealth of teaching aids for each chapter in the book. It is also cross-referenced with Connect, the Instructor’s Manual, the Instructor’s Resource CD-ROM, and other supplements that accompany The Art of Public Speaking.

■ Instructor’s Manual. This comprehensive guide to teaching from The Art of Public Speaking contains suggested course outlines and speaking assign- ments; chapter outlines; supplementary exercises and classroom activities; and teaching tips for all exercises and activities.

■ Test Bank. The Test Bank furnishes close to 3,000 exam questions based on The Art of Public Speaking.

■ PowerPoint Slides with Video Clips. The PowerPoint presentations for The Art of Public Speaking provide chapter highlights that help instructors create focused, individualized lesson plans utilizing high-quality slides developed specifically for the thirteenth edition.

■ Teaching Public Speaking Online. Revised for the thirteenth edition, the Teaching Public Speaking Online manual includes new and revised chapter exercises and discusses performance analytics and approaches to blended and online classrooms.

■ Instructor’s Resource CD-ROM. Provides convenient digital access to the Instructor’s Manual, Test Bank, PowerPoint Slides, Teaching Public Speaking Online, Selections from the Communication Teacher, and the Handbook for Teachers of Non-Native Speakers of English.

■ Speeches for Analysis and Discussion. This DVD contains 45 full-length student speeches, 11 of which are new to this edition. Included are nine sets of paired needs improvement and final version presentations. In each set, the needs improvement version illustrates a work-in-progress that can be compared with the final version to help students understand the differences between an ordi- nary speech and a superior one.

A Note from the Author xxi

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xxii

“’Tis the good reader,” said Ralph Waldo Emerson, “that makes the good book.” I have been fortunate to have very good readers indeed, and I would like to thank the reviewers and other contributors for their expertise and recommendations.

In addition, I would like to express my gratitude to the students at the University of Wisconsin whose speeches provided the material for many of the examples in the book. I am grateful as well to the teaching staff of Communication Arts 100 and especially to Sarah Jedd, assistant course director, for her splendid work in that capacity and for her unerring insights about the book and its pedagogy.

Thanks go to Ann Weaver for her work on the Instructor’s Manual and the Test Bank; to Jennifer Cochrane for her generous advice about the online speaking chapter, as well as for her supplement on using The Art of Public Speaking in an online course; and to Michael Trevis for his help with the figures in Chapter 19. Kim Berry, Sue Zaeske, KC Councilor, Tim Pierce, Diane Reid, Margaret Procario, and Joan Cartwright offered valuable counsel.

I am appreciative to Shanna Peeples for permission to print her speech accepting the National Teacher of the Year Award, which appears in Chapter 18. Josh Shipp, whose inspiring story opens Chapter 1, granted permission to use the photograph of him that appears there; Megan Bate, of Brilliant Partners, facilitated the approval process. Karyn Morrison helped track down textual sources. Jen Richards did a superb job of photo research.

Above all, I am indebted to Paul Stob, who has worked with me in various capacities on four editions of the book and has become indispensable to its success. Over time, he has become more and more a collaborator, as opposed to a contributor, and with this edition his name is, fittingly, on the title page.

I have been fortunate to work with many talented and dedicated people at McGraw- Hill. Sarah Remington joined the book in this edition and provided astute editorial direc- tion. Betty Chen skillfully juggled a mass of details and kept the entire project on track. Marianne Musni expertly managed the production process. Esther Go, Briana Porco, Danielle Clement, Tim Coté, Carrie Burger, Egzon Shaqiri, and Jamie LaFerrara all made valuable contributions. Laura Young has been indefatigable as the book’s marketing man- ager. I would be remiss if I did not also thank Mike Ryan, David Patterson, and Mary Ellen Curley for their executive support and direction.

As always, my biggest debt is to my wife, Patty, whose love and support have sustained me through the years. There might be an Art of Public Speaking without her, but there would be no one with whom to share it.

Stephen E. Lucas Madison, Wisconsin

Acknowledgments

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Darlene Earley Andrews, Southern Union State Community College Valerie Balkun, Johnson & Wales University Ray Bell, Calhoun Community College Shannon Bowden, Mississippi Valley State University Lynn Bower, Ohio University Kathleen E. Bruce, San Joaquin Delta College Paula Casey, Colorado Mesa University Nancy Fisher, Ohio State University Jennifer Foster, University of Central Oklahoma Jeffrey Fox, Northern Kentucky University Lakesha Jefferson, South Suburban College Keri Keckley, Crowder College Samuel Lawrence, University of Central Oklahoma Charity Lyon, Northwestern Oklahoma State University Libby McGlone, Columbus State Community College Shellie Michael, Volunteer State Community College Hanna Newman, Minnesota State University Kimberly OmniEssence, Milwaukee Area Technical College Maggie Price, Minneapolis Community and Technical College Susan Rabideau, University of Wisconsin Nancy Riecken, Ivy Tech Community College Haydee Serna-Masters, Grand Canyon University Christine Shaw, Ohio University Toni Shields, Ivy Tech Community College Theresa White, Coastal Alabama Community College Cheryl Wilson, Harrisburg Area Community College Roberta Zetocha, Southeast Community College

Reviewers, Contributors, and Symposia Participants

Acknowledgments xxiii

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The Art of Public Speaking

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2

G rowing up in Oklahoma, Josh Shipp had no intention of becoming a public speaker. Abandoned by his birth mother, Shipp bounced around the foster care system for most of his childhood. Neglected and abused, he became addicted to drugs, tried to take his own life, and ended up in jail. Then, at age 17, at his lowest point, his foster parent told him: “We don’t see you as a problem, we see you as an opportunity.”

It dawned upon Josh that his life mattered. He realized that “one caring adult” was all it took to change someone’s life. Since that time, he has devoted himself to helping the hopeless. He became an advocate for children in foster care and began working with at-risk teenagers. Today he is a nationally recog- nized teen expert who has been praised for his ability to help kids and parents alike work through tough situations.

How has Josh achieved all this? Partly through his determination, partly through his dedication to helping others, and partly through his passion for life. But also essential is his ability to communicate with people through public speaking.

In a TEDx Talk that has been viewed online more than 4 million times, Josh shared his story of growing up in the foster care system and of realizing that his life had meaning. But he also challenged his audience by telling them, “The difference between a statistic and a success story is you.” With this line, Josh turned his personal experience into a call for others to help improve the world.

Speaking in Public

The Power of Public Speaking

The Tradition of Public Speaking

Similarities Between Public Speaking and Conversation

Differences Between Public Speaking and Conversation

Developing Confidence: Your Speech Class

Public Speaking and Critical Thinking

The Speech Communication Process

Public Speaking in a Multicultural World

1

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Courtesy of Josh Shipp

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4 CHAPTER 1 Speaking in Public

If you had asked Josh early in his life, “Do you see yourself as an important public speaker?” he would have laughed at the idea. Yet today he has spoken in person to an estimated 2 million people. He has lectured at Harvard, MIT, Stanford, and UCLA. He has appeared on such media outlets as CNN, MTV, Lifetime, and Oprah. His message of help and hope has touched people across the country. In the words of one listener, “If his story doesn’t change the way you look at life, I don’t know what will.”

The Power of Public Speaking Throughout history people have used public speaking as a vital means of communi- cation. What the Greek leader Pericles said more than 2,500 years ago is still true today: “One who forms a judgment on any point but cannot explain” it clearly “might as well never have thought at all on the subject.”1 Public speaking, as its name implies, is a way of making your ideas public—of sharing them with other people and of influencing other people.

During modern times, many women and men around the globe have spread their ideas and influence through public speaking. In the United States, the list includes Franklin Roosevelt, Billy Graham, Cesar Chavez, Barbara Jordan, Martin Luther King, Ronald Reagan, Hillary Clinton, and Barack Obama. In other coun- tries, we have seen the power of public speaking employed by people such as Marga- ret Thatcher, Nelson Mandela, and Malala Yousafzai.

As you read these names, you may think to yourself, “That’s fine. Good for them. But what does that have to do with me? I don’t plan to be a president or a preacher or a crusader for any cause.” Nevertheless, the need for public speaking will almost certainly touch you sometime in your life—maybe tomorrow, maybe not for five years. Can you imagine yourself in any of these situations?

You are one of seven management trainees in a large corporation. One of you will get the lower-management job that has just opened. At a large staff meeting you and the other trainees will each discuss the project he or she has been developing. One by one your colleagues make their presen- tations. They have no experience in public speaking and are intimidated by the higher ranking managers present. Their speeches are stumbling and awkward. You, however, call upon all the skills you learned in your public speaking course. You deliver an informative talk that is clear, well reasoned, and articulate. You get the job.

One of your children has a learning disability. You hear that your local school board has decided, for budget reasons, to eliminate the special teacher who has been helping your child. At an open meeting of the school board, you stand up and deliver a thoughtful, compelling speech on the necessity for keeping the special teacher. The school board changes its mind.

You are the assistant manager in a branch office of a national company. Your immediate superior, the branch manager, is about to retire and there will be a retirement dinner. All the executives from the home office will attend. As his close working associate, you are asked to give a farewell toast at the party. You prepare and deliver a speech that is both witty and touching—a perfect tribute to your boss. After the speech, everyone

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The Tradition of Public Speaking 5

applauds enthusiastically, and a few people have tears in their eyes. The following week you are named branch manager.

Fantasies? Not really. Any of these situations could occur. In a recent survey of more than 200 employers, respondents stated that the most important skill they want from job applicants is the “ability to verbally communicate with persons inside and outside the organization.” In another survey, 1,200 job recruiters reported that one skill was more important and harder to find than any other. That skill? Effective communication.2

The importance of such skills is true across the board—for accountants and architects, teachers and technicians, scientists and stockbrokers. Even in highly spe- cialized fields such as civil and mechanical engineering, employers consistently rank the ability to communicate above technical knowledge when deciding whom to hire and whom to promote.

Businesses are also asking people to give more speeches in the early stages of their careers, and many young professionals are using public speaking as a way to stand out in today’s highly competitive job market.3 In fact, the ability to speak effec- tively is so prized that college graduates are increasingly being asked to give a presen- tation as part of their job interview.

Nor has the growth of the Internet and other new technologies reduced the need for public speaking. In this age of Instagram and Twitter, businesses are concerned that college graduates are losing the ability to talk in a professional way. As career expert Lindsey Pollak states, “It’s so rare to find somebody who has that combina- tion of really good technical skills and really good verbal communication skills. You will be head and shoulders above your colleagues if you can combine those two.”4

The same is true in community life. Public speaking is a vital means of civic engagement. It is a way to express your ideas and to have an impact on issues that matter in society. As a form of empowerment, it can—and often does—make a differ- ence in things people care about very much. The key phrase here is “make a differ- ence.” This is what most of us want to do in life—to make a difference, to change the world in some small way. Public speaking offers you an opportunity to make a differ- ence in something you care about very much.

The Tradition of Public Speaking Given the importance of public speaking, it’s not surprising that it has been taught and studied around the globe for thousands of years. Almost all cultures have an equivalent of the English word “orator” to designate someone with special skills in public speaking. The oldest known handbook on effective speech was written on papyrus in Egypt some 4,500 years ago. Eloquence was highly prized in ancient India, Africa, and China, as well as among the Aztecs and other pre-European cultures of North and South America.5

In classical Greece and Rome, public speaking played a central role in education and civic life. It was also studied extensively. Aristotle’s Rhetoric, composed during the third century b.c., is still considered the most important work on its subject, and many of its principles are followed by speakers (and writers) today. The great Roman leader Cicero used his speeches to defend liberty and wrote several works about oratory in general.

Over the centuries, many other notable thinkers have dealt with issues of rhetoric, speech, and language—including the Roman educator Quintilian, the

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6 CHAPTER 1 Speaking in Public

Christian preacher St. Augustine, the medieval writer Christine de Pizan, the British philosopher Francis Bacon, and the American critic Kenneth Burke. In recent years, communication researchers have provided an increasingly scientific basis for understanding the methods and strategies of effective speech.

Your immediate objective is to apply those methods and strategies in your classroom speeches. What you learn, however, will be applicable long after you leave college. The principles of public speaking are derived from a long tradition and have been confirmed by a substantial body of research. The more you know about those principles, the more effective you will be in your own speeches—and the more effec- tive you will be in listening to the speeches of other people.

Similarities Between Public Speaking and Conversation How much time do you spend each day talking to other people? The average adult spends about 30 percent of her or his waking hours in conversation. By the time you read this book, you will have spent much of your life perfecting the art of conversa- tion. You may not realize it, but you already employ a wide range of skills when talking to people. These skills include the following:

1. Organizing your thoughts logically. Suppose you were giving someone direc- tions to get to your house. You wouldn’t do it this way:

When you turn off the highway, you’ll see a big diner on the left. But before that, stay on the highway to Exit 67. Usually a couple of the neighbors’ dogs are in the street, so go slow after you turn at the blinking light. Com- ing from your house you get on the highway through Maple Street. If you pass the taco stand, you’ve gone too far. The house is blue.

Instead, you would take your listener systematically, step by step, from his or her house to your house. You would organize your message.

2. Tailoring your message to your audience. You are a geology major. Two people ask you how pearls are formed. One is your roommate; the other is your nine-year-old niece. You answer as follows:

To your roommate: “When any irritant, say a grain of sand, gets inside the oyster’s shell, the oyster automatically secretes a substance called nacre, which is principally calcium carbonate and is the same material that lines the oyster’s shell. The nacre accumulates in layers around the irritant core to form the pearl.”

To your niece: “Imagine you’re an oyster on the ocean floor. A grain of sand gets inside your shell and makes you uncomfortable. So you decide to cover it up. You cover it with a material called mother-of-pearl. The cov- ering builds up around the grain of sand to make a pearl.”

3. Telling a story for maximum impact. Suppose you are telling a friend about a funny incident at last week’s football game. You don’t begin with the punch line (“Keisha fell out of the stands right onto the field. Here’s how it started. . . .”). Instead, you carefully build up your story, adjusting your words and tone of voice to get the best effect.

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Similarities Between Public Speaking and Conversation 7

4. Adapting to listener feedback. Whenever you talk with someone, you are aware of that person’s verbal, facial, and physical reactions. For example:

You are explaining an interesting point that came up in biology class. Your listener begins to look confused, puts up a hand as though to stop you, and says “Huh?” You go back and explain more clearly.

A friend has asked you to listen while she practices a speech. At the end you tell her, “There’s just one part I really don’t like—that quotation from the attorney general.” Your friend looks very hurt and says, “That was my favorite part!” So you say, “But if you just worked the quotation in a little differently, it would be wonderful.”

Each day, in casual conversation, you do all these things many times without thinking about them. You already possess these communication skills. And these are among the most important skills you will need for public speaking.

To illustrate, let’s return briefly to one of the hypothetical situations at the begin- ning of this chapter. When addressing the school board about the need for a special teacher:

■ You organize your ideas to present them in the most persuasive manner. You steadily build up a compelling case about how the teacher benefits the school.

■ You tailor your message to your audience. This is no time to launch an impassioned defense of special education in the United States. You must show how the issue is important to the people in that very room—to their children and to the school.

■ You tell your story for maximum impact. Perhaps you relate an anecdote to demonstrate how much your child has improved. You also have statistics to show how many other children have been helped.

■ You adapt to listener feedback. When you mention the cost of the special teacher, you notice sour looks on the faces of the school board members. So you patiently explain how small that cost is in relation to the overall school budget.

Many skills used in conversation also apply in public speaking. As you learn to speak more effectively, you may also learn to communicate more effectively in other situations. ©Ariel Skelley/Getty Images

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8 CHAPTER 1 Speaking in Public

In many ways, then, public speaking requires the same skills used in ordinary conversation. Most people who communicate well in daily talk can learn to commu- nicate just as well in public speaking. By the same token, training in public speaking can make you a more adept communicator in a variety of situations, such as conver- sations, classroom discussions, business meetings, and interviews.

Differences Between Public Speaking and Conversation Despite their similarities, public speaking and everyday conversation are not identi- cal. Imagine that you are telling a story to a friend. Then imagine yourself telling the story to a group of seven or eight friends. Now imagine telling the same story to 20 or 30 people. As the size of your audience grows, you will find yourself adapting to three major differences between conversation and public speaking:

1. Public speaking is more highly structured. It usually imposes strict time limita- tions on the speaker. In most cases, the situation does not allow listeners to interrupt with questions or commentary. The speaker must accomplish her or his purpose in the speech itself. Consequently, public speaking demands much more detailed plan- ning and preparation than ordinary conversation. When preparing his TEDx Talk on making a difference in the life of a child, Josh Shipp spent almost a full year writing, revising, and rehearsing. That’s detailed planning!

2. Public speaking requires more formal language. Slang, jargon, and bad grammar have little place in public speeches. Whether one is delivering a classroom speech, a TED Talk, a business presentation, or a famous work such as “I Have a Dream,” the language should rise to the level of the occasion. Listeners usually react negatively to speakers who do not elevate and polish their language when addressing an audience. A speech should be “special.”

3. Public speaking requires a different method of delivery. When conversing infor- mally, most people talk quietly, interject stock phrases such as “like” and “you know,” adopt a casual posture, and use what are called vocalized pauses (“uh,” “er,” “um”). Effective public speakers, however, adjust their voices to be heard clearly throughout the audience. They assume a more erect posture. They avoid distracting mannerisms and verbal habits.

With study and practice, you will master these differences and expand your con- versational skills into speechmaking. Your speech class will provide the opportunity for this study and practice.

Developing Confidence: Your Speech Class One of the major concerns of students in any speech class is stage fright. We may as well face the issue squarely. Many people who converse easily in all kinds of everyday situations become frightened at the idea of standing up before a group to make a speech.

If you are worried about stage fright, you may feel better knowing that you are not alone. A 2014 survey by researchers at Chapman University asked 1,500 participants from across the country to name their greatest fear. Public speaking

stage fright Anxiety over the prospect of giving a speech in front of an audience.

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Developing Confidence: Your Speech Class 9

topped the list. A 2012 study produced similar results, with 62 percent of respon- dents being terrified by the prospect of speaking in public. In comparison, only 43 percent said they were afraid of dying.6

In a different study, researchers concentrated on social situations and, again, asked their subjects to list their greatest fears. More than 9,000 people were inter- viewed. Here is the ranking of their answers:7

Greatest Fear

Public speaking

Speaking up in a meeting or class

Meeting new people

Talking to people in authority

Important examination or interview

Going to parties

Talking with strangers

Again, speechmaking is at the top in provoking anxiety.

NERVOUSNESS IS NORMAL If you feel nervous about giving a speech, you are in very good company. Some of the greatest public speakers in history have suffered from stage fright, including Abraham Lincoln, Margaret Sanger, and Winston Churchill. The famous Roman orator Cicero said, “I turn pale at the outset of a speech and quake in every limb and in my soul.”8

Jennifer Lawrence, Conan O’Brien, and Oprah Winfrey all report being anxious about speaking in public. Early in his career, Leonardo DiCaprio was so nervous about giving an acceptance speech that he hoped he would not win the Academy Award for which he had been nominated. Eighty-one percent of business executives say public speaking is the most nerve-wracking experience they face.9 What come- dian Jerry Seinfeld said in jest sometimes seems literally true: “Given a choice, at a funeral most of us would rather be the one in the coffin than the one giving the eulogy.”

Actually, most people tend to be anxious before doing something important in public. Actors are nervous before a play, politicians are nervous before a campaign speech, athletes are nervous before a big game. The ones who succeed have learned to use their nervousness to their advantage. Listen to legendary tennis player Roger Federer, speaking after his 2017 Wimbledon title match. No matter how much you practice, he said, you have to be able to perform “when the pressure comes of matches, the nerves, the stomach, when you’re not free and you’re tense.” Putting his butterflies to good use, Federer beat Marin Cilic in straight sets to win his eighth Wimbledon crown and his nineteenth Grand Slam championship.

Much the same thing happens in speechmaking. Most experienced speakers have stage fright before taking the floor, but their nervousness is a healthy sign that they are getting “psyched up” for a good effort. Novelist and lecturer I. A. R. Wylie once said: “I rarely rise to my feet without a throat constricted with terror and a furiously thumping heart. When, for some reason, I am cool and self-assured, the speech is always a failure.”

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