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Women's lives a psychological exploration 4th edition pdf

27/11/2021 Client: muhammad11 Deadline: 2 Day

Third Edition


Claire A. Etaugh Bradley University

Judith S. Bridges University of Connecticut at Hartford, Emerita


First published 2013, 2010, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Published 2016 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY, 10017, USA

Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

Copyright © 2013, 2010, 2006 Taylor & Francis. All rights reserved

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.

Notices: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe.

Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on appropriate page within text on page 490.

ISBN: 9780205255634 (pbk)

Cover Designer: Suzanne Behnke

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Etaugh, Claire.  Women’s lives : a psychological exploration / Claire A. Etaugh, Judith S. Bridges. — 3rd ed.   p. cm.  Includes bibliographical references and index.  ISBN-13: 978-0-205-25563-4  ISBN-10: 0-205-25563-9  1. Women—Psychology. 2. Women—North America—Social conditions. I. Bridges, Judith S. II. Title.  HQ1206.E883 2012  155.3′33—dc23



Chapter 1

Chapter 2



Introduction to the Psychology of Women Definitions: Sex and Gender Women and Men: Similar or Different?

Similarities Approach Differences Approach

Feminism History of Women in Psychology

■ GET INVOLVED 1.1: How Do People View Feminism? Women and the American Psychological Association Women’s Contributions

History of the Psychology of Women The Early Years The Recent Years

Studying the Psychology of Women Bias in Psychological Research ■ GET INVOLVED 1.2: Are Samples in Psychological Research Biased? Feminist Research Methods ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 1.1: Doing Cross-Cultural Research on Gender Drawing Conclusions From Multiple Studies ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 1.1: Principles of Feminist Research

Themes in the Text Theme 1: Intersectionality: The Diversity of Women’s Identities and

Experiences Theme 2: Gender Differences in Power ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 1.1: Help Empower Girls and Women Theme 3: Social Construction of Gender

Summary Key Terms What Do You Think? If You Want to Learn More Websites

Cultural Representation of Gender Stereotypes of Females and Males

The Content of Gender Stereotypes ■ GET INVOLVED 2.1: How Do You View Typical Females and Males? The Perceiver’s Ethnicity and Gender Stereotypes The Target’s Characteristics and Gender Stereotypes


Chapter 3

Stereotypes of Girls and Boys Bases for Gender Stereotypes Stereotypes Based on Identity Labels

Sexism: Experiences And Attitudes Experiences With Sexism Changes in Sexist Attitudes Over Time Modern Sexism Ambivalent Sexism ■ GET INVOLVED 2.2: Who Holds Modern Sexist Beliefs? ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 2.1: Benevolent Sexism Is a Global Phenomenon

Representation of Gender in the Media Pattern 1: Underrepresentation of Females ■ GET INVOLVED 2.3: How Are Females and Males Portrayed on Prime- Time Television? Pattern 2: Underrepresentation of Specific Groups of Females ■ GET INVOLVED 2.4: Media Advertisements and the Double Standard of

Aging Pattern 3: Portrayal of Gender-Based Social Roles Pattern 4: Depiction of Female Communion and Male Agency Pattern 5: Emphasis on Female Attractiveness and Sexuality Impact of Gender-Role Media Images ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 2.1: Are Babies Portrayed Stereotypically in Birth Congratulations Cards? ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 2.1: Increase Girls’ and Women’s Awareness of the Effects of Media ■ GET INVOLVED 2.5: Are Both Women and Men Persons?

Representation of Gender in the English Language Language Practices Based on the Assumption That Male Is Normative Negative Terms for Females Significance of the Differential Treatment of Females and Males in

Language Summary Key Terms What Do You Think? If You Want to Learn More Websites

Gender Self-Concept and Gender Attitudes Gender Self-Concept Prenatal Development

Stages of Prenatal Sex Differentiation Intersexuality ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 3.1: Multiple Genders

Theories of Gender Typing Psychoanalytic Theory


Chapter 4

Social Learning Theory Cognitive Developmental Theory Gender Schema Theory ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 3.1: Ways to Minimize Gender Schemas in Children

Gender-Related Traits Changes in Gender-Related Traits Over Time ■ GET INVOLVED 3.1: What Are Your Gender-Related Traits? Gender-Related Traits and Psychological Adjustment Evaluation of the Concept of Androgyny ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 3.1: A Real-Life Approach to Androgyny

Gender Attitudes ■ GET INVOLVED 3.2: What Are Your Gender Attitudes? ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 3.2: Gender Attitudes in Global Context

Individual differences in Gender-related attitudes ■ GET INVOLVED 3.3: Ethnic Variations in Gender Attitudes

Perceived Value of Female Versus Male Gender-Related Attributes ■ GET INVOLVED 3.4: Would You Rather Be a Female or a Male?

Summary Key Terms What Do You Think? If You Want to Learn More Websites

Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence Children’s Knowledge and Beliefs About Gender

Distinguishing Between Females and Males Gender Identity and Self-Perceptions Gender Stereotypes ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 4.1: Gender Stereotypes About Occupations

Gender-Related Activities And Interests Physical Performance and Sports ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 4.1: How Do Children Develop Gender Stereotypes in Other Cultures? Toys and Play Gender Segregation ■ GET INVOLVED 4.1: Play Patterns of Girls and Boys

Influences On Gender Development Parents ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 4.2: Learning Gender-Related Roles at Home and at Play Siblings School Peers


Chapter 5

Media Puberty

■ GET INVOLVED 4.2: Influences on Gender Development Events of Puberty Menarche Gender Differences in Puberty Early and Late Maturation in Girls

Psychosocial Development in Adolescence Identity Formation Self-Esteem Gender Intensification ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 4.1: Empowering Girls to Lead Social Change Body Image ■ GET INVOLVED 4.3: Perceptions of Actual and Desirable Physique

Summary Key Terms What Do You Think? If You Want to Learn More Websites

Gender Comparisons Gender-Related Social Behaviors And Personality Traits

Aggression Prosocial Behavior Influenceability Emotionality Moral Reasoning

Communication Style Verbal Communication ■ GET INVOLVED 5.1: “Troubles Talk”: Effects of Gender on Communication Styles Nonverbal Communication

Gender Comparison of Cognitive Abilities Verbal Ability Visual-Spatial Ability Mathematics Ability ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 5.1: Gender Differences in Mathematics Achievement Around the World ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 5.1: Factors Linked to Women’s Perspectives on Math ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 5.2: Gender, Computers, and Video Games ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 5.1: Encouraging Girls in Math and Science

Summary Key Terms


Chapter 6

Chapter 7

What Do You Think? If You Want to Learn More Websites

Sexuality Sexuality

Sexual anatomy and Sexual Response Sexual Attitudes Sexual Behaviors Sexual Problems

Lesbians, Gay Men, Bisexuals, And Transgender Individuals ■ GET INVOLVED 6.1: Attitudes Toward Lesbians Bisexuals Attitudes Toward Sexual Minorities ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 6.1: Sexual Minorities Around the World Explanations of Sexual Orientation ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 6.1: Supporting Rights of Sexual Minorities

Sexual Activity During Adolescence Frequency of Sexual Activity ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 6.1: Hook-Ups and Friends With Benefits Factors Associated with Sexual Activity The Double Standard Sexual Desire

Sexual Activity in Midlife Physical Changes Patterns of Sexual Activity

Sexual Activity in Later Life Benefits of Sexual Activity in Later Life ■ GET INVOLVED 6.2: Attitudes Toward Sexuality in Later Life Sexual Behavior of Older People Factors Affecting Sexual Behavior Enhancing Sexuality in Later Life

Summary Key Terms What Do You Think? If You Want to Learn More Websites

Reproductive System and Childbearing Menstruation

The Menstrual Cycle Menstrual Pain Attitudes Toward Menstruation Menstrual Joy


Chapter 8

Premenstrual Syndrome ■ GET INVOLVED 7.1: Menstrual Symptoms

Contraception Contraception in Adolescence Methods of Contraception

Abortion Incidence Methods Consequences of Abortion ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 7.1: Women’s Reproductive Lives Around the World

Pregnancy Pregnancy: Physical and Psychological Changes ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 7.2: Female Genital Cutting ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 7.1: Help Increase Reproductive Choices of Girls and Women ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 7.3: Pregnancy-Related Deaths Around the World Miscarriage Teenage Pregnancy ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 7.4: Why Is the Teen Pregnancy Rate So High in the United States?

Childbirth Stages of Childbirth Methods of Childbirth Childbearing After 35 Childbearing in the Later Years ■ GET INVOLVED 7.2: Pregnancy and Childbirth Experiences Postpartum Distress Infertility and Assisted Reproductive Technology

Reproductive Functioning in Midlife and Beyond Menopause ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 7.1: Childfree by Choice ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 7.5: Menopause: Symbol of Decline or of Higher Status? Hormone Replacement Therapy

Summary Key Terms What Do You Think? If You Want to Learn More Websites

Relationships Friendships

Friendship in Adolescence Friendship in Adulthood


Friendship in Later Life Romantic Relationships

Desirable Qualities in a Partner Perception of Sexual Interest ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 8.1: What Do People in Other Cultures Look for in a Mate? Dating ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 8.1: Dating Issues for Women With Physical Disabilities ■ GET INVOLVED 8.1: Dating Scripts of Women and Men

Committed Relationship Marriage Cohabitation Lesbian Relationships

Single Women Divorced Women Never-Married Women Widowed Women Women Who Have Lost a Same-Sex Partner

Motherhood Stereotypes of Mothers Single Mothers ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 8.1: Help Address Issues of Parenting and Work- Family Balancing Lesbian Mothers Mothers With Disabilities The “Empty Nest” Period ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 8.2: Adult Children of Lesbian Mothers

Relationships in the Later Years ■ GET INVOLVED 8.2: Women’s Experiences During the Empty Nest Period Siblings Adult Children ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 8.2: Living Arrangements of Older Women and Men Grandchildren ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 8.3: Grandmothers: The Difference Between Life and Death Parents ■ GET INVOLVED 8.3: Interview With Older Women

Summary Key Terms What Do You Think? If You Want to Know More Websites


Chapter 9

Chapter 10

Education and Achievement Women’s Educational Goals, Attainments, and Campus Experiences

Educational Goals Educational Attainments ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 9.1: Is There a “Boy Crisis” in Education? ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 9.1: Educating Girls Worldwide: Gender Gaps and Gains Campus Climate ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 9.2: The Oppressive Educational Climate Under Taliban Rule ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 9.1: Promote Education of Girls Worldwide

Women’s Work-Related Goals ■ GET INVOLVED 9.1: Does Your Campus Have a Hospitable Environment for Women? Career Aspirations Career Counseling Work-Family Expectations Work-Family Outcomes Salary Expectations

Influences on Women’s Achievement Level and Career Decisions Orientation to Achievement Personal Characteristics Sexual Orientation Social and Cultural Factors ■ GET INVOLVED 9.2: Family and Cultural Values About Education and Career Goals Job-Related Characteristics

Summary Key Terms What Do You Think? If You Want to Learn More Websites

Employment Women’s Employment Rates and Occupational Choices

Employment Rates Occupational Choices ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 10.1: Job Retention and Advancement Among Low-Income Mothers

Gender Differences in Leadership and Job Advancement Leadership Positions Barriers That Hinder Women’s Advancement Women as Leaders

Gender Differences in Salaries Comparative Salaries


Chapter 11

Reasons for Differences in Salaries ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 10.1: Effectively Negotiate Your Salary ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 10.1: Girls and Women in the Global Factory ■ GET INVOLVED 10.1: Gender-Based Treatment in the Workplace

Women’s Job Satisfaction Gender Differences in Satisfaction Job Satisfaction of Sexual Minorities

The Older Woman Worker Employment Rates Why Do Older Women Work? Entering the Workforce in Later Life Age Discrimination in the Workplace

Changing the Workplace Organizational Procedures and Policies Strategies for Women ■ GET INVOLVED 10.2: Ways to Make the Workplace Better for Women

Retirement The Retirement Decision ■ GET INVOLVED 10.3: Interview With Older Women: Work and Retirement Adjustment to Retirement Leisure Activities in Retirement ■ GET INVOLVED 10.4: Leisure Activities of Older and Young Women

Economic Issues in Later Life Poverty Retirement Income: Planning Ahead ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 10.2: Economic Status of Older Women ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 10.2: Start Planning for Retirement

Summary Key Terms What Do You Think? If You Want to Learn More Websites

Balancing Family and Work Women’s Family and Employment Roles: Perceptions and Attitudes

Perceptions of Working and Stay-at-Home Mothers ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 11.1: Are Women “Opting Out” of Careers? ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 11.1: Attitudes Toward Married Women’s Employment: A Cross-Cultural Perspective Factors Influencing Attitudes Toward Women’s Multiple Roles

Division of Family Labor ■ GET INVOLVED 11.1: How Do College Students Evaluate Mothers Who Are Full-Time Students?


Chapter 12

Housework and Child Care Caring for Aging Parents Leisure Time Women’s Perceptions of the Division of Family Labor Explanations of the Division of Family Labor

Family–Work Coordination Balancing Family and Work: Costs and Benefits ■ GET INVOLVED 11.2: What Psychological Experiences Do You Think You Will Have If You Combine Employment and Motherhood? Effects of Mothers’ Employment Solutions to Family–Work Balancing Challenges ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 11.2: Parental Leave Policies Around the World ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 11.2: How Do Tag-Team Parents Reconcile Their Own Roles With Their Traditional Gender Attitudes?

Midlife Transitions in Family and Work Roles ■ GET INVOLVED 11.3: Women’s Experiences in Coordinating Family and Work Roles ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 11.1: Advocate for Family-Friendly Work Policies Satisfaction With Life Roles Regrets About Life Direction Making Changes Midlife Transitions: A Cautionary Note

Summary Key Terms What Do You Think? If You Want to Learn More Websites

Physical Health Health Services

The Physician–Patient Relationship Type and Quality of Care Ethnicity, Poverty, and Health Care Women With Disabilities and Health Care Sexual Minority Women and Health Care Health Insurance

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) ■ GET INVOLVED 12.1: What Women Say About Their Health Overview of STIs AIDS ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 12.1: Knowledge and Communication About STIs ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 12.1: The Global AIDS Epidemic

Reproductive System Disorders Benign Conditions


Chapter 13

Cancers Hysterectomy

Osteoporosis Risk Factors Prevention and Treatment

Heart Disease Gender Differences Risk Factors Risk Diagnosis and Treatment Psychological Impact

Breast Cancer Risk Factors ■ GET INVOLVED 12.2: Assessing Your Risk Breast Cancer Detection ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 12.1: Doing a Breast Self-Examination Treatment Psychological Impact

Lung Cancer Risk Factors Detection and Treatment

Physical Health in Later Life Gender Differences in Mortality Social Class and Ethnic Differences ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 12.2: Health Report Card for Women Around the World Gender Differences in Illness Disability

Promoting Good Health Physical Activity and Exercise ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 12.2: Health Report Card for Women Around the World Nutrition

Summary Key Terms What Do You Think? If You Want to Learn More Websites

Mental Health Factors Promoting Mental Health

Social Support Optimism: “The Power of Positive Thinking”

Mental Health in Childhood and Adolescence Internalizing Disorders in Girls Externalizing Disorders in Girls


Chapter 14

Eating Disorders Types of Eating Disorders Causes of Eating Disorders Treatment of Eating Disorders ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 13.1: Cultural Pressure to Be Thin

Substance Use and Abuse Alcohol Illegal Substances

Anxiety Disorders and Depression Anxiety Disorders Depression ■ GET INVOLVED 13.1: How Do Women and Men Respond to Depression? Suicide ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 13.2: Gender Differences in Suicide: A Global Phenomenon

Mental Health of Sexual Minority Women Stresses and Problems Coping Mechanisms

Mental Health of Older Women Gender Differences The Vital Older Woman

Diagnosis and Treatment of Psychological Disorders Gender Bias in Diagnosis ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 13.1: Ways to Manage Stress and Promote Good Mental Health Gender Bias in Psychotherapy ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 13.1: What Is “Normal”? Gender Biases in Diagnosis Therapy Issues for Women of Color and Poor Women Types of Therapy

Summary Key Terms What Do You Think? If You Want to Learn More Websites

Violence Against Girls and Women Sexual Harassment at School

Elementary and Secondary School The College Campus ■ GET INVOLVED 14.1: What Constitutes Sexual Harassment on Campus?

Sexual Harassment in the Workplace ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 14.1: Reducing Sexual Harassment on Campus Incidence Consequences


Explanations Women’s Responses

Stalking What Is Stalking? Perpetrators, Victims, and Effects

Violence Against Girls Child Sexual Abuse Infanticide and Neglect ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 14.1: Where Are the Missing Girls in Asia? ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 14.2: Girls for Sale: The Horrors of Human Trafficking

Dating Violence Incidence Who Engages in Dating Violence?

Rape Incidence Acquaintance Rape Factors Associated with Acquaintance Rape ■ GET INVOLVED 14.2: Gender and Rape Myths ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 14.3: Attitudes Toward Rape Victims Around the World Effects of Rape Rape Prevention ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 14.1: Positive Life Changes Following Sexual Assault Theories of Rape

Intimate Partner Violence Incidence Role of Disability, Social Class, and Ethnicity Risk Factors ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 14.4: Intimate Partner Violence Around the World Effects of Intimate Partner Violence Leaving the Abusive Relationship Theories of Intimate Partner Violence Interventions

Elder Abuse ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 14.5: A Global View of Elder Abuse Who Is Abused and Who Abuses? What Can Be Done? ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 14.2: Working to Combat Violence Summary

Key Terms What Do You Think? If You Want to Learn More


Chapter 15


A Feminist Future Feminist Goals

Goal One: Gender Equality in Organizational Power Goal Two: Gender Equality in Relationship Power Goal Three: Gender Equality in Power for All Groups of Women Goal Four: Greater Flexibility in the Social Construction of Gender

Actions to Achieve These Goals Research and Teaching Socialization of Children ■ LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH 15.1: Why and How Should We Raise Feminist Children? Institutional Procedures Individual Actions Collective Action ■ WHAT YOU CAN DO 15.1: Become an Advocate ■ EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES 15.1: Women’s Movements Worldwide ■ GET INVOLVED 15.1: A Perfect Future Day

Feminist Beliefs ■ GET INVOLVED 15.2: How Do You View Feminism? Feminist Identification Emergence of Feminist Beliefs Men and Feminism ■ GET INVOLVED 15.3: How Involved in Feminist Activism Are You?

Postscript Summary What Do You Think? If You Want to Learn More Websites


Name Index

Subject Index

Photo Credits



Over the last few decades, the burgeoning interest in psychology of women has been reflected in a rapidly expanding body of research and a growing number of college-level courses in the psychology of women or gender. The third edition of Women’s Lives: A Psychological Exploration draws on this rich literature to present a broad range of experiences and issues of relevance to girls and women. Because it does not presuppose any background in psychology, this book can be used as the sole or primary text in introductory-level psychology of women courses and, with other books, in psychology of gender or interdisciplinary women’s studies courses. Additionally, its presentation of both current and classical research and theory makes it a suitable choice, along with supplementary materials, for more advanced courses focused on the psychology of women or gender.

Every chapter in this textbook reflects substantial changes in this field during the past few years. We have made several changes based on the extremely helpful comments from reviewers and the many students and faculty who have used the two life span editions and the two topical editions of this book. This new topical revision includes the following highlights:

Over 2,100 new references emphasize the latest research and theories, with more than half from 2010 to the present. What You Can Do, a new boxed feature in each chapter, provides students with hands-on activities to both empower themselves and help promote a more egalitarian society. Explore Other Cultures, another boxed feature in each chapter, gives students an understanding of the role of cultural, social, and economic factors that shape women’s lives around the world. Get Involved is a set of activities in each chapter that promotes active student participation in research. The unique life span approach of two previous chronological editions is embedded within topical chapters on sexuality, reproduction and childbearing, education and achievement, employment, physical health, mental health, and violence against girls and women. Coverage of the lives of women in the middle and later years is far more extensive than in any other textbook in the field. An updated list of Websites and current books at the end of each chapter provides students with resources for additional study and research. Expanded use of vignettes and quotes from women adds richness to the data and helps students personally connect with the material. New and expanded coverage of many topics reflects scientific and social


developments of the second decade of the new millennium.

These changes are broken down by chapter and include:

Chapter 1: New organizing theme: Intersectionality New material on ethnic women psychologists Chapter 2: Updated information on stereotypes related to gender, age, class, ethnicity,

ableness, and sexual orientation New research on representation of diverse groups of women in the media Chapter 3: Updated information on multiple genders New material on women leaders of Native American nations Chapter 4: Expanded section on children’s gendered occupational choices New material on the social construction of menarche, self-esteem in

adolescent girls, and factors that influence body image Chapter 5: Updated findings on relational aggression Expanded section on cultural factors affecting girls’ math achievement Chapter 6: New section on hook-ups and friends with benefits Expanded coverage of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals New research on sexual activity of women throughout the life span Chapter 7: Current trends in birthrates of teens and women over 35 Updated information on assisted reproductive technology, menopause, and

hormone replacement therapy New material on attitudes toward pregnancy in employed women and in

women with disabilities Chapter 8: Recent trends in dating Expanded sections on marital satisfaction, cohabitation, and single mothers Updated information on same-sex marriages and civil unions in the United

States and abroad Chapter 9: Expanded section on the educational and occupational goals and achievements

of girls and young women Updated material on the education of the girls in developing nations New material on the academic environment for women of color and for low-

income women


Chapter 10: New coverage of workplace issues for women with disabilities, immigrant

women, low-income women, and sexual minority women Updated information on challenges for women in leadership roles Chapter 11: Expanded coverage of dual-income couples and the “opting out” controversy Updated research on the benefits and costs of work–family balancing Chapter 12: New section on lung cancer in women New section of health care issues for women with disabilities Expanded coverage of health care issues for sexual minority women, ethnic

minority women, low-income women, and immigrant women The latest information on heart disease, breast cancer, and sexually transmitted

infections in women Chapter 13: Expanded coverage on reducing stress and promoting good mental health Updated research on mental health issues of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and

transgender individuals Chapter 14: New section on stalking Expanded coverage of sexual harassment on college campuses and in the

workplace, and on intimate partner violence in the United States and abroad Updated information on human trafficking,

acquaintance rape, and elder abuse Chapter 15: Updated coverage of women’s movements worldwide Additional information on men and feminism


SPECIAL FEATURES RELATED TO CONTENT AND ORGANIZATION LIFE SPAN APPROACH EMBEDDED WITHIN TOPICAL CHAPTERS. Virtually all textbooks on the psychology of women or psychology of gender use a topical approach and also include two or three chronological chapters. Typically, there is a chapter or two on childhood and adolescence and one on women in the middle and later years. Almost all coverage of midlife and older women is contained in that one chapter. The result is that many of the issues and experiences relating to women in midlife and beyond are barely touched on or simply are not covered at all. These older women remain relatively invisible.

Our approach is different. We have taken the unique life span approach of our two earlier chronologically focused texts and have embedded this approach within almost all chapters, including topical chapters on sexuality, reproduction and childbearing, education and achievement, employment, physical health, mental health, and violence against girls and women. Midlife and older women are discussed in all chapters except the one on infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

INTERSECTIONAL APPROACH THAT INTEGRATES WOMEN’S DIVERSE IDENTITIES. The text provides extensive coverage of women of color, women in other cultures around the world, and sexual minority women. Although there is less information available, we have also included material on low-income women and women with disabilities whenever possible. New to this edition, we have used an intersectional perspective that integrates women’s diverse identities within each chapter rather than examining subgroups of women in separate chapters. We emphasize that women’s identities are shaped not simply by adding the effects of their class, ethnicity, age, sexual orientation, physical ability, religion, and nationality, but by a complex combination of all these characteristics in which the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

THOROUGH EXAMINATION OF BALANCING FAMI LY AND WORK. It is clear that the balancing of family and work has become a major issue facing families around the globe. We have devoted an entire chapter to this timely topic in order to thoroughly explore the theories, challenges, benefits, and solutions associated with this worldwide reality of the twenty-first century.


PEDAGOGICAL FEATURES INTRODUCTORY OUTLINE. Each chapter begins with an outline of the material, thus providing an organizational framework for reading the material.

OPENING VIGNETTES. To grab students’ attention and connect the material to real life, each chapter begins with one or two actual or hypothetical experiences illustrating one or more issues discussed in the chapter.

WHAT YOU CAN DO. A new boxed feature in this edition provides students with experiential activities that help them to both empower themselves and help promote a more egalitarian society.

WHAT DO YOU THINK? The text includes critical-thinking questions in every chapter. The end-of-the-chapter questions foster skills in synthesis and evaluation by asking the student to apply course material or personal experiences to provocative issues from the chapter.

GET INVOLVED. As a means of providing firsthand involvement in the material, each chapter contains a number of student activities. Some require collecting data on a small number of respondents and others focus solely on the student. Furthermore, each exercise is accompanied by critical-thinking questions that focus on explanations and implications of the activity’s findings.

The active learning involved in these activities serves several purposes. First, it reinforces the material learned in the text. Second, those exercises that involve surveys of other people or analyses of societal artifacts introduce students to the research process, which, in turn, can stimulate interest in research, increase familiarity with a variety of assessment techniques, and provoke critical evaluation of research techniques. Third, the Get Involved activities demonstrate the relevance of the course material to students’ experiences or to the experiences of important people in their lives.

EXPLORE OTHER CULTURES. In order to provide students with a deeper appreciation of women in a global context, each chapter contains between one and five boxed features highlighting the role of cultural, social, and economic factors in shaping women’s lives around the world.

LEARN ABOUT THE RESEARCH. To stimulate students’ interest in and appreciation of research as a source of knowledge about girls and women, each chapter has one or two boxed sections that focus on research. These Learn About the Research sections either highlight an interesting recent study or present an overview of recent findings in an intriguing research area. We expose students to a variety of research


techniques (content analysis, interviews, questionnaires) without requiring that they have any background in psychological research methods. Furthermore, to highlight the importance of diversity in research samples, our selections include studies of underrepresented populations.

Following the research presentation are What Does It Mean? questions. These provoke more critical thinking by asking the student to consider a variety of issues related to the research, such as explanations and implications of the findings.

KEY TERMS. Terms in bold and definitions in italics within the text help students preview, understand, and review important concepts. These terms appear again at the end of each chapter, along with the page number on which the term appears.

SUMMARY. The point-by-point end-of-the-chapter summary helps students synthesize the material.

IF YOU WANT TO KNOW MORE. Recommended readings at the end of each chapter facilitate more extensive examination of the material. This edition includes more than 100 new and current recommended books to stimulate students to expand their knowledge.

WEBSITES. An updated list of Websites at the end of each chapter provides students with additional resources.


WRITING STYLE In order to engage the student and construct a nonhierarchical relationship between ourselves and the student, we use a nonpedantic first-person writing style. To reinforce this relationship in some of the opening vignettes and within the text, we have also presented our own experiences or those of our friends, families, and students.


SUPPLEMENTS Please visit the companion website at www.routledge.com/9780205255634


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We owe a great deal to the many reviewers whose expert suggestions and insights were invaluable in the development of this book. Our sincere thanks to all of you who reviewed the text for the third edition specifically: Sara Buday, University of Missouri, St. Louis; Mary Dolan, California State University, San Bernardino; Jenelle Fitch, Texas Women’s University; Ann Fuehrer, Miami University; Bree Kessler, Hunter College; Robin Kowalski, Clemson University; Joyce Quaytman, University of California, Chico; Jennifer Taylor, Humboldt State University.

It has been a pleasure to work with the publishing professionals at Pearson. In particular, we acknowledge the invaluable support and assistance of Susan Hartman, our editor for this book. We also are deeply indebted to Trish Blattenberger, who flawlessly and cheerfully carried out the mind-boggling tasks of locating and keeping track of over 2,100 new references, recording hundreds of track changes, securing permissions, proofreading, and carrying out numerous other tasks essential to the production of this book. In addition, kudos to Pat Campbell and Patti Hall for their help with the author index. We are grateful as well for the assistance of Robert Ray of the Chicago Public Library.

Thanks also to the students in our Psychology of Women courses who provided excellent editorial suggestions on earlier versions of the manuscript and for whom, ultimately, this book is written.

Finally, the book could not have been completed without the loving support of our families. Judith thanks her mother, Ruth; mother-in-law, Hilde; and children, Rachel and Jason, and their spouses, Gray and Nora, for providing support and inspiration throughout this project. Also, her deepest appreciation goes to her husband Barry for his unwavering patience, understanding, and encouragement. Claire’s heartfelt thanks go to the women and men who have enriched her life and have been an endless source of encouragement and support: her parents, Martha and Lou; siblings, Paula, Bonnie, and Howard; children, Andi and Adam; grandchildren, Anthony and Isabel; and “extended family” of friends, Peggy, Pat, Pat, Barbara, Kevin, Pam, Suzanne, and Janis.




Introduction to the Psychology of Women History and Research

Definitions: Sex and Gender Women and Men: Similar or Different?

Similarities Approach Differences Approach

Feminism History of Women in Psychology

Women and the American Psychological Association Women’s Contributions

History of the Psychology of Women The Early Years The Recent Years

Studying the Psychology of Women Bias in Psychological Research Feminist Research Methods Drawing Conclusions From Multiple Studies

Themes in the Text Theme 1: Intersectionality: The Diversity of Women’s Identities and Experiences Theme 2: Gender Differences in Power Theme 3: Social Construction of Gender

In 1965 when I (Judith) was applying to graduate schools, the chair of one psychology department informed me that my college grades met the criterion for male, but not female, admission into the program. That department (and others) had two sets of standards, and obviously, fewer women than men were admitted. When I look back at that time it is amazing to me to realize that I quietly accepted this



pronouncement. I was disappointed but not outraged. I rejoiced at my acceptance by a comparable department but never thought to protest discriminatory admission policies (which were not unique to that department). A generation ago I did not identify this issue or any other gender inequality in institutional, legal, or interpersonal practices as a problem. However, over the last several decades my awareness and concern about these issues dramatically changed. Claire and I are deeply committed to gender equality in all areas of life and hope that this text will help illuminate both the progress women have made and the challenges that remain in the attainment of this important goal.

n this chapter we set the groundwork for the study of the psychology of women. We present major definitions, explore relevant history, examine research

issues, and discuss the themes of the book. We begin with a look at the difference between sex and gender.


DEFINITIONS: SEX AND GENDER Psychologists do not agree completely on the definitions of the words sex and gender. Sex is used to refer either to whether a person is female or male or to sexual behavior. This ambiguity of definition sometimes can cause confusion. For example, Claire offered a course several years ago entitled “The Psychology of Sex Differences.” The course dealt with behavioral similarities and differences of females and males. After the first day of class, some students approached her with a puzzled look on their faces. The course title had led them to believe that the subject matter of the course was human sexuality.

The words sex and gender have often been used interchangeably to describe the differences in the behaviors of women and men. One example is the term sex roles, which is sometimes used to refer to culturally prescribed sets of behaviors for men and women. Sex Roles is even the name of a highly respected journal. Yet many psychologists believe that the term gender roles is more appropriate to describe the concept of cultural beliefs applied to individuals on the basis of their socially assigned sex (Wood & Eagly, 2010).

To avoid confusion, we will use the term gender to refer to the meanings that societies and individuals give to female and male categories (Wood & Eagly, 2010). We use the term sex to refer to the classification of individuals as female or male based on their genetic makeup, anatomy, and reproductive functions. Even this definition may be too simple: Recent research on intersex individuals indicates that there are more than two sexes (Russo & Tartaro, 2008). See Chapter 3 for further discussion of that issue.


WOMEN AND MEN: SIMILAR OR DIFFERENT? Scholars who study sex and gender issues usually take one of two approaches. Either they emphasize the similarities between women and men or they focus on the differences between them.

Similarities Approach Those who adhere to the similarities viewpoint seek to show that men and women are basically alike in their intellectual and social behaviors. Any differences that do occur are small and inconsistent, and produced by socialization, not biology (Blakemore et al., 2009; Eagly et al., 2004). This approach, also called the beta bias, has its origins in the work of early twentieth-century women psychologists. As we shall see later in the chapter, a number of these psychologists carried out research that challenged the prevailing belief that women are different from (and inferior to) men. Most feminist theory and research dealing with gender differences has retained this similarities approach (Bohan, 2002).

Differences Approach The differences viewpoint, also known as the alpha bias, emphasizes the differences between women and men. Historically, these differences have been thought to arise from essential qualities within the individual that are rooted in biology (Charles & Bradley, 2009; England, 2010). This concept is known as essentialism.

The differences perspective has origins in both ancient Western and Eastern philosophies, which associate men with reason and civilization and women with emotion and nature (Hare-Mustin & Marecek, 1990). As we have seen, early psychologists often equated women’s differences from men with inferiority and “otherness.” Men set the standard whereas women were seen as deviations from that standard (Caplan & Caplan, 2009). For example, Sigmund Freud stated that because women do not have a penis, they suffer from penis envy. Using the same logic, one could argue just as persuasively that men experience uterus envy because they cannot bear children. (Karen Horney [1926/1974], a psychoanalyst who challenged many of Freud’s views, made this very proposal.)

Contemporary feminists regard female—male differences as arising from a culture’s expectations of how individuals should behave. In other words, behavioral differences between the genders are not inborn but are socially constructed (Kinser, 2010; Marecek et al., 2004). As we shall see at the end of this chapter, the social construction of gender is one of the three major themes of this book.

Some feminists have added still another twist to the differences approach.


They embrace cultural feminism, a view that celebrates those positive qualities historically associated with women, such as a sense of human connection and concern for other people (Jordan et al., 2003; Kinser, 2010; Miller, 2008). The theories of Nancy Chodorow (1994) and Carol Gilligan (1982, 1993) illustrate the cultural feminist approach. According to Chodorow, early childhood experiences forever set females and males down different paths in their development of identity, personality, and emotional needs. Girls develop an early attachment to their mother, whom they perceive as similar to themselves. This leads girls to develop relational skills and a desire for close emotional connections. Boys, on the other hand, reject their emotional attachment to their mother, who is perceived as dissimilar. Boys instead identify with male figures who are often more distant. In the process, they become more invested in separation and independence and develop a more abstract and impersonal style (Blakemore et al., 2009). Gilligan (1982, 1994) also sees women’s identity as based on connections and relationships to others. She believes that women reason and make moral judgments in a “different voice,” a voice concerned with caring and responsibility. Men, on the other hand, are more concerned with abstract rights and justice. These different patterns of reasoning are equally valid and sophisticated, according to Gilligan. We shall discuss moral reasoning in females and males in greater detail in Chapter 5.

Regardless of one’s approach to gender comparisons, the study of gender and the psychology of women is rooted in a feminist perspective. Therefore, let’s now examine the meaning of feminism.


FEMINISM A feminist is

someone who believes in equality in the workforce a person who fights for women’s rights someone who protests about controversial issues, such as abortion or sexual harassment a big, bra-burning, man-hating woman

(College students’ view of feminism, from Houvouras & Carter, 2008, pp. 246–249)

Do any of these definitions reflect your own view of feminism? Although the term feminism is frequently used by the media, in opinion polls, and in casual conversation, people obviously differ in their conceptions of its meaning. There is even diversity among feminists. Although united in their belief that women are disadvantaged relative to men, feminists differ in their beliefs about the sources of this inequality and the ways to enhance women’s status (Hemmings, 2011; Lorber, 2010). Let’s examine five different types of feminism embraced by feminist scholars.

Liberal feminism is the belief that women and men should have the same political, legal, economic, and educational rights and opportunities (Kirk & Okazawa-Rey, 2010; Lorber, 2010). Liberal feminists advocate reform; their goals are to change attitudes and laws that are unfair to women and to equalize educational, employment, and political opportunities. For example, they seek the creation of an educational environment that encourages women’s growth in all academic fields, removal of barriers to full participation and advancement in the workplace, and more political leadership positions for women. Liberal feminists stress the similarities between females and males and contend that gender differences are a function of unequal opportunities.

In contrast, cultural feminism reflects the belief that women and men are different and that women’s special qualities, such as nurturance, concern about others, and cooperativeness, should be valued (Lorber, 2010). Cultural feminists are concerned about destructive outcomes related to masculine traits, such as aggressiveness and lack of emotional expressiveness, and want to empower women by elevating the value attached to their interpersonal orientation.

Another type of feminism, socialist feminism, reflects the attitude that gender inequality is rooted in economic inequality (Kirk & Okazawa-Rey, 2010; Lorber, 2010). Socialist feminists believe that various inequalities based on gender, ethnicity, and social class interact with one another and cannot be eliminated until the capitalistic structure of North American society is changed.


Radical feminism, on the other hand, is the belief that gender inequality is based on male oppression of women (Kirk & Okazawa-Rey, 2010; Lorber, 2010). Radical feminists contend that patriarchy, male control over and dominance of women, has existed throughout history and must be eliminated to achieve gender equality. In other words, different from socialist feminists, radical feminists see men, rather than capitalism, as the source of women’s oppression. Consequently, they are concerned not only about inequality in societal institutions, such as the workplace, but also about power differential in the family and other types of intimate relationships.

Many women of color have argued that the feminist movement is concerned primarily about issues that confront White women (Hill Collins, 2008; Nix- Stevenson, 2011). Consequently, they often embrace ‘women of color feminism (also known as womanism), which is the belief that both racism, bias against people because of their ethnicity, and classism, bias based on social class, must be recognized as being as important as sexism, gender-based bias (Lorber, 2010).

Clearly, there is no reason why a feminist perspective has to be limited to one viewpoint. Many individuals combine two or more into their personal definition of feminism. Now, perform the exercise in Get Involved 1.1 to more closely examine each of these types of feminism.



2. 3.



2. 3. 4. 5.

HISTORY OF WOMEN IN PSYCHOLOGY The first women in psychology faced a number of obstacles, especially in establishing their credentials, because many universities in the late 1800s and early 1900s did not welcome women who sought advanced degrees (Johnson, 2009; Milar, 2000). Judith’s experience described at the beginning of this chapter indicates that overt sexist policies toward women in psychology continued well into the twentieth century. Nevertheless, several women overcame the odds to become pioneers in the field (Kimmel & Crawford, 2001). Margaret Floy Washburn was the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology in America in 1894. It took another 40 years before doctorates in psychology were awarded to Black women: Inez Beverly Prosser and Ruth Winifred Howard (“February Is Black History Month,” 2004).

GET INVOLVED 1.1 How Do People View Feminism?

Answer the following questions and then ask several female and male acquaintances to do the same. Save your own answers but do not refer back to them after completing this chapter.

First, indicate which of the following categories best characterizes your identity as a feminist: I

consider myself a feminist and am currently involved in the Women’s Movement consider myself a feminist but am not involved in the Women’s Movement do not consider myself a feminist but agree with at least some of the objectives of feminism do not consider myself a feminist and disagree with the objectives of feminism.

Second, on a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agree), indicate the extent to which you disagree or agree with each of the following statements.

Women should be considered as seriously as men as candidates for the presidency of the United States. Although women can be good leaders, men make better leaders. A woman should have the same job opportunities as a man. Men should respect women more than they currently do. Many women in the workforce are taking jobs away from men who need the jobs more than women.


6. 7.


9. 10.




Doctors need to take women’s health concerns more seriously. Women have been treated unfairly on the basis of their gender throughout most of human history. Women are already given equal opportunities with men in all important sectors of their lives. Women in the United States are treated as second-class citizens. Women can best overcome discrimination by doing the best they can at their jobs, not by wasting time with political activity.

WHAT DOES IT MEAN? Before computing your scores for the 10 items, reverse the points for statements 2, 5, 8, and 10. That is, for a rating of 1 (strongly disagree), give 6 points, for a rating of 2, give 5 points, and so on. Then sum the points for all 10 items. Higher scores reflect greater agreement with feminist beliefs.

Are there differences in the feminist labels and/or feminist attitude scores between your female and male respondents? For each respondent, including yourself, compare the feminist attitude score to the selected feminist category. Did you find that individuals who gave themselves a feminist label (i.e., placed themselves in category 1 or 2) generally agreed with the feminist statements and obtained a score of 40 or higher? Similarly, did the individuals who did not label themselves as feminists (e.g., category 3 or 4) tend to disagree with the feminist statements and receive a score below 40? If there was no correspondence between the feminist identity label and the feminist beliefs, give possible reasons. Do you think that individuals who vary in ethnicity and social class might hold different attitudes about feminism? If yes, explain.

          Source: “Putting the feminism into feminism scales: Introduction of a liberal feminist attitude and ideology,” Sex Roles, 34, pp. 359–390, ©1996.

Women and the American Psychological Association One year after the founding of the American Psychological Association (APA), in 1893, 2 of the 14 new members admitted were women: Mary Whiton Calkins and Christine Ladd-Franklin (Hogan & Sexton, 1991). Calkins went on to become the first woman president of the APA in 1905. Margaret Floy Washburn was elected the second woman president in 1921 (Scarborough, 2010). It would be 51 years before the APA had another female leader.


Twelve women have been elected president of the American Psychological Association. In chronological order, they are Mary Whiton Calkins, Margaret Floy Washburn, Anne Anastasi, Leona Tyler, Florence Denmark, Janet Spence, Bonnie Strickland, Dorothy Cantor, Norine Johnson, Diane Halpern, Sharon Stephens Brehm, and 2011 president, Melba Vasquez (shown here).

Since the early 1970s, the number of women in APA leadership roles has increased notably and 12 women have become president (Azar, 2011 ; Brehm, 2007). In 2005, women represented 53 percent of the APA members, 49 percent of the council of representatives, and 38 percent of the board of directors, although only 26 percent of APA fellows, the most prestigious membership category. More than one-third of the reviewers and nearly half of the associate editors of APA journals (but only 28 percent of the editors) are women (American Psychological Association, 2006).

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