Criminal Investigation Question
Criminal investigation Basic PersPectives
Charles A. Lushbaugh Retired Lieutenant, Sacramento County Sheriff ’s Department, Sacramento, California Lecturer of Criminal Justice—Emeritus, California State University, Sacramento, California FBI NA, 185th Session
Paul B. Weston (Deceased)
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Lushbaugh, Charles. Criminal investigation: basic perspectives/Charles A. Lushbaugh, Paul B. Weston.—Thirteenth edition. pages cm ISBN 978-0-13-351440-7—ISBN 0-13-351440-4 1. Criminal investigation—United States. I. Weston, Paul B. II. Title. HV8073.W44 2016 363.250973—dc23 2014036668
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
ISBN 10: 0-13-351440-4 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-351440-7
This edition is dedicated to those who pointed me in the right direction and kept me on track. First, there were my parents, Helen and Charles, who, despite going no further than the eighth grade in school, valued education and hard work.
They were always there to answer my questions and provide valuable insights. For those questions that my parents were hoping I would never ask, I had lifelong
friends such as John Miele, Richard Hinman, Anthony Palumbo, and Joseph Nekola. While together we may not have always come up with the right answers to these
questions, the process was always informative. Then there were the Westons, Ceal, and Paul, who taught me that not only were education and hard work important
but that determination and motivation were also major components in getting ahead in life. Finally there is Sharon, who teaches me the meaning of life
on a daily basis, and I would be lost without her.
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Preface x i i i
Part 1 The Initial Investigation
Chapter 1 evolution of Policing and investigation 1 Early Response to Crime 2
Night Watch 2
Thief-Takers 3 Bow Street Runners 3 London’s Metropolitan Police 3 American Policing 4 The Reform Movement 5 Development of Forensic Science 7 Local Policing 9 State Policing 9 Federal Investigative Agencies 9 Case Study: Betty’s New Car 11 Chapter Review 12 • Key Terms 12 • Review Questions 12 Application Exercise 13 • Discussion Questions 13 • Related Websites 14 • Notes 14
Chapter 2 rules of evidence and arrest 15 Search Warrants 16 Warrantless Searches 18
Consent Search 18 Stop and Frisk 18 Plain View Exception 19 Search Incident to a Lawful Arrest 19 Motor Vehicle Stop 20 Open Fields 20 Exigent Circumstances 20
Exclusionary Rule 21 Arrest vs. Detention 21 Arrest Warrants 22 Locating the Suspect 22 The Broadcast Alarm 23
Records as Sources of Information 24
Wanted Notices 24 The Arrest 27 Case Preparation 28
The Defendant’s Identity 29
Contents vi ▼
The Defendant and the Corpus Delicti 29 Negative Evidence 30 Lawful Procedures 30
The Decision to Charge 30 Closing an Investigation 31 Case Study: Weeks v. United States 232 U.S. 383 (1914) 32 Chapter Review 33 • Key Terms 33 • Review Questions 33 Application Exercise 34 • Discussion Questions 34 • Related Websites 34 • Notes 35
Chapter 3 the crime scene 36 Control of the Crime Scene 37
Approach 37 Safety 38 Medical Attention 38 Search for Witnesses 38 Broadcast Alarm 38 Scene Boundaries 38 Management Notification 39 Media Relations 39 Officer-in-Charge 40
Crime Scene Investigation 40 Search Procedures 40 Collecting Evidence 42 Marking Evidence 43 Establishing the Chain of Custody 44 Packaging Physical Evidence 45 Matching Physical Evidence with Known Standards 46 Transporting Evidence 47 Handling Infected Evidence 48 Identifying Physical Changes at the Scene 49 Conducting a Final Survey of the Scene 49
Recording the Crime Scene 50 Field Notes 50 Preliminary Investigative Report 51 Offense or Crime Report 54 Photographing the Crime Scene 54 Sketching the Crime Scene 56 Videotaping the Crime Scene 60
Locating Witnesses 61 Revisiting the Crime Scene 61 View Area Canvass 62 The Neighborhood Canvass 62 Issuing Pleas for Public Cooperation 63
Case Study: Incredible Evidence 64 Chapter Review 66 • Key Terms 66 • Review Questions 66 Application Exercise 67 • Discussion Questions 67 Related Websites 67 • Notes 68
Chapter 4 Physical evidence 69 Class and Individual Evidence 70
Weapons 70 Blood 73 Imprints and Impressions 75 Tool Marks 77 Hair 79
Contents vii ▼
Fibers 80 Glass 81 Paint 81
Questioned Documents 82 Case Study: The Blacken Fern 82 Chapter Review 83 • Key Terms 83 • Review Questions 84 Application Exercise 84 • Discussion Questions 85 • Related Websites 85 • Notes 85
Chapter 5 Laboratory and technical services 86 Criminalistics: Forensic Science 87 DNA Profiling 88
Mitochondrial DNA 89
Laboratory Determinations 90 Laboratory Equipment 93 Voiceprint Identification 96 Cryptography 96 Forensic Databases 97 Case Study: Child Abduction 98 Chapter Review 98 • Key Terms 98 • Review Questions 99 • Application Exercise 99 • Discussion Questions 100 • Related Websites 100 • Notes 100
Chapter 6 Basic investigative Leads and informants 102 Basic Leads 104
Victim’s Background 104 Benefit 105 Opportunity 106 Knowledge 106 Field Contact Reports 107 Vehicles 107 Weapons 108 Fingerprints 108 Stolen Property 109 Modus Operandi 110 Computer Databases 111 Offender Registration 111 Photographs of Known Criminals 112 Composite Sketches for Identification 113 Injured Suspects 114 Linkage Between Suspect and Crime Partners 114 Social Media 115 Video Surveillance Cameras 115 Cell Phones 116
Informants 116 Basic-Lead Informants 117 Participant Informants 118 Covert Informants 119 Accomplice Witnesses 119
Investigative Techniques 120 Visual Surveillance 121 Audio Surveillance 122 Contact Surveillance 124
Search Warrants 125
Contents viii ▼
Police Intelligence: Criminal Investigation Information 125 Proactive Investigation 127 Undercover Police Agents 127
Lineups 128 Case Study: Tracking Bad Guys 129 Chapter Review 129 • Key Terms 129 • Review Questions 130 • Application Exercise 131 • Discussion Questions 131 • Related Websites 131 • Notes 131
Chapter 7 interviewing and interrogation 133 Interview Essentials 134
Privacy 134 Rapport Building 135 Competency and Credibility Issues 135 Interview Structure 136 Listening 136
Detection of Deception 137 Physical Signs of Deception 137 Neurolinguistic Eye Movement 138
Polygraph Testing 140 Recollection Refreshment 141
Investigative Hypnosis 141 Cognitive Interview 142
Written Statement of a Witness 142 Interrogations 143 Interrogation Law 143
The Waiver 145
Interrogation Essentials 146 Privacy 146 Prior to Interrogation 146 Approach 147
Why People Confess 147 The Suspect’s Dilemma: The Crime Partner 147 Documenting the Confession 148 Case Study: Interrogation of a Robbery Suspect 149 Chapter Review 150 • Key Terms 150 • Review Questions 151 • Application Exercise 152 • Discussion Questions 152 • Related Websites 152 • Notes 152
Part 2 Investigating Major Crimes
Chapter 8 crimes of violence 153 Homicide 154
“Suspicious Death” Investigation 154 The Autopsy as an Extension of the Crime Scene 155 Medicolegal Laboratory Services 156 Suicide, Accident, or Criminal Homicide? 157 Identification of the Victim 158 Time of Death 160 Exhumation 161 Checklist for the Investigation of Criminal Homicide 161
Contents ix ▼
Patterns of Criminal Homicide 163 Motive for Murder: Relationships 165 Multicide 165 Cold Case Investigations 168
Stalking 168 Assaults 169 Child Abuse 170 Case Study: Autopsy Surgeon 172 Chapter Review 174 • Key Terms 174 • Review Questions 175 • Application Exercise 175 • Discussion Questions 176 • Related Websites 176 • Notes 176
Chapter 9 sexual assaults 177 Rape 178
Initial Action 178 Follow-Up Interview of Victim 180 Follow-Up Interviews of Witnesses 181 Personality Profile of the Serial Rapist 182 Arrest of the Suspected Rapist 183 Case Preparation 184 Problems of Proof 184 Statutory Rape 185
Nuisance Sexual Behavior 185 Child Sexual Abuse 186
Incest 186 Pedophilia 186 The Child as Victim-Witness 189
Case Study: The East Area Rapist 189 Chapter Review 190 • Key Terms 190 • Review Questions 190 • Application Exercise 191 • Discussion Questions 191 • Related Websites 192 • Notes 192
Chapter 10 Missing and exploited Persons 193 Missing Persons 194
Abducted Infants 194 Missing Children 194 Missing Teenagers 196 Missing Adults 196
Investigative Response 197 Exploited Persons 199 Investigative Leads 200 Case Study: The Cleveland Abductions 201 Chapter Review 201 • Key Terms 201 • Review Questions 202 • Application Exercise 202 • Discussion Questions 202 • Related Websites 203 • Notes 203
Chapter 11 robbery 204 Components of Robbery 205 The Target in Robberies 208 Identification Evidence 210 Checklist for the Investigation of Robbery 211 Repeat-Offender Cases 213 Carjacking 213
Outline of Carjacking Investigation 213
Contents x ▼
Problems of Proof 214 Case Study: Cheshire Home Invasion 214 Chapter Review 215 • Key Terms 215 • Review Questions 215 • Application Exercise 216 • Discussion Questions 216 • Related Websites 216 • Notes 216
Chapter 12 arson, Bombing, and Hate crimes 218 Arson and Arson Law 219
The Suspicious Fire Concept 220
Burn Patterns: Structural Fires 221 Burn Patterns: Nonstructural Fires 222 Fire Ignition and Place of Origin 222 The Fire Scene 223
Photographs of the Fire Scene 225
The Continuing Arson Investigation 226 Bombings 228 Problems of Proof in Arson and Bombing Cases 229 Hate Crimes 229 Case Study: Motive for Arson 230 Chapter Review 231 • Key Terms 231 • Review Questions 231 • Application Exercise 232 • Discussion Questions 232 • Related Websites 233 • Notes 233
Chapter 13 Property crimes 234 Burglary 235
Types of Burglars 237 Burglary as a Behavioral Concept 239 Safe Burglars 240 The Burglary Scene Investigation 241 The Postscene Investigation 241 Known Burglars 242
Theft 242 The Attack 244 Modus Operandi Searches 244 The Universe of Suspects 245 Criminal Receivers of Stolen Property 246 Auto Theft 246 Theft by Employees 248 Organized Retail Theft 249 Cargo Theft 250
Fraud 250 Elements of Fraud 251 Bunco Schemes and Con Games 252 The Bank Examiner Fraud 254 Fraudulent Checks 254 Credit Card Fraud 254 Consumer and Business Fraud 255 Workplace Fraud 256 ATM Fraud 256 Investigation of Fraud 257
Case Study: Costly Crush 258 Chapter Review 258 • Key Terms 258 • Review Questions 259 • Application Exercise 260 • Discussion Questions 260 • Related Websites 260 • Notes 261
Contents xi ▼
Chapter 14 cybercrime 262 Internal Threats 263 External Threats 264 Fraud 265 Identity Theft 267 Child Pornography 267 Child Molesters 268 Contraband Sales 268 Terrorism 268 Investigation 269 Case Study: The Case Against PFC. Bradley Manning 270 Chapter Review 271 • Key Terms 271 • Review Questions 272 • Application Exercise 272 • Discussion Questions 273 • Related Websites 273 • Notes 273
Chapter 15 Dangerous Drugs 274 Entrapment 276 The Drug Scene 276
Heroin 277 Cocaine 278 Marijuana 278 Amphetamine and Methamphetamine 279 Phencyclidine 279 Lysergic Acid Diethylamide 280 Ecstasy 280 Rohypnol 280
Drug-Selling Organizations 280 Drug Investigations 282
Pickup Arrests 282 Arrests Based on “Buys” 283 Search Warrants 284 Warrantless Searches 287 Working-Up Investigations 287 Raids 288
Problems of Proof 289 Case Study: Dangerous Drugs Law Enforcement—Roles and Story Lines 290 Chapter Review 292 • Key Terms 292 • Review Questions 293 • Application Exercise 293 • Discussion Questions 294 • Related Websites 294 • Notes 294
Chapter 16 special investigations 295 Vice and Gambling 296
Gambling 296 Prostitution 296
Organized Crime 298 Nature of Operations 298 Characteristic Activity 299 Investigative Alerts 300 Gang Activity 301 Problems of Proof 301 Investigative Tactics 301
Hit and Run 302 The Hit-and-Run Operator 302
Contents xii ▼
The Alarm 304 The Scene Search 304 Stakeouts 305 Transfer Evidence 305 Accountability 306 Possible Murder 306
Case Study: Hit and Run 306 Chapter Review 307 • Key Terms 307 • Review Questions 308 • Application Exercise 308 • Discussion Questions 309 • Related Websites 309 • Notes 309
Chapter 17 terrorism 310 Defining Terrorism 311 Terrorist Acts 311 Terrorist Atrocities 312 Domestic Terrorism 313 International Terrorism 316 Weapons of Mass Destruction 318 Counterterrorism 318 Role of Police Operations Units 319 Role of the Criminal Investigator 320 Problems of Proof 321 Case Study: Joint Terrorism Task Force 322 Chapter Review 322 • Key Terms 322 • Review Questions 322 • Application Exercise 323 • Discussion Questions 323 • Related Websites 324 • Notes 324
Chapter 18 the investigator as a Witness and ethical awareness 325 The Investigator as a Witness 326
Action Prior to Court Appearance 326 General Behavior 327 Nonverbal Communication 328 Conduct After Testifying 329
Ethical Awareness 330 Crime and Outrageous Conduct 330 Impact of Misconduct on Criminal Investigation 330 Standards for Criminal Investigators 330 Prevention of Misconduct 331
Case Study: The Special Crime Squad 331 Chapter Review 334 • Key Terms 334 • Review Questions 334 • Application Exercise 335 • Discussion Questions 335 • Related Websites 335 • Notes 336
Appendix A case Briefs 337
Appendix B federal controlled substances Law 341
Appendix C identity theft: What to Do if it Happens to You 344
Appendix D answers to chapter review Questions 346
The thirteenth edition of Criminal Investigation: Basic Perspectives was written to keep abreast of changes in the field of criminal investigation. Two new chapters dealing with cybercrime and missing and exploited persons have been added to this edition. In addition, new segments were added to various chapters:
Cell phones, social networking sites and video cameras as investigative leads (Chapter 6, “Basic Investigative Leads”).
Cold case investigations, how DNA, improved fingerprint databases, and the passage of time may assist investigators (Chapter 8, “Crimes of Violence”).
Home invasion, drug house, and bank robberies and preventive measures (Chapter 11, “Robbery”).
Organized retail theft and cargo theft (Chapter 13, “Property Crimes”).
The financial aspects of organized crime investigations through money laundering, asset forfeiture, money reporting, and the witness protection program (Chapter 16, “Special Investigations”).
The Symbionese Liberation Army, Weatherman, and the lone wolf terrorist (Chapter 17, “Terrorism”).
Three new case studies, designed to enhance the learning process, have been added to this edition. The case study method of instruction facilitates learning by linking case content to textbook topics and by encouraging the exchange of opinions and viewpoints among students during discussion sessions. The case studies in this book are designed to contribute to this type of learning process. Each case provides factual information that is likely to promote analysis and discussion and thus aids in developing the student’s ability to analyze, evaluate, and reason. The topic of discussion is focused on the facts of each case study, but only the range of student opinions and ideas limits the scope of the discussion.
Some cases are presented in straight narrative style, while others are written in dialogue form as the best means of joining the personalities and the situations of a case study. Each case presents a real-life situation or episode experienced sometime in the past. No “doctoring” has been done to develop points, theories, or problems. However, names, dates, and locations have been altered in some instances to avoid embarrassing any persons or their families.
Also new to this edition is the applied investigative procedures section at the end of each chapter. These scenarios are designed to enhance the learning process by asking the student to apply material presented in the chapter to address real-life investigative issues.
I thank the reviewers for this edition, whose insights and suggestions have made this a better book. They include Vincent Benincasa, Hesser College, David MacDonald, Eastfield College, David Powell, Daymar College, and Jacqueline Smith, Kennesaw State University.
I extend special thanks to David Lushbaugh and Christopher Baker for their assistance.
Preface xiv ▼
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1 Evolution of Policing and Investigation Chapter Outline Early Response to Crime
Bow Street Runners
London’s Metropolitan Police
The Reform Movement
Development of Forensic Science
Federal Investigative Agencies
Case Study: Betty’s New Car Chapter Review
learning ObjeCtiveS After reading this chapter, you will be able to:
❶ Discuss the evolution of policing in England and how it applies to American policing.
❷ Evaluate the political climate in the United States at the time the first police departments were being formed and the effect this political climate had on these departments.
❸ Describe the emergence of the reform movement in American policing and the major tenets of the reform agenda.
❹ Identify the persons and their scientific discoveries that led to the development of the field of criminalistics.
❺ Identify the various policing agencies at the local, state, and federal levels and their areas of responsibility.
Policing as we know it is a relatively new concept as police agencies have only been in existence for less than 200 years. Prior to the introduction of policing, people were responsible for their own personal protection and responded to crime victimization on their own as best they could with the limited recourses at hand. The first policing efforts were rudimentary and these efforts evolved over time to what we have today, a professional policing model. In America this evolution- ary process included a reform movement which addressed the failings of our early policing efforts. The move toward professional policing was aided by the scientific community with discoveries that could be applied to criminal investigations. Today criminal investigations are conducted by investigators from various law enforcement agencies at the local, state, and federal levels.
chapter 1 Evolution of Policing and Investigation 2 ▼
❶ Discuss the evolution of policing in England and how it applies to American policing.
▶ Early Response to Crime A review of the history of policing in England is essential to understand the evolution of policing in the United States. The original British colonists to this country brought with them their customs and their law which was used to form the basis of our own legal system used today. When police agencies were first being formed in this country, they were modelled after the London Metropolitan Police.
Before there was a criminal justice system, comprising the three main components of the police, courts, and corrections, the individual citizen played a much larger role in providing for his or her own personal protection and dealing with any crime victimization. For centuries people depended upon themselves, their family, their neighbors, and their faith for protection. People lived typically in small agrarian communities where everyone knew every one else, which is a deterrent to criminal activity in itself. When threatened, the community responded as one to deal with the threat. Under the principle of posse comitatus, which means the power or force of the community to enforce the law, all available citizens were expected to respond to protect the community.
In the event a person was a victim of a crime, that person first had to decide if they personally wanted to do anything about their victimization, or simply accept what happened and move on with their life. If they wanted action taken, they had to do it themselves. As there were no police to call, the victim would have to conduct the investigation, often with the assistance of family and friends. When the culprit was identified, the victim was also responsible for arresting this person. At this point the offender had to be turned over to the local sheriff, the chief law enforcement officer who represented the crown. One of the sheriff ’s duties was to take and hold prisoners for an even- tual hearing before a disinterested third party, typically the local lord or magistrate. The reasoning behind this was that the victim was too emotionally involved to fairly adjudicate the case and often, the punishment rendered in such cases did not fit the crime; that is, killing a person who stole from the victim. Such unjust reactions often led to blood-feuds, or vendettas, where the family of the offender would retaliate against the victim or the victim’s family to get even. Such feuds were very destructive to communities and could continue indefinitely.
Night Watch As populations increased and cities and towns grew in size, the social controls of the small tight- knit agrarian community failed to control crime in these larger communities. In response to this, in 1285 the Statute of Winchester was passed requiring all towns to have men on the streets after dark to provide for the safety of travelers and the town’s inhabitants. All able-bodied males were required to serve on a rotational basis, without pay, as night watchmen. As part of their ser- vice, they manned the village gates and patrolled the streets while on the lookout for disturbances of the peace, crimes in progress, and other threats such as fires. There was no expectation that the night watchmen would conduct investigations or aid the victim in determining who com- mitted the crime; this was still the victim’s responsibility. The watchmen were supervised by a constable, also a private citizen, who served a voluntary one-year term in this position as part of his civic duty. In addition to supervising the watchmen, the constable had the additional duty of bringing any arrested offenders before a magistrate in the morning.1 The statute also required citizens to come to the aid of the night watchmen whenever they gave the hue and cry, a loud outcry that alerted citizens of a pursuit of a criminal which bound all who heard the cry to join in the pursuit. If the citizens did not respond and assist, they could be considered accomplices to the crime and punished. The statute required all males between the ages of fifteen and sixty to keep arms for the purpose of rendering aid and subduing offenders.2
The effectiveness of the night watch waned over time as citizens began to understand the inconvenience of staying up all night, especially if they had jobs to go to or shops to open in the morning. Many people ignored the call to serve, paid the fine, or paid a substitute to serve in their place. Many of the men willing to serve as replacements were often deemed too weak or feeble to effectively suppress crime. Eventually, in order to improve the quality of the service, the night watchmen were paid. However, the amount was not substantial.3
chapter 1 Evolution of Policing and Investigation 3 ▼
▶ Thief-Takers As night watchmen patrolled the streets, they did not follow up on crimes to determine who was responsible for the ever-increasing crime problem. To address this issue, parliament, in 1689, established rewards for the conviction of crimes such as robbery, burglary, and counterfeiting. The intent of the legislation was to encourage victims to make an effort to catch and prosecute the persons responsible for these crimes. By 1750 the reward for the conviction of a robbery suspect was increased to 140 pounds, a sum equal to three to four years of income for a skilled workman.
While these rewards were designed to encourage victims to take action—and many did—the unintended consequence was that these rewards also encouraged others to get involved. These thief-takers, as they came to be known, often criminals themselves, were motivated by the reward money and their ability to confiscate the possessions of the criminal. This form of bounty system gave the thief-takers a bad reputation and some were suspected of encouraging crimes for the purpose of solving them.4
▶ Bow Street Runners By 1748 crime had increased in England and its capital, London, was recognized as one of the most dangerous cities in Europe. That same year Henry Fielding (1707–1754), former novelist, playwright, and attorney, was named magistrate for the Bow Street court. At the time Bow Street was known as one of the worst crime-ridden areas of London. Fielding organized a group of for- mer constables and thief-takers to carry out investigations and bring suspects to trial. Fielding’s men received a small stipend and relied on rewards they received for a successful prosecution. These runners, as they came to be known, were also used to guard the King and to investigate various crimes such as robbery and murder.5
John Fielding (1721–1780), who took over after his brother passed away in 1754, instituted a number of changes at Bow Street. He organized mounted patrols to protect the highways from robbers and instituted foot patrols on the city streets. At one time Fielding employed between 300 and 400 officers to patrol the Bow Street area. Another one of his innovations was the establishment of the Police Gazette which encouraged victims to report crimes to his court. Victims would then receive assistance from the runners in the investigation of these crimes. The gazette also published information about criminal activity, names and descriptions of wanted criminals, and descriptions of stolen property.6 John Fielding served as magistrate of the Bow Street court for over twenty five years and was knighted for his efforts in fighting crime. Fielding is considered to be the father of the modern police detective.
▶ London’s Metropolitan Police In 1822 Robert Peel became the British Home Secretary, a position which was responsible for the internal security of England. Peel was a strong advocate of establishing a police force to combat crime. The idea had been presented to parliament several times before but had been rejected over the concerns of the possible loss of individual liberties. Peel repeatedly addressed parliament about the need for policing while ensuring the rights of Englishmen.
In 1829 Peel presented a reform bill that expressly excluded the city of London but pro- vided policing for the metropolitan area surrounding the city. Peel’s proposal was for a model police force which, if successful, could be implemented throughout the rest of the country. The bill passed without major opposition and called for the operation of a police force with a twenty-four-hour operation. Peel decided that this police force should be uniformed as to be readily identifiable to the citizenry. The blue uniform was chosen in order to distinguish it from the scarlet military uniform in use at the time. Officers were issued a numbered badge so citizens could properly identify the officers in order to lodge a complaint or praise the service they had received. The police were to be modelled after the highly successful military orga- nizational structure that is still in use today. The metropolitan police force included nearly
chapter 1 Evolution of Policing and Investigation 4 ▼
3,000 officers who were paid only slightly less than that of a skilled workman. These officers carried only nightsticks for protection, no lethal weapons, and were instructed to be respect- ful to the public.
When the new police officers came on duty in September of 1829, they were viewed by many citi- zens as a threat to personal liberty. Turnover was high in the early years largely due to improper con- duct. All complaints against an officer were painstakingly investigated. Within the first twenty years of operation the new police gradually won the respect and acceptance from the citizenry they served. Their restraint in the use of force, their professionalism, and civility in dealing with the public estab- lished this new police force as an institution of order and protector of liberty. The “peelers” who were both feared and hated soon became the “bobbies” a name used in reference to Robert Peel and a term of respect and appreciation.7 Known today as the father of policing, Peel would go on to become the prime minister of England and would be eventually knighted for his service to his country.
❷ Evaluate the political climate in the United States at the time the first police departments were being formed and the effect this political climate had on these departments.
▶ American Policing Much like England, the night-watch system of policing in the United States was overwhelmed with crime as a result of urbanization and immigration. A series of riots in the major cities such as Philadelphia, Boston, and New York showed that the time for policing had come. In 1845 the city of New York established a police force modelled after the London Metropolitan Police and other cities soon followed suit. While these agencies were modelled after the London police, there were some major differences that would cause serious lasting problems. London’s police, while local, were administered at the federal level as a model policing effort to be implemented throughout England. In contrast early police departments in America were formed at the city level of government. At the time these departments were formed the cities were under the