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Joining together johnson and johnson pdf

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Developing Groups And Teams

Read the PDF file, take a look at chapter 4 (page 127-159), follow the instructions and answer 3 questions below (at least 300 words for each question):

1: How does the new info impact you?
2: How will you use the new information?
3: What value does this have for you?
Now, briefly describe and evaluate a group communication experience from this past week. Use the theories and concepts from chapter 4 to frame your analysis. For example, you may want to explicitly compare/contrast the experience with the "5 Guidelines for Sending Messages Effectively" or situate the experience within the "3 Levels of interaction" or any number of other options that make sense to you.

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Joining Together

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Group Theory and Group Skills

DaviD W. Johnson University of Minnesota

Frank P. Johnson

Joining Together

Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River

Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto

Delhi Mexico City São Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo

Eleventh Edition

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Credits and acknowledgments for materials borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on appropriate page within text.

Every effort has been made to provide accurate and current Internet information in this book. However, the Internet and information posted on it are constantly changing, so it is inevitable that some of the Internet addresses listed in this textbook will change.

Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006, 2003, 2000 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Johnson, David W. Joining together : group theory and group skills / David W. Johnson, Frank P. Johnson.—11th ed. p. cm. ISBN 978-0-13-267813-1—ISBN 0-13-267813-6 1. Social groups. 2. Leadership. 3. Group relations training. I. Johnson, Frank P. (Frank Pierce) II. Title. HM716.J64 2013 302’.14—dc23 2012005131 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ISBN 13: 978-0-13-267813-1 ISBN 10: 0-13-267813-6

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This book is dedicated to our parents, Roger W. Johnson and Frances E. Johnson,

who created the basic group to which we first belonged.

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A b o u t t h e A u t h o r s

vii

Frank P. Johnson graduated from Ball State University with a Bachelor of Science in Education and received a Masters of Divinity from Andover Newton Theological School in Boston and his Doctor in Ministry degree from Louisville Presbyterian Theological School. He has 35 years experience in the field of Applied Behavioral Science, with professional recognition from National Training Laboratories Institute (NTL) Institute of Applied Behav- ioral Science, Association for Creative Change, Consultant/Trainers Southwest, and the Mid-Atlantic Association for Training and Consulting. Frank was employed for 13 years at the University of Maryland Counseling Center, teaching group counseling, and, dur- ing that time was a Clinical Assistant Professor in the Maryland School of Psychiatry and Human Behavior. He has written many journal articles, contributed chapters to books, and is the co-author of Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills. Frank also has been a consultant with a variety of organizations, including educational, governmental, religious, and industrial. From 1984–1996 he was employed at Ethyl Corporation as a Hu- man Resources Development Associate. Since his retirement from Ethyl, Frank has served as an Interim Minister in several churches and is now employed as a Chaplain for Canon Hospice in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

David W. Johnson is a Professor of Educational Psychology at the University of Minnesota. He is Co-Director of the Cooperative Learning Center. David received his doctoral degree from Columbia University. He has authored over 500 research articles and book chapters and is the author of over 50 books. David is a past-editor of the American Educational Research Journal. He held the Emma M. Birkmaier Professorship in Educational Leader- ship at the University of Minnesota from 1994 to 1997 and the Libra Endowed Chair for Visiting Professor at the University of Maine in 1996–1997. He received the American Psychological Association’s 2003 Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Practice. In 2007 David received (with his brother Roger) Brock International Prize in Education administered by the College of Liberal Studies at the University of Oklahoma. In 2008 David received the Distinguished Contributions to Research in Education Award from the American Education Research Association. In 2010 he received the Jeffrey Rubin Theory To Practice Award, awarded by the International As- sociation for Conflict Management and the Program on Negotiation at the Harvard Law School. In 2011 David received the A. M. Wellner Lifetime Achievement Award from the National Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology. For the past 40 years, David has served as an organizational consultant to schools and businesses throughout the world. He is a practicing psychotherapist.

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We, the authors, know a great deal about groups. We grew up in one. There are seven children in our family. Frank is the oldest. David is in the middle. We are five years apart in age. Although Frank was very bossy as a child and refused to believe that David was not supposed to clean up his room, our relationship survived. As part of a group of seven children, we raised each other and learned about group dynamics in the trenches of trying to decide as a group who gets the extra piece of pie, who sits by the windows in the car, who decides which game we are going to play, who sweeps and who mops, and whether we go to sleep with the light on or off.

Families are not the only group setting. Within all organizations and social systems, and throughout all walks of life, groups are the key setting in which things get done. The need for knowledge of group dynamics and skills in being part of small groups is more important than ever. Our original reasons for writing Joining Together included introducing readers to both (a) the theory and research findings needed to understand how to make groups effec- tive and (b) the skills required to apply that knowledge in practical situations. Expertise in working in groups is based on an integration of such knowledge and skills. Joining Together is more than a book reviewing current knowledge in the area of small groups, and it is more than a book of skill-building exercises. The theory and exercises are integrated into an inquiry or experiential approach to learning about the dynamics of small groups. Throughout one’s life, choices, opportunities, and successes are created by knowledge of group dynamics and mastery of the skills required to apply that knowledge in practical situations.

What we know about group functioning is dynamic, not static. It is constantly being revised and updated as new insights are translated into revised theoretical explanations for group behavior and new lines of research. Significant advances in the field continue to be achieved. Much has changed since we published the first edition of this book in 1975. Some theories have been disconfirmed in the intervening years. Other theories have been refined or subsumed into new conceptual systems. This book reflects the new developments in theory and research by taking an updated look at what we know about group dynamics. Although the readers of this book are diverse, Joining Together remains focused on the characteristic dynamics found in virtually all groups. Examples are used from all walks of life. Because this book is intended to serve as an introduction to group dynamics, we have maintained a balanced, integrative stance when presenting theories and research findings.

NEW To This EdiTioN

• New sections on controversy and creativity, including updated research on the theory of constructive controversy, the creative process, and a brand new diagnostic tool for evaluating the ways in which readers make decisions.

• New set of exercises on the dynamics of intergroup conflict and negotiation.

P r e FA c e

ix

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• All new section on Restorative Justice, covering additional and related topics of Distributive Justice, Procedural Justice, and Scope of Justice.

• Focus on new technologies: the phenomenon of online groups and digital decision- making skills.

• New sections on intergroup dependence, positive social relationships, psychological health, and self-esteem.

• Expanded discussion of potential problems in decision making. • Greater focus on minority influence, group goals, and diversity.

ACKNoWLEdGMENTs

The authors wish to thank many people for their help in writing this book and in preparing the manuscript. We owe much to the social psychologists who have influenced our theo- rizing and to the colleagues with whom we have conducted various types of laboratory- training experiences. We have tried to acknowledge sources of the exercises included in this book whenever possible. Some of the exercises presented are so commonly used that the originators are not traceable. If we have inadvertently missed giving recognition to anyone, we apologize. Special thanks are extended to our wives, Linda Mulholland Johnson and Jane Miley Johnson, who contributed their support to the development and writing of this book.

We also would like to thank the reviewers of Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills, Eleventh Edition. They include:

Fred Bemak, George Mason University; Cecilia Garza, Texas A&M International University; Susan Carol Losh, Florida State University; Jennifer M. Smith, Western Kentucky University; Carolyn Vos Strache, Pepperdine University.

x Preface

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ChAPTER 1 Group dynamics 1

ChAPTER 2 Experiential Learning 45

ChAPTER 3 Group Goals, social interdependence, and Trust 68

ChAPTER 4 Communication Within Groups 127

ChAPTER 5 Leadership 161

ChAPTER 6 Using Power 201

ChAPTER 7 decision Making 241

ChAPTER 8 Controversy and Creativity 297

ChAPTER 9 Managing Conflicts of interest 348

ChAPTER 10 Valuing diversity 412

ChAPTER 11 Cooperative Learning in the Classroom 446

ChAPTER 12 Leading Growth and Counseling Groups 473

ChAPTER 13 Team development, Team Training 498

ChAPTER 14 Epilogue 527

b r i e F c o n t e n t s

xi

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ChAPTER 1

Group dynamics 1

Basic Concepts to Be Covered in This Chapter 1

Group Dynamics and Me 2

What Is a Group? 5

The Importance of Groups 11

Group Structure 14

Creating Productive Groups 18

How to Create an Effective Group 23

The Development of Groups Over Time 26

The Field of Group Dynamics 34

Online Groups 40

The Nature of this Book and How to Use it 41

Summary 44

ChAPTER 2

Experiential Learning 45

Basic Concepts to Be Covered in This Chapter 45

Procedural Learning 46

Action Theories 47

Gaining Expertise Through Experiential Learning 49

Experiential Learning and Motivation 52

Learning Group Skills 53

Role Playing 56

Learning How to Be a Participant–Observer 57

Conducting Skill-Training Exercises 60

Ethics of Experiential Learning 64

Summary 66

ChAPTER 3

Group Goals, social interdependence, and Trust 68

Basic Concepts to Be Covered in This Chapter 68

Introduction 69

What Is a Goal? 72

Start Goals 75

Clarity of Goals 77

Operational Goals 77

Group Goals and Level of Aspiration 78

Dealing with Hidden Agendas 79

Helping Groups Set Effective Goals 80

Group Goals and Social Interdependence among Members 86

Outcomes of Social Interdependence 90

Effort to Achieve 93

Positive Relationships and Social Support 96

Psychological Health and Self-Esteem 99

Reciprocal Relationships Among the Three Outcomes 101

Mediating Variables: The Basic Elements of Cooperation 102

The Stability of Cooperation 109

Distributive Justice: The Allocation of Benefits among Group Members 110

Conditions for Constructive Individualistic Efforts 113

Mixed-Motive Situations 114

Developing and Maintaining Trust 120

Summary 126

c o n t e n t s

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ChAPTER 4

Communication Within Groups 127

Basic Concepts to Be Covered in This Chapter 127

Introduction and Definitions 128

Group Communication 130

Sending and Receiving Messages 132

Communication in a Problem-Solving Group 142

Interaction Analysis 142

Communication Networks 150

Communication Patterns in an Authority Hierarchy 151

Influences on Effectiveness of Group Communication 156

Effects of Cooperation and Competition on Communication 156

Physical Influences on Communication 157

Seating Arrangements 158

Humor 158

Summary 159

ChAPTER 5

Leadership 161

Basic Concepts to Be Covered in This Chapter 161

What Is Leadership? 162

Trait Theories of Leadership 171

Leadership Styles 176

Influence Theory of Leadership 179

Role Position/Group Structure Approach to Leadership 181

Situational Theories of Leadership 185

Organizational Leadership 190

What If You Do Not Want to Be a Leader? 194

Summary 200

ChAPTER 6

Using Power 201

Basic Concepts to Be Covered in This Chapter 201

Introduction 202

What Is Power? 204

The Dynamic Interdependence View of Power 206

Mobilizing Power to Achieve Goals 210

The Trait Factor Approach to Power 213

The Bases of Power 216

Conflict Model of Social Influence 219

Power and Problem Solving 220

Unequal Power 224

Group Norms: Indirect Power 232

The Group Mind 235

Individual Versus Relationship Perspectives 239

Summary 239

ChAPTER 7

decision Making 241

Basic Concepts to Be Covered in This Chapter 241

Making Effective Decisions 242

Individual Versus Group Decision Making 245

Methods of Decision Making 260

Factors that Affect Group Decision Making 266

Considered and Thoughtful Decision Making 281

Potential Problems in Decision Making 289

xiv Contents

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Problems with Theorizing on Decision Making 291

Summary 295

ChAPTER 8

Controversy and Creativity 297

Basic Concepts to Be Covered in This Chapter 297

Controversy and Decision Making 298

Nature of Controversy 298

Theory of Constructive Controversy 310

Process of Controversy 310

Outcomes of Controversy 317

Conditions Determining the Constructiveness of Controversy 324

Inquiry-Based Advocacy 327

Minority Influence, Controversy, and Decision Making 327

Structuring Constructive Controversies 329

Being a Citizen in a Democracy 329

In Conclusion 330

Creativity 333

Developing and Fostering Creativity 336

Open Versus Closed Belief Systems 339

Brainstorming 341

Summary 346

ChAPTER 9

Managing Conflicts of interest 348

Basic Concepts to Be Covered in This Chapter 348

Conflict-Positive Group 349

Nature of Conflicts of Interest 349

Conflicts Can Be Destructive or Constructive 350

Conflict and Aggression 352

Conflict Management Strategies: What Are You Like? 355

Controlling the Occurrence of Conflicts 359

The Nature of Negotiations 360

Two Types of Negotiating 363

The Integrative Negotiating Procedure 369

Defining the Conflict as a Mutual Problem 372

Try, Try Again 386

Negotiating in Good Faith 389

Refusal Skills: This Issue Is Non-Negotiable 389

Intergroup Conflict 392

Third-Party Mediation 406

Summary 411

ChAPTER 10

Valuing diversity 412

Basic Concepts to Be Covered in This Chapter 412

Introduction 413

Sources of Diversity 416

The Importance of Managing Diversity 418

The Value of Diversity 419

Barriers to Interacting with Diverse Peers 424

Making Member Diversity a Strength 433

Summary 437

ChAPTER 11

Cooperative Learning in the Classroom 446

Basic Concepts to Be Covered in This Chapter 446

Nature of Cooperative Learning 447

Formal Cooperative Learning: Being “A Guide on the Side” 449

Preinstructional Decisions 452

xvContents

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Explaining the Task and Cooperative Structure 457

Monitoring and Intervening 459

Evaluating Learning and Processing Interaction 462

Informal Cooperative Learning Groups 463

Using Informal Cooperative Learning 464

Base Groups 466

Integrated Use of All Three Goal Structures 468

The Cooperative School 470

Summary 471

ChAPTER 12

Leading Growth and Counseling Groups 473

Basic Concepts to Be Covered in This Chapter 473

Introduction 474

Types of Therapeutic Groups 474

The Unique Power of Group Experiences 481

Importance of Disclosing Emotions 486

Leading a Growth Group 488

Conceptual Frameworks, Feelings, and Intuition 493

Growth Groups and Participant Anxiety 495

Costs of Growth and Therapy Groups 495

Comparative Effectiveness 496

Summary 496

ChAPTER 13

Team development, Team Training 498

Basic Concepts to Be Covered in This Chapter 498

Introduction 499

What Is a Team? 500

Organizational Context 504

Organizational Development 505

Building Productive Teams 509

Assessing Quality of Work 513

Run Chart 517

Use of Teams in Training Programs 520

Total Quality Management 521

Dealing with Problem Behaviors in Teams 523

Summary 525

ChAPTER 14

Epilogue 527

Guidelines for Creating Effective Groups 528

Learning Group Skills 530

Summary 531

Appendix: Answers 533

Glossary 543

References 557

Name index 611

subject index 621

xvi Contents

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L i s t o F e x e r c i s e s

1.1 Your Solitary Activities 4 1.2 Who Am I? 4 1.3 What Is a Group? 4 1.4 Saving the World from Dracula 21 1.5 Are Groups Beneficial or Harmful? 31

3.1 Orientations Toward Social Interdependence 69

3.2 Are Group Goals Necessary? 70 3.3 Your Goal-Related Behavior 74 3.4 Clear and Unclear Goals 76 3.5 Cooperative, Competitive, and Individualistic

Goal Structures 81 3.6 Subsistence 84 3.7 The Level of Acceptance in Your

Group 115 3.8 How Trusting and Trustworthy

Am I? 116 3.9 Practicing Trust-Building Skills 119 3.10 Definitions 123

4.1 Your Communication Behavior (I) 129 4.2 Who Will Be President of Bewise

College? 134 4.3 Solstice Shenanigans Mystery 140 4.4 Transmission of Information 143 4.5 One- and Two-Way Communication 148 4.6 Communication Networks 155 4.7 Your Communication Behavior (II) 159

5.1 Who Are Your Heroes? 164 5.2 Controversy: What Is the Nature

of Leadership? 166 5.3 Understanding Your Leadership Actions:

Questionnaire 182 5.4 The Least Preferred Co-Worker Scale 190 5.5 Tower-Building 195 5.6 Hollow Square 195 5.7 Why I Am a Leader! 199 6.1 Is Power a Personal or a Relationship

Attribute? 203

6.2 Personal Power and Goal Accomplishment 212

6.3 Unequal Resources 219 6.4 Power to the Animals 221 6.5 Your Power Behavior 238

7.1 Individual Versus Group Decision Making 244

7.2 The Bean Jar (I) 257 7.3 Winter Survival 277 7.4 They’ll Never Take Us Alive 281 7.5 A Problem Diagnosis Program 292 7.6 Your Decision-Making Behavior 294

8.1 Controversy: Was Peter Pan Right or Wrong? 303

8.2 How I Behave in Controversies 304 8.3 Who Should Get the Penicillin? 307 8.4 The Johnson School 331 8.5 Avoiding Controversies 332 8.6 Beliefs About Creativity 333 8.7 Creativity 338 8.8 Joe Doodlebug 339 8.9 Brainstorming 343 8.10 Creativity Warm-Up 344 8.11 Your Behavior in Controversies (II) 345

9.1 Your Conflict Management Strategies 353

9.2 Making a Profit 362 9.3 Negotiating Resolutions to Conflicts of

Interest 367 9.4 Negotiating Within an Organization 386 9.5 Breaking Balloons 390 9.6 Intergroup Conflict 390 9.7 Your Conflict Management Behavior 410

10.1 Diversity: Beneficial or Harmful? 414 10.2 Stereotyping 439 10.3 Interacting on the Basis of

Stereotypes 440 10.4 Greetings and Goodbyes 440

xvii

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10.5 Cross-Cultural Communication 441 10.6 Merging Different Cultures 443

13.1 Team Structure 506 13.2 The Cooperative Team Scenario 507 13.3 Degree of Interdependence 508

14.1 Terminating a Group 530 14.2 Self-Contract 531

xviii List of Exercises

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Group Dynamics

1

Basic concepts to Be covered in this chapter In this chapter a number of concepts are defined and discussed. The major ones are in the following list. Students should divide into pairs. Each pair is to (1) define each concept, noting the page on which it is defined and discussed, and (2) en- sure that both members understand its meaning. Then combine into groups of four. Compare the answers of the two pairs. If there is disagreement, look up the concept in the chapter and clarify it until all members agree on and understand the definition.

ConCepts

1. Group 2. Group dynamics 3. Group effectiveness 4. Interdependence 5. Role 6. Norm 7. Status 8. Sequential-stage theory of group development 9. Recurring-phase theory of group development 10. Primary group 11. Reference group 12. Group processing 13. Action research 14. Kurt Lewin

C H A p t e R o n e

2 Chapter One

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Group Dynamics anD me

Although the scientific investigations of group work are but a few years old, I don’t hesitate to predict that group work—that is, the handling of human beings not as isolated individuals, but in the social setting of groups—will soon be one of the most important theoretical and practical fields. . . . There is no hope for creating a better world without a deeper scientific insight into the . . . essentials of group life.

Kurt Lewin (1943)

Membership in groups is inevitable and universal. All day long we interact first in one group and then in another. Our family life, our leisure time, our friendships, and our careers are all filled with groups. We are born into a group called the family, and we would not survive the first few years of our lives, the first few weeks, or even the first few minutes without membership in this group. Within our family and peer groups, we are socialized into ways of behaving and thinking, educated, and taught to have certain perspectives on ourselves and our world. Our personal identity is derived from the way

Dynamics of Promotive Interaction

• Creating clear, operational, mutual goals members are committed to • Communicating ideas and feelings accurately and clearly • Distributed participation and leadership • Equal access to power based on expertise, access to information • Decision procedures � exibly matched with situational needs • Controversy used to promote creative problem solving, critical thinking • Con� icts are faced, encouraged, and resolved constructively.

Importance of Groups

• We are small-group beings • We live in groups • Groups and quality of life

Nature of Groups

• Group orientation • Individual orientation

Types of Groups

• Pseudo • Traditional • Effective • High performance

Group Structure

• Roles • Norms

Stages of Group Development

Sequential Stages

• Forming • Norming • Storming • Performing • Adjourning

Recurring Stages

• Task and emotional expressions • Depend, pair, � ght or � ight • Affection, inclusion, control

Basic Elements of Effectiveness

• Positive interdependence • Individual accountability • Promotive interaction • Social skills • Group processing

Field of Group Dynamics

• Nature of group dynamics • History of group dynamics • Kurt Lewin • Nature of book

Figure 1.1 Nature of group dynamics.

3Group Dynamics

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Each of the following seven statements describes an action related to group effectiveness. For each statement mark

5 if you always behave that way 2 if you seldom behave that way 4 if you frequently behave that way 1 if you never behave that way 3 if you occasionally behave that way

WHen i Am A membeR oF A GRoup

____ 1. I clarify the group’s goals and ensure that the goals are formulated so that mem- bers “sink or swim” together and are committed to achieving them.

____ 2. I facilitate communication by modeling good sending and receiving skills and en- suring that communication among all group members is distributed and two-way.

____ 3. I provide leadership by taking whatever action is needed to help the group achieve its goals and maintain good working relationships among members, and I encour- age all other members to do the same.

____ 4. I use my expertise and knowledge to influence the other group members to increase their efforts to achieve our mutual goals, and I let myself be influenced by other members who are knowledgeable and have relevant expertise.

____ 5. I suggest different ways of making decisions (such as majority vote or consensus) depending on (a) the availability of time and resources, (b) the size and seriousness of the decision, and (c) the amount of member commitment needed to imple- ment the decision.

____ 6. I advocate my views and challenge the views of others in order to create high- quality, creative decisions.

____ 7. I face my conflicts with other group members and present the conflicts as prob- lems to be jointly solved. If we are unable to do so, I request the help of other group members to help us resolve the conflicts constructively.

____ total score

SELF-DIAGNOSIS

in which we are perceived and treated by other members of our groups. As humans we have an inherent social nature: Our life is filled with groups from the moment of our birth to the moment of our death.

Group dynamics is the area of social science that focuses on advancing knowledge about the nature of group life. It is the scientific study of the nature of groups, behavior in groups, group development, and the interrelations between groups and individuals, other groups, and larger entities. Knowledge of group dynamics has the potential to change the way we think about groups and, consequently, the way we function in groups. The purposes of this book, therefore, are to help you understand the theory and research on group dynamics and improve your own small-group skills.

As a starting point, Figure 1.1 provides a helpful summary of the nature of group dynamics. The different concepts and terms listed in Figure 1.1 are discussed throughout this chapter and the rest of the book. After reviewing the information

4 Chapter One

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provided in Figure 1.1, think carefully about each of the statements listed in the Self-Diagnosis on page 3. These statements are designed to make you think concretely about your current understanding of groups and how you participate in them.

Your solitarY activities

1. List everything you do in a typical day from the moment you wake up until the moment you fall asleep.

2. Delete from your list all the activities you perform with groups of people and see what is left.

3. Form a group of three and discuss the results.

eXeRCise 1.1

Who am i?

We are all members of groups. If we are asked to describe who we are, most of us include information about the groups to which we belong. “I’m a student at the University of Minnesota,” “I’m a member of the hockey team,” “I’m a Johnson,” “I’m a male,” “I’m an American,” and so forth. Membership in groups may be formal (“I’m an employee of IBM”), aspiring (“I want to be rich”), marginal (“Sometimes I’m invited to Ralph’s parties, sometimes I’m not”), voluntary (“I’m a Baptist”), and nonvoluntary (“I’m a female”). To a large extent, our memberships define who we are as individuals.

1. We can all describe ourselves in many ways. Write ten different answers to the question “Who am I?” on a sheet of paper. Answer in terms of groups you belong to, beliefs you hold, and your roles and responsibilities.

2. Rank your answers from most important to your sense of self to least important to your sense of self.

3. Form a group of three and share your self-descriptions. Count how many memberships are represented in the triad. Discuss the role of groups in your view of who you are as a person.

4. Count how many group memberships are represented in the class.

eXeRCise 1.2

What is a Group?

The definition of a group is controversial. The purpose of this exercise is to structure a critical examination of the different definitions. The procedure is as follows:

eXeRCise 1.3

5Group Dynamics

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1. The class forms groups of seven members. 2. Each member receives a sheet containing one of the seven definitions that appear on the

following pages. Without interacting with the other group members, each member is to proceed as follows: a. Study his or her definition until it is thoroughly understood. b. Plan how to teach the definition to the other members of the group. c. Give three examples of groups that meet the criterion contained in the definition. d. Give three examples of two or more people in close proximity who do not meet the

criterion contained in the definition. e. Explain in what way(s) his or her group (doing this exercise) meets the criterion contained

in the definition.

Allow ten minutes for this phase of the exercise.

3. Each group meets to derive a single definition of the concept group. Up to twenty minutes is allowed for this phase.

4. Each group reads its definition to the entire class. 5. If there is substantial disagreement, the class forms new groups (composed of one member

from each of the previous groups). The task of the new group is to arrive at one definition of the concept group, each member representing the definition of his or her former group.

6. Each group reads its definition to the entire class.

What is a Group?

It takes two flints to make a fire.

Louisa May Alcott

In a bus trapped in a traffic jam, six passengers begin to talk to each other, comparing reac- tions and sharing previous similar experiences. They start to develop a plan of action to get the bus out of the heavy traffic. Is this a group? In Yellowstone National Park it is deep winter. Several cross-country skiers glide through an isolated, snow-covered valley. They are studying winter ecology and photography. Periodically they cluster around a profes- sional photographer as he explains the ways the winter scenes can be photographed. The vacationers admire and discuss the beautiful winter scenery as they photograph it. Is this a group? Do groups exist at all? How do you tell when you are a member of a group?

In reading a book on group dynamics, you first need to understand what a group is. We all know that groups exist, but confusion and disagreements abound when we try to define the word group. Many social scientists think they know exactly what a group is. The trouble is, they do not agree with one another. The reasoning behind seven of the most common definitions of the word group is discussed in the following sections. No- tice where and how the definitions are the same and where and how they are different.

Goals

A group may be defined as a number of individuals who join together to achieve a goal. Groups exist for a reason. People join groups in order to achieve goals they are unable to achieve by themselves. It is questionable whether a group can exist unless there is a

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mutual goal that its members are trying to achieve. Freeman, as early as 1936, pointed out that people join groups in order to achieve common goals. Other social scientists who have defined group this way are Mills and Deutsch:

To put it simply, they [small groups] are units composed of two or more persons who come into contact for a purpose and who consider the contact meaningful (Mills, 1967, p. 2).

A psychological group exists (has unity) to the extent that the individuals composing it perceive themselves as pursuing promotively interdependent goals (Deutsch, 1949a, p. 136).

interdependence

A group may be defined as a collection of individuals who are interdependent in some way. According to this definition, the individuals are not a group unless an event that affects one of them affects them all. Social scientists who have defined group in this way believe as follows:

A group is a collection of individuals who have relations to one another that make them interdependent to some significant degree. As so defined, the term group refers to a class of social entities having in common the property of interdependence among their constituent members (Cartwright & Zander, 1968, p. 46).

By this term [group] we generally mean a set of individuals who share a common fate, that is, who are interdependent in the sense that an event which affects one member is likely to affect all (Fiedler, 1967, p. 6).

interpersonal interaction

A group may be defined as a number of individuals who are interacting with one an- other. According to this definition, a group does not exist unless interaction occurs. Social scientists who have defined group in this way state the following:

For a collection of individuals to be considered a group there must be some interaction (Hare, 1976, p. 4).

A group is a number of people in interaction with one another, and it is this interaction process that distinguishes the group from an aggregate (Bonner, 1959, p. 4).

We mean by a group a number of persons who communicate with one another often over a span of time, and who are few enough so that each person is able to communicate with all the others, not at secondhand, through other people, but face-to-face (Homans, 1950, p. 1).

perception of membership

A group may be defined as a social unit consisting of two or more persons who perceive themselves as belonging to a group. According to this definition, the persons are not a group unless they perceive themselves to be part of a group. Social scientists who have defined group in this way posit the following:

A small group is defined as any number of persons engaged in interaction with one another in a single face-to-face meeting or series of such meetings, in which each member receives

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some impression or perception of each other member distinct enough so that he can, either at the time or in later questioning, give some reaction to each of the others as an individual person, even though it be only to recall that the other was present (Bales, 1950, p. 33).

We may define a social group as a unit consisting of a plural number of separate organisms (agents) who have a collective perception of their unity and who have the ability to act and/ or are acting in a unitary manner toward their environment (M. Smith, 1945, p. 227).

structured Relationships

A group may be defined as a collection of individuals whose interactions are structured by a set of roles and norms. According to this definition, the individuals are not a group unless role definitions and norms structure their interactions. Social scientists who have defined group in this way are McDavid and Harari, and Sherif and Sherif:

A social-psychological group is an organized system of two or more individuals who are in- terrelated so that the system performs some function, has a standard set of role relationships among its members, and has a set of norms that regulate the function of the group and each of its members (McDavid & Harari, 1968, p. 237).

mutual influence

A group may be defined as a collection of individuals who influence each other. Indi- viduals are not a group unless they are affecting and being affected by each other and, therefore, the primary defining characteristic of a group is interpersonal influence.

motivation

A group may be defined as a collection of individuals who are trying to satisfy some personal need through their joint association. According to this definition, the indi- viduals are not a group unless they are motivated by some personal reason to be part of a group. Individuals belong to the group in order to obtain rewards or to satisfy personal needs. It is questionable that a group could exist unless its members’ needs are satisfied by their membership. Social scientists who have defined group in this way write as follows:

We define “group” as a collection of individuals whose existence as a collection is rewarding to the individuals (Bass, 1960, p. 39).

The definition which seems most essential is that a group is a collection of organisms in which the existence of all (in their given relationships) is necessary to the satisfaction of certain individual needs in each (Cattell, 1951, p. 167).

Some of these definitions may be overly specific or may overlap. What each im- plies, however, is that not every collection of people is a group. The Oxford English Dictionary (1989) defines a group as a number of persons or things regarded as forming a unit on account of any kind of mutual or common relation or classified together on account of a common degree of similarity. On the basis of the preceding definitions, a small group may be defined as two or more individuals in face-to-face interaction who are aware of their positive interdependence as they strive to achieve mutual goals,

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aware of their membership in the group, and aware of the others who belong to the group. Though there may be some groups that do not fully fit this definition, the most commonly recognized examples of groups do.

A distinction can be made between small and large groups. Whereas the definition of a small group usually includes member interaction, a group may also involve large numbers of members who have some common characteristic without actually meeting one other (such as a reference group, discussed later in this chapter). A community can be a large group, as can individuals with the same ethnic heritage.

Groups may be contrasted with aggregates. An aggregate is a collection of individu- als who are present at the same time and place but who do not form a unit or have a common degree of similarity. Individuals standing on a street corner, the members of an audience at a play, and students listening to a lecture are aggregates, not groups.

Do Groups even exist?

Not everyone believes that groups exist. One of the more interesting social science debates centers on the nature of groups. There are two contrasting positions: the group orientation and the individual orientation. Those who support group orientation focus on the group as a whole, as something separate from the individual group members. In explaining the actions of group members, social scientists focus on the influences of the group and the larger social system of which the group is a part. They believe that when people come together as a group, they form a new social entity with its own rules, attitudes, beliefs, and practices.

Following are the seven definitions of the concept group. Rank them from most accurate (1) to least accurate (7). Write down your rationale for your ranking. Find a partner and share your ranking and rationale, listen to his or her ranking and rationale, and coopera- tively create a new, improved ranking and rationale. Then find another pair and repeat the procedure in a group of four.

Rank Definition

______ A group is a number of individuals who join together to achieve a goal. ______ A group is several individuals who are interdependent in some way. ______ A group is a number of individuals who are interacting with one another. ______ A group is a social unit consisting of two or more persons who perceive

themselves as belonging to a group. ______ A group is a collection of individuals whose interactions are structured

by a set of roles and norms. ______ A group is a collection of individuals who influence each other. ______ A group is a collection of individuals who are trying to satisfy some

personal need through their joint association.

WhAT IS ThE BEST WAy TO DEFINE A GROUP?

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Supporters of the individualist orientation, however, focus on the individual in the group; without individuals, groups do not exist. In order to explain the functioning of the group, social scientists study the attributes, cognitions, and personalities of the group members. One of the first supporters of an individualist orientation, Floyd All- port (1924), argued that groups do not think, feel, or act—only people do, and therefore groups are not real entities and are not deserving of study. See the Group Orientation versus Individualistic Orientation comparison table for more information about these two positions.

Group Orientation Individualistic Orientation

The group orientation focuses on the group as a whole. In explaining the actions of group members, social scientists focus on the influences of the group and the larger social systems of which it is part. Emile Durkheim (1898, p. 104), arguing that groups were entities different from individuals, stated, “If, then, we begin with the individual, we shall be able to under- stand nothing of what takes place in the group.” He posited that small primary groups (small groups char- acterized by face-to-face interaction, interdependence, and strong group identification such as families and very close friends) are the building blocks of society, and he worked upward from this level to an analysis of social systems in general. He was convinced that a group mind or collective consciousness-dominated individual will in many situations. Le Bon (1895) believed that a group mind exists separate from the minds of individual members. Cartwright and Zander (1968) maintained that a group can be emotionally healthy or pathological. Cattell (1951) described groups as possessing different personalities. Lewin (1935), as a Gestalt psychologist, noted that a group cannot be understood by considering only the qualities and characteristics of each member. When individuals merge into a group, something new is created that must be seen as an entity in itself. Changes in one aspect of a group will necessarily lead to changes in the other group features.

The individualistic orientation focuses on the individual in the group. In order to explain the functioning of the group, psychologists focus on the attitudes, cognitions, and personalities of the members. Floyd Allport (1924) argued that groups do not think, feel, or act (only people do), and therefore groups are not real and are not deserv- ing of study. He said, “Groups have no nervous systems, only individuals have nervous systems.” To Allport, groups are no more than (a) shared sets of values, ideas, thoughts, and habits that exist simultaneously in the minds of several persons or (b) the sum of the actions of each member taken separately. His coup de grâce was his observation, “You can’t stumble over a group.” Many social scientists have agreed with Allport and have taken a rather cavalier approach to the attributes that de- termine whether a collection of people is a group. Groups have also been defined on the basis of indi- vidual perceptions of other members (Bales, 1950), individual reward (Bass, 1960), and individual pur- pose and meaning (Mills, 1967). Much of the re- search on groups, furthermore, has used individual members as the unit of analysis.

Solomon Asch (1952) adopted a middle ground by comparing groups to water. He argued that in order to understand the properties of water, it is important to know the characteristics of its elements, hydrogen and oxygen. This knowledge alone, however, is not sufficient to understand water—the combination of hydrogen and oxygen must be examined as a unique entity. Similarly, groups must be studied as unique entities, even though it is important to know the characteristics of the individual members.

Although supporters of the individualistic orientation may argue that groups are not important, evidence suggests that groups evoke stronger reactions than an

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individual engaging in the same behavior. Actions by groups and individuals elicit dif- fering preferences for redress (Abelson, Dasgupta, Park, & Banaji, 1998). When individu- als are perceived to be part of a cohesive group (as opposed to an aggregate of unrelated individuals), observers express stereotypic judgments about the individuals and infer that their behavior was shaped by the presence of others (Oakes & Turner, 1986; Oakes, Turner, & Haslam, 1991; Wilder, 1977, 1978a). A misogynist statement made by an in- dividual, for example, provokes a different reaction than a misogynist statement made by a group. Social scientists of both the individualistic and group persuasions have been productive in generating theories of group functioning and conducting research to validate or disconfirm the theories.

Directions: Consider the following five sources of resistance to using small groups. Rate yourself from 1 to 5 on each source.

1———————2———————3———————4———————5

Low middle High

Not a Concern of Mine Somewhat a Concern Consistently and Strongly a Concern

Causes of missed opportunities to Capitalize on the power of Groups

______ belief that isolated work is the natural order of the world. Such a myopic focus blinds individuals to the realization that no one person could have built a cathedral, achieved America’s independence from England, or created a supercomputer.

______ Resistance to taking responsibility for others. Many individuals do not easily (a) take responsibility for the performance of colleagues or (b) let colleagues assume responsibility for their work.

______ Confusion about what makes groups work. Many individuals may not know the difference between effective and ineffective groups.

______ Fear that they cannot use groups effectively. Not all groups work. Most adults have had experiences with ineffective and inefficient com- mittees, task forces, and clubs, and know how bad groups can be. When many educators weigh the potential power of learning groups against the possibility of failure, they choose to play it safe and rely on isolated work.

______ Concern about the time and effort required to change. Using groups requires individuals to apply what is known about effective groups in a disciplined way. Learning how to do so and engaging in such disciplined action may seem daunting.

BARRIERS TO CAPITALIzING ON ThE POWER OF GROUPS

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the importance of Groups

No man is an island, entire of itself.

John Donne

Humans are small-group beings. We always have been and we always will be. Human evolution has depended on individuals coming together in various types of groups to live, work, and govern. For 200,000 years humans lived in small hunting-and- gathering groups. For 10,000 years humans lived in small farming communities. In the last 1,000 or so years, large cities have developed. Each of these living conditions depends on cooperative efforts of group work for its success. In fact, our ability to function effectively in groups may be the reason humans exist today. This ability certainly played a large role in the manner humans developed.

Two recent branches of the human species are Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons (modern humans). Our origins are somehow linked with the fate of the Neanderthals. We have never been proud of our extinct predecessors, partly because of their looks. Nevertheless, the Neanderthals represent a high point in the human story. Their lin- eage goes back to the earliest members of the genus Homo. They were the original pioneers. Over thousands of years, Neanderthals moved out of Africa by way of the Near East into India, China, Malaysia, and southern Europe. In recent times, around 150,000 years ago, they pioneered glacial landscapes and became the first humans to cope with climates hospitable only to woolly mammoths and reindeer.

There is no anatomical evidence that the Neanderthals were cerebrally inferior to us (the Cro-Magnons). In fact, they had a larger brain than we do. There is no doubt whatsoever that they were our physical superiors. Their strongest individu- als could probably lift weights of half a ton or so. Physically, we are quite puny in comparison. But we gradually replaced the Neanderthals during an overlapping period of a few thousand years. It may have mainly been a matter of attrition and population pressure. As the glaciers from Scandinavia advanced, northern popula- tions of Neanderthals moved south while our ancestors were moving north out of Africa. About 40,000 years ago we met in Europe. We flourished and they vanished about 30,000 years ago.

There are numerous explanations for the disappearance of the Neanderthals. Per- haps they evolved into us. Perhaps we merged through intermarriage. Perhaps there was an intergroup competition for food, with the Neanderthals unable to meet our challenge and dying off in marginal areas. Perhaps the Neanderthals were too set in their ways and were unable to evolve and refine better ways to cooperate while we were continually organizing better cooperative efforts to cope with changing climatic conditions.

During the time our ancestors coexisted with the Neanderthals, Cro-Magnons developed highly sophisticated cooperative efforts characterized by social organiza- tion, group-hunting procedures, creative experimentation with a variety of mate- rials, sharing of knowledge, division of labor, trade with other communities, and transportation systems. We sent out scouts to monitor the movements of herds of animals we preyed upon. The Neanderthals probably did not. We cached supplies and first aid materials to aid hunting parties far away from our home bases. The

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Neanderthals apparently did not. Neanderthals probably engaged their prey chiefly in direct combat. We developed more efficient ways of hunting, such as driving ani- mals over cliffs. We developed more sophisticated tools and weapons to kill from a distance, such as the spear and the bow and arrow. The Neanderthals probably did not. The Neanderthals used local materials to develop tools. We were more selective, often obtaining special fine-grained and colorful flints from quarries as far as 250 miles away through trade networks. We improved the toolmaking pro- cess through experimentation and sharing knowledge with other communities. The Neanderthals probably did not. The Neanderthals used stone almost exclusively for tools. We used bone and ivory to make needles and other tools. We “tailored” our clothes and made ropes and nets. Our ability to obtain more food than we needed spawned the formation of far-ranging trade and social networks. These more com- plex forms of cooperation directly led to the accumulation of wealth and the creation of artistic efforts, laws, and storytelling to preserve traditions. Whether we replaced or evolved from the Neanderthals, our ingenuity was evident in organizing coopera- tive efforts to increase our standard of living and the quality of our lives. We excelled at organizing effective group efforts.

Groups and the Quality of Life

Our ancestors’ lives were improved greatly and dramatically by living in groups, but what about us today? It is fair to say that the quality of contemporary life is related directly to group effectiveness. With so many of our activities and social interactions taking place within groups—be it our risk-management group at work, our weekend softball team, or the people we live with—almost every aspect of modern life is affected by group dynamics. Knowledge of group dynamics, therefore, is a tool that can make our lives better and more meaningful, because it can help us build effective groups in every part of our lives.

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understanding Group Dynamics is Central to maintaining a Viable Family. For thou- sands of years, family life has been one of the sustaining values of civilization. Anthro- pologist Margaret Mead observed that the family is the toughest institution humans have, and it is one of our core small groups. The structure of the family, however, has changed significantly in the last hundred years. First came the demise of the extended family. More recently, the nuclear family has been on the decline as more single-parent households form. Today, one child in four is raised by a single parent. Obviously, cre- ating sustainable families is a hard task in our modern climate. In order to build and maintain a constructive family life within the diverse demands of modern life, indi- viduals need to have a thorough knowledge of group dynamics and small-group skills.

A Knowledge of Group Dynamics is Central to effective businesses and industries. During the first half of the twentieth century, mass production made the United States the world leader in manufacturing. By the end of the twentieth century, however, many businesses had turned to the high productivity generated by small groups. Today, many companies rely on employees working in teams to design and launch new products, conduct research and training, handle employee issues, facilitate interdepartmental communication, and much more. Furthermore, the dramatic new technologies made available in the past two decades now enable groups to work between offices, across towns, and around the world. What makes organizations viable today is their ability to create teams dominated by a culture of learning, continuous improvement, and adap- tation. In turn, what makes people viable employees is their ability to work in small groups and produce results (see Chapter 13).

understanding Group Dynamics is Central to education. Over the past few genera- tions, the teaching paradigm has changed from lecture and individual work to coopera- tive learning (Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec, 2008). Instead of listening to a teacher’s lecture and taking notes, students now work in small groups to help one another learn a specific lesson or task. Instead of comparing students to one another and encourag- ing competition, cooperative group-based work allows students to work together in a manner that benefits all of them. Cooperative learning has been shown to produce higher achievement, more positive relationships, and greater psychological health than competitive or individualistic learning (Johnson & Johnson, 1989; see Chapter 11).

A Knowledge of Group Dynamics is Central to the Long-term maintenance of psychological Health. Simply by watching television commercials or flipping through the pages of almost any magazine, we can infer that the country is experiencing an epidemic of depression, anxiety, and mental illness. Prescription drugs, various forms of therapy, and a host of other products and services advertised in the media are aimed at treating these problems. This proliferation is more than a marketing trend, however; surveys indicate the rate of depression over the last two generations has increased roughly tenfold. People, especially young people, are experiencing much more depres- sion, feeling hopeless, giving up, being passive, having low self-esteem, and committing suicide. Being involved in supportive groups, however, can help prevent the occurrence of psychological problems. Networks of friends and family, group activities, and other types of productive group interaction can help people feel more connected to the world

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around them, making them less depressed and anxious. Furthermore, group therapy and counseling groups are a preferred method of treatment for psychological problems (see Chapter 12).

In short, knowing group dynamics theory and having small-group skills can change your life. They can make you more employable and lead to greater career success. They can improve your friendships. They can lead to more caring and loving family rela- tionships and greater competence as parents. They can promote greater psychological health and increased ability to cope with stress and adversity.

As you continue reading about groups—how they operate and are constructed, and why a group is effective and productive—what you are learning is the nature of groups. To that end, you should focus on the following ideas:

1. The nature of group structure 2. The relationship between group structure and group productivity 3. How the dynamics of the group determine its effectiveness 4. The ways groups develop over time

Group structure

Imagine you are an ecologist whose career has been dedicated to studying ecosys- tems around the world. You have encountered many diverse habitats in your studies, from thick rain forests to parched deserts. They all had a set of common features: topography, weather patterns, plants, animals, and their interconnections. You have observed, for example, that plants and animals sharing certain territories develop elaborate divisions of labor and broad symbioses. You also have learned that plants and animals adapt over time to be uniquely suited for survival in their particular habitats. Thus, you expect to find a basic ecological structure when you travel to a new habitat.

Now imagine you are studying small groups. Although many diverse types of groups may be found, when you approach a new group you look for the basic features that characterize all groups. These features include a purpose that defines the territory of the group and binds the members together, a definable pattern of communication among members, different members performing different functions that fit into an overall division of labor, procedures for managing conflicts, expectations concerning acceptable and unacceptable behavior by group members, and the adaptation of the group to the organization, society, and culture within which it is based. Once the basic structure has been identified, the nature of interpersonal relations in the group can be understood as clearly as can the functioning of an ecosystem.

Just like ecosystems, groups have a structure. Groups function as their members interact, and whenever two or more individuals join together to achieve a goal, a group structure develops. Observers of groups who want to know how a group truly func- tions look beyond the group’s unique features to its basic structure, a stable pattern of interaction among members. Two aspects of group interaction are especially important to understanding how a group is structured: differentiated roles and integrating norms. Within any group, no matter which organization, society, or culture it belongs to, the

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group’s roles and norms structure the interaction among group members. Roles dif- ferentiate the responsibilities of group members, whereas norms integrate members’ efforts into a unified whole.

Roles: Differentiation Within Groups

Think of a group you have belonged to, and answer this question: Did everyone in the group act the same way or perform the same functions? In all likelihood, your answer is “no.” A considerable degree of differentiation usually exists within groups, meaning different members work on different tasks and are expected to accomplish different things. In other words, different group members play different roles.

Roles define the formal structure of the group and differentiate one position from another. Formally, a role may be defined as a set of expectations governing the appropri- ate behavior of an occupant of a position toward occupants of other related positions. Often such roles are assigned in a relatively formal manner, such as appointing a presi- dent, secretary, treasurer, and so on. At other times, individuals drift into various roles on the basis of their interests and skills. Once a role is assumed, however, the member is expected (by other group members) to behave in certain ways. Members who con- form to their role requirements are rewarded, whereas those who deviate are punished.

Roles ensure that the task behaviors of group members are interrelated appropri- ately so that the group’s goals are achieved. The roles usually are complementary in that one cannot be performed without the other (e.g., the roles of “teacher” and “stu- dent”). The expectations that define a role include rights and obligations; the obliga- tions of one role are the rights of other roles. One of the obligations of being a teacher, for example, includes structuring a learning situation, whereas one of the rights of being a student is to have learning situations structured by the teacher. Within a group, ex- pectations of the obligations that accompany a particular role can conflict; this is called role conflict. What a principal expects from a teacher and what students expect from a teacher, for example, can be contradictory. Contradictory expectations, therefore, can create one type of role conflict.

A second type of role conflict occurs when the demands of one role are incompat- ible with the demands of another role. Every person is required to play multiple roles,

Definition example

Roles Expectations defining the appropriate behavior of an occupant of a position toward other related positions

President, vice president, secretary; summarizer, recorder

norms Common beliefs regarding group members’ appropriate behavior, attitudes, and perceptions; rules, implicit or explicit, that regulate the behavior of group members

Promptness, courtesy, reciprocity, responsibility

GROUP STRUCTURE

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and almost everyone belongs to more than one group. Sometimes such role conflict can provide great drama. Back in the Old West, for example, Sheriff Pat Garrett was called on to arrest the famous outlaw Billy the Kid. Billy the Kid also happened to be one of Garrett’s best friends, but Garrett shot him anyway. This situation, although extreme, illustrates how roles can influence our actions in ways that make us act contrary to our private feelings or vested interests.

Stanley Milgram provided an important example of role incompatibility with his famous studies on obedience to authority (1974). In these studies, he placed paid adult subjects in the role of teacher and gave them the responsibility of giving “learners” an electric shock when they committed a memory error. Milgram began his study with the intention of showing that teachers would refuse to comply with the requirements of their role if those requirements went against their own personal beliefs. Once the study was under way, however, the findings showed a different situation. Although almost all teachers began to express reluctance and show signs of stress as the intensity of the shock increased and the learner cried out in pain, the majority of the teachers continued to administer the shocks. Over 60% of subjects administered the maximum shock (450 volts) to the learner. Even when the teachers were compelled to hold the learners’ hands to the shock plate, 30% continued to administer the shocks. Milgram’s results point out that many people can commit a variety of costly, harmful, and even immoral actions if role pressure is severe enough.

Different social roles usually are associated with different degrees of status. Status can be thought of as the degree to which an individual’s contribution is crucial to the success and prestige of the group, how much power and control over outcomes that individual has, and the extent to which the person embodies some idealized or admired characteristic (such as being physically attractive). In many subhuman and some human groups, status is determined by physical dominance. In other groups, status may be determined by wealth, education, or any other determinant the group deems valuable.

Although status and power ordinarily go hand in hand, they need not. In a series of experiments, Johnson and Allen (1972) separated status and power from each other. They found that having high status and high power in an organization results in an enhanced self-perception that leads to altruistic behavior but disdain for the worker. On the other hand, when an individual has high status but low power in an organization that rewards high power, he or she engages in selfish behavior (usually by deviating from the prescribed norms in order to increase his or her own rewards) but has respect for the workers.

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