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Pearson mastering health and nutrition

25/11/2021 Client: muhammad11 Deadline: 2 Day

Reading Reflection Essay

Health THE BASICS

Rebecca J. Donatelle

Edition

So Many optionS for your StudentS

Whether it’s on a laptop, tablet, or cell

phone, Health: The Basics lets students

access media and other tools about

health.

Health: The Basics Pearson eText 2.0

Available at no charge within MasteringHealth, the Pearson eText

2.0 version of Health: The Basics gives students access to the text

whenever and wherever they have access to the Internet. Features

of the eText now include:

•  Now available on smartphones and tablets.

•  Seamlessly integrated videos and other rich media.

•  Accessible (screen-reader ready).

•   Configurable reading settings, including resizable type and night 

reading mode.

•   Instructor and student note-taking, highlighting, bookmarking, 

and search.

Students today want options when it comes to their learning and especially their

textbooks. Health: The Basics gives students the flexibility they desire, offering a wide range of formats for the book and a large array of online learning resources.

Let your students find a version that works best for them!

Health: The Basics Books a La Carte

0-13-428695-2 / 978-0-13-428695-2

Books a la Carte features the same exact content as Health: The

Basics in a convenient, three-hole-punched, loose-leaf version. 

Books a la Carte offers a great value for your students—this format 

costs 35% less than a new textbook package. 

Pearson Custom Library: You Create Your Perfect Text

www.pearsonlearningsolutions.com/custom-library

Health: The Basics is available on the Pearson Custom Library, 

allowing instructors to create the perfect text for their course.  

Select the chapters you need, in the sequence you want. Delete 

chapters you don’t use: Your students pay only for the materials 

you choose.

No matter the format, with each new copy of the text students will receive full access to the Study Area in MasteringHealth, 

providing a wealth of videos, MP3 study podcasts and case studies, mobile apps, and interactive online worksheets. Give your 

students all the learning options with Health: The Basics.

A00_DONA3268_12_SE_IFC.indd 1 28/10/15 2:40 PM

Ready, set,

with donatelle, health: the Basics, 12e the masteringhealth editionGo!

DonatelleBasics12e_VW_final.indd 1 06/11/15 3:08 PM

290 | part fOur | Building Healthy Lifestyles

STUDY PLAN Customize your study plan—and master your health!—in the Study Area of

PoP QuIZ Visit MasteringHealth to personalize your study plan with Chapter review Quizzes and Dynamic Study Modules.

LO 1 | essential Nutrients for Health 1. What is the most crucial nutrient

for life? a. Water b. Fiber c. Minerals d. Starch

2. Which of the following nutrients is critical for the repair and growth of body tissue? a. Carbohydrates b. Proteins c. Vitamins d. Fats

3. Which of the following substances helps move food through the digestive tract? a. Folate b. Fiber c. Minerals d. Starch

4. What substance provides energy, promotes healthy skin and hair, insulates body organs, helps maintain body temperature, and contributes to healthy cell function? a. Fats b. Fibers c. Proteins d. Carbohydrates

5. Which of the following fats is a healthier fat to include in the diet? a. Trans fat b. Saturated fat c. Unsaturated fat d. Hydrogenated fat

6. Which vitamin maintains bone health? a. B12 b. D c. B6 d. Niacin

amounts of various nutrients, as well as the %DV, which is the percentage of recommended daily values those amounts represent.

LO 3 | How Can I eat More Healthfully? With a little menu planning, veg-

etarianism can be a healthful lifestyle choice, providing plenty of nutrients, plus fiber and phytochemicals, typi- cally with less saturated fat and fewer calories.

Although some people may benefit from taking vitamin and mineral sup- plements, a healthy diet is the best way to give your body the nutrients it needs.

College students face unique chal- lenges in eating healthfully. Learning to make better choices, to eat health- fully on a budget, and to eat nutri- tionally in the dorm are all possible when you use the information in this chapter.

LO 4 | Food Safety: A growing Concern Organic foods are grown and pro-

duced without the use of toxic and persistent synthetic pesticides, fertiliz- ers, antibiotics, hormones, or genetic modification. The USDA offers certifi- cation of organic farms and regulates claims regarding organic ingredients used on food labels.

Foodborne illnesses can be traced to contamination of food at any point from fields to the consumer’s kitchen. To keep food safe at home, follow four steps: Clean, separate, cook, and chill.

Food allergies, celiac disease, food intolerances, GM foods, and other food safety and health concerns are becoming increasingly important to health-wise consumers. Recognizing potential risks and taking steps to prevent problems are part of a sound nutritional plan.

CHAPTEr RevIew To hear an MP3 Tutor Session, scan here or visit the Study Area in MasteringHealth.

LO 1 | essential Nutrients for Health Nutrition is the science of the rela-

tionship between physiological function and the essential elements of the foods we eat. The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are recom- mended nutrient intakes for healthy people.

The essential nutrients include water, proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vita- mins, and minerals. Water makes up 50 to 60 percent of our body weight and is necessary for nearly all life processes. Proteins are major compo- nents of our cells and tissues and are key elements of antibodies, enzymes, and hormones. Carbohydrates are our primary sources of energy. Fats provide energy while we are at rest and for long-term activity. They also play important roles in maintaining body temperature, cushioning and protecting organs, and promoting healthy cell function. Vitamins are organic compounds, and minerals are inorganic elements. We need these micronutrients in small amounts to maintain healthy body structure and function.

LO 2 | Nutritional guidelines A healthful diet is adequate, moder-

ate, balanced, varied, and nutrient dense. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the MyPlate plan provide guidelines for healthy eating. These recommendations, developed by the USDA, place emphasis on bal- ancing calories and understanding which foods to increase and which to decrease.

The Nutrition Facts label on food labels identifies the serving size, number of calories per serving, and

M13_DONA3268_12_SE_C09.indd 290 18/09/15 7:30 PM

262

1 List the six classes of nutrients, and explain the primary functions of each and their roles in maintaining long-term health.

2 Describe nutritional guidelines and recommendations, including the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the MyPlate food guidance system.

3 Discuss how to eat healthfully, including how to read food labels, vegetarianism, organic foods, the role of dietary supplements, and the unique challenges that college students face.

4 Explain food safety concerns facing Americans and people in other regions of the world.

L e

a r

n in

g O

u t c

O m

e s

nutrition: eating for a Healthier You9

M13_DONA3268_12_SE_C09.indd 262 18/09/15 7:29 PM

cHapter 9 | Nutrition: Eating for a Healthier You | 263

two groups—vitamins and minerals—are needed in smaller amounts, so they are called micronutrients.

Before the body can use food, the diges- tive system must break down larger food

particles into smaller, more usable forms. The digestive process is the sequence of functions by which the body breaks down foods into molecules small enough to be absorbed, and excretes the wastes.

recommended intakes for nutrients

In the next sections, we discuss each nutrient group and identify how much of each you need. These

recommended amounts are known as the Dietary Refer- ence Intakes (DRIs) and are published by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. The DRIs estab- lish the amount of each nutrient needed to prevent deficien- cies or reduce the risk of chronic disease, as well as identify maximum safe intake levels for healthy people. The DRIs are umbrella guidelines and include the following categories:

Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are daily nutrient intake levels meeting the nutritional needs of 97 to 98 percent of healthy individuals.

Adequate Intakes (AIs) are daily intake levels assumed to be adequate for most healthy people. AIs are used when there isn’t enough research to support estab- lishing an RDA.

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) are the highest amounts of a nutrient that an individual can consume daily without risking adverse health effects.

Acceptable Macronutri- ent Distribution Ranges (AMDRs) are ranges of pro- tein, carbohydrate, and fat intake that provide adequate nutrition, and they are asso- ciated with a reduced risk for chronic disease.

Whereas the RDAs, AIs, and ULs are expressed as amounts— usually milligrams (mg) or micrograms (μg)—AMDRs are expressed as percentages. The AMDR for protein, for example, is 10 to 35 percent, meaning that no less than 10 percent and no more than 35 percent of the calories you consume should come from proteins. But that raises a new question: What are calories?

advice about food comes at us from all direc-tions: from the Internet, popular mag-azines, television, friends, and neighbors. Even when backed by research, this advice can be contradic- tory. Some studies indicate that a bal- anced high-fat diet can be healthful, whereas other studies support con- suming a low-fat diet. Choosing what to eat and how much to eat from this media-driven array of food advice can be mind-boggling. For some, this can cause unnecessary anxiety about eating and lead to a lifetime of cycling on and off diets.1 Why does something that can be a source of pleasure end up being a prob- lem for so many of us? What influences our eat- ing habits, and how can we learn to eat more healthfully?

The answers to these questions aren’t as simple as they may seem. When was the last time you ate because you felt truly hungry? True hunger occurs when our brains initiate a physiological response that prompts us to seek food for the energy and nutrients that our bodies require to maintain proper functioning. Often, people in the United States don’t eat in response to hunger—instead, we eat because of appetite, a learned psychological desire to consume food. Hunger and appetite are not the only forces influencing our desire to eat. Cultural factors, food advertising, perceived nutritional value, social interaction, emotions, and financial means are other factors.

Nutrition is the science that investigates the relationship between physiological function and the essential elements of the foods we eat. With an understanding of nutrition, you will be able to make more informed choices about your diet. Your health depends largely on what you eat, how much you eat, and the amount of exercise that you get throughout your life. The next few chapters focus on fundamental principles of nutrition, weight management, and exercise.

LO 1 | essentiaL NutrieNts for HealtH List the six classes of nutrients, and explain the primary functions of each and their roles in maintaining long-term health.

Food provides the chemicals we need for activity and body maintenance. Our bodies cannot synthesize certain essential nutrients (or cannot synthesize them in adequate amounts); we

must obtain them from the foods we eat. Of the six groups of essential nutri- ents, the four we need in the largest amounts— water, proteins, carbohy- drates, and fats—are called macronutrients. The other

WHY SHouLD I CArE?

The nutritional choices you make during college can

have both immediate and lasting effects on your health. Thousands

of studies associate what we eat with chronic diseases such as diabetes,

heart disease, hypertension, stroke, osteoporosis, and

many types of cancer.

Hear It! Podcast Want a study podcast for this

chapter? download Nutrition: Eating

for Optimum Health, available

on

hunger The physiological impulse to seek food. nutrients The constituents of food that sustain humans physiologically: water, proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals. appetite The learned desire to eat; normally accompanies hunger but is more psychological than physiological. nutrition The science that investigates the relationship between physiological function and the essential elements of foods eaten. digestive process The process by which the body breaks down foods into smaller components and either absorbs or excretes them. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) Set of recommended intakes for each nutrient published by the Institute of Medicine.

M13_DONA3268_12_SE_C09.indd 263 18/09/15 7:29 PM

Get Your StudentS Ready!

NeW! study Plan tied to learning outcomes Numbered learning outcomes now introduce every chapter and mini-chapter,

giving students a roadmap for their reading. Each chapter concludes with a

Study Plan, which summarizes key points of the chapter and provides review

questions and critical thinking questions to check understanding, all tied to

the chapter’s learning outcomes and assignable in MasteringHealth.

NeW! ABC News lecture launchers New videos from ABC News bring personal health

to life and spark discussion with up-to-date hot

topics such as stress among millennials, hate crimes,

and rates of heroin use. Assignable multiple-choice

questions available in MasteringHealth provide

wrong-answer feedback to redirect students to the

correct answer.

DonatelleBasics12e_VW_final.indd 2 06/11/15 3:08 PM

156

FocusON

LearNiNg OutcOmes

1 Define sexual identity and discuss its major components, including biology, gender identity, gender roles, and sexual orientation.

2 Identify the primary structures of male and female reproductive anatomy and explain the functions of each.

3 List and describe the stages of the human sexual response and classify types of sexual dysfunctions.

4 explain the options available for the expression of one’s sexuality and discuss the components of healthy and responsible sexuality.

associated with being male or female, experiencing attraction, being in love, and being in relationships that include sexual intimacy. Having a comprehen- sive understanding of your sexuality will help you make responsible and sat- isfying decisions about your behaviors and your interpersonal relationships.

LO 1 | YOur sexual IdentIty Define sexual identity and discuss its major components, including biology, gender iden- tity, gender roles, and sexual orientation.

Sexual identity, the recognition and acknowledgment of oneself as a sexual being, is determined by a complex

Human sexuality is complex and involves physical health, personal values, and interpersonal relation- ships, as well as cultural traditions, social norms, new technologies, and changing political agendas. Sexuality is much more than sexual feelings or intercourse. Rather, it includes all the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors

Your understanding of gender roles, your contact with people of various gender identities or sexual orientations, and your own degree of emotional maturity can all affect your sense of sexual identity.

Understanding Your Sexuality

sexuality Thoughts, feelings, and behaviors associated with being male or female, experienc- ing attraction, being in love, and being in relation- ships that include sexual intimacy. sexual identity Recognition of oneself as a sexual being; a composite of biological sex char- acteristics, gender identity, gender roles, and sexual orientation.

M09_DONA3268_12_SE_C05a.indd 156 18/09/15 12:22 PM

280 | part fOur | Building Healthy Lifestyles

increases the risk for a stroke.47 The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics recommends that, though some people benefit from taking supplements, a healthy diet is the best way to give your body what it needs.48 Be aware that supplements can interact with certain medications, including aspirin, diuretics, and steroids, which may result in potential problems.

If you do decide to take a multivitamin, choose brands that contain the US Phar-

macopeia or Consumer Lab seal. This ensures that the supplement has been reviewed, is free of toxic ingre-

dients, and contains the ingredi- ents stated on the label. Store your supplements in a dark, dry place

(not the bathroom or other damp

B12, and D, as well as calcium, iron, zinc, and other miner- als; however, many foods are fortified with these nutrients, or vegans can obtain them from supplements. Vegans also have to pay more atten- tion to the amino acid con- tent of their foods, but eating a variety of types of plant foods throughout the day

will provide adequate amounts of protein. Pregnant women, older adults, sick people, and families with young children who are vegans need to take special care to ensure that their diets are ade- quate. In all cases, seek advice from a health care professional if you have questions.

supplements: research on the Daily Dose Dietary supplements are products containing one or more die- tary ingredients taken by mouth and intended to supplement existing diets. Ingredients range from vitamins, minerals, and herbs to enzymes, amino acids, fatty acids, and organ tissues. They can come in tablet, capsule, liquid, powder, and other forms. Because consumers see dietary supplements as an easy fix to improve their less than healthy diets, sales have skyrocketed.

It is important to note that dietary supplements are not reg- ulated like foods or drugs. The FDA does not evaluate the safety and efficacy of supplements prior to their marketing, and it can take action to remove a supplement from the market only after the product has been proved harmful. Currently, the United States has no formal guidelines for supplement market- ing and safety, and supplement manufacturers are responsible for self-monitoring their activities.

Do you really need to take dietary supplements? The Office of Dietary Supplements, part of the National Institutes of Health, states that some supplements may help ensure that you get adequate amounts of essential nutrients if you don’t consume a variety of foods, as recommended in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. However, dietary supplements are not intended to prevent or treat disease, and recently the U.S. Pre-

ventive Services Task Force con- cluded that there is insufficient evidence to recommend that healthy people take multivita- min/mineral supplements to prevent cardiovascular disease or can-

cer.45 Those who may benefit from using multivitamin/mineral supplements include pregnant and breast-feeding women, older adults, vegans, people on a very low-calorie weight-loss diets, alcohol-dependent individ- uals, and patients with malabsorption problems or other significant health problems.

dietary supplements Products taken by mouth and containing dietary ingredients such as vitamins and minerals that are intended to supplement existing diets.

Scan the Qr code to see how different dietary choices You make today can affect your overall health tomorrow.

WHICH paTh WouLD You TAKE ?

The wisdom of taking other types of supplements, as opposed to consuming nutrients in whole foods, is also unproven. For example, the benefit of fish consumption in reducing the risk for cardiovascular disease is well-established, but studies have shown conflicting results about fish-oil supplements.46

Taking high-dose supplements of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, and E can be harmful or even fatal. Too much vitamin A, for example, can damage the liver, and excessive vitamin E

Adopting a vegetarian diet can be a very healthy way to eat. Take care to prepare your food healthfully by avoiding added sugars and excessive sodium. Make sure you get comple- mentary essential amino acids throughout the day. Meals like this tofu and vegetable stir-fry can be further enhanced by adding a whole grain, such as brown rice.

WHAT Do you THINK?

Why are so many people becoming vegetarians?

How easy is it to be a vegetarian on your campus?

What concerns about vegetarianism do you have, if any?

M13_DONA3268_12_SE_C09.indd 280 18/09/15 7:30 PM

280 | part fOur | Building Healthy Lifestyles

increases the risk for a stroke.47 The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics recommends that, though some people benefit from taking supplements, a healthy diet is the best way to give your body what it needs.48 Be aware that supplements can interact with certain medications, including aspirin, diuretics, and steroids, which may result in potential problems.

If you do decide to take a multivitamin, choose brands that contain the US Phar-

macopeia or Consumer Lab seal. This ensures that the supplement has been reviewed, is free of toxic ingre-

dients, and contains the ingredi- ents stated on the label. Store your supplements in a dark, dry place

(not the bathroom or other damp

B12, and D, as well as calcium, iron, zinc, and other miner- als; however, many foods are fortified with these nutrients, or vegans can obtain them from supplements. Vegans also have to pay more atten- tion to the amino acid con- tent of their foods, but eating a variety of types of plant foods throughout the day

will provide adequate amounts of protein. Pregnant women, older adults, sick people, and families with young children who are vegans need to take special care to ensure that their diets are ade- quate. In all cases, seek advice from a health care professional if you have questions.

supplements: research on the Daily Dose Dietary supplements are products containing one or more die- tary ingredients taken by mouth and intended to supplement existing diets. Ingredients range from vitamins, minerals, and herbs to enzymes, amino acids, fatty acids, and organ tissues. They can come in tablet, capsule, liquid, powder, and other forms. Because consumers see dietary supplements as an easy fix to improve their less than healthy diets, sales have skyrocketed.

It is important to note that dietary supplements are not reg- ulated like foods or drugs. The FDA does not evaluate the safety and efficacy of supplements prior to their marketing, and it can take action to remove a supplement from the market only after the product has been proved harmful. Currently, the United States has no formal guidelines for supplement market- ing and safety, and supplement manufacturers are responsible for self-monitoring their activities.

Do you really need to take dietary supplements? The Office of Dietary Supplements, part of the National Institutes of Health, states that some supplements may help ensure that you get adequate amounts of essential nutrients if you don’t consume a variety of foods, as recommended in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. However, dietary supplements are not intended to prevent or treat disease, and recently the U.S. Pre-

ventive Services Task Force con- cluded that there is insufficient evidence to recommend that healthy people take multivita- min/mineral supplements to prevent cardiovascular disease or can-

cer.45 Those who may benefit from using multivitamin/mineral supplements include pregnant and breast-feeding women, older adults, vegans, people on a very low-calorie weight-loss diets, alcohol-dependent individ- uals, and patients with malabsorption problems or other significant health problems.

dietary supplements Products taken by mouth and containing dietary ingredients such as vitamins and minerals that are intended to supplement existing diets.

Scan the Qr code to see how different dietary choices You make today can affect your overall health tomorrow.

WHICH paTh WouLD You TAKE ?

The wisdom of taking other types of supplements, as opposed to consuming nutrients in whole foods, is also unproven. For example, the benefit of fish consumption in reducing the risk for cardiovascular disease is well-established, but studies have shown conflicting results about fish-oil supplements.46

Taking high-dose supplements of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, and E can be harmful or even fatal. Too much vitamin A, for example, can damage the liver, and excessive vitamin E

Adopting a vegetarian diet can be a very healthy way to eat. Take care to prepare your food healthfully by avoiding added sugars and excessive sodium. Make sure you get comple- mentary essential amino acids throughout the day. Meals like this tofu and vegetable stir-fry can be further enhanced by adding a whole grain, such as brown rice.

WHAT Do you THINK?

Why are so many people becoming vegetarians?

How easy is it to be a vegetarian on your campus?

What concerns about vegetarianism do you have, if any?

M13_DONA3268_12_SE_C09.indd 280 18/09/15 7:30 PM

NeW! interactive Behavior change activities— which Path would You take? By scanning QR codes with their mobile devices, students gain

access to an exploration of various health choices through an

engaging, interactive, low-stakes, and anonymous experience.

These activities show students the possible consequences of

various choices they make today on their future health through

a choose-your-own-adventure style interface.

uPDAteD! a new mini-chapter, Focus on: sexuality, has been

pulled from the previously titled Healthy Relationships and

Understanding Sexuality chapter, making it easier to assign the

sexuality material in connection with the Reproductive Choices

chapter (contraception). Additional information on social

connections is now included in the Relationships chapter.

uPDAteD! Focus on: Financial health

mini-chapter has been

streamlined to focus more

on the connection between

wealth and health.

uPDAteD! current health topics straight from the headlines Current health issues are covered throughout the new edition, speaking to students’

questions and concerns. New and updated material covers such areas as

• the heritability of well-being

• suicide risk factors

• the psychological and physiological

effects of meditation

• technostress

• the relationship between media

violence and actual violence

• social network use

• the abuse of heroin, khat, and salvia

• the characteristics of successful

weight losers

• orthorexia nervosa

• CrossFit and high-intensity interval

training (HIIT)

• the global burden of disease

• safe oral sex

• the human impact on the existence

or extinction of other species

DonatelleBasics12e_VW_final.indd 3 06/11/15 3:08 PM

Mastering is the most effective and widely used online homework, tutorial, and

assessment system for the sciences and now includes content specifically for health

courses. Mastering delivers self-paced tutorials that focus on your course objec-

tives, provides individualized coaching, and responds to each student’s progress.

learning catalytics, a “bring your own

device” student engagement, assessment,

and classroom intelligence system, allows

students to use their smartphones, tablets, or

laptops to respond to questions in class.

NeW! interactive etext 2.0, complete with embedded media, is mobile friendly and ADA accessible.

• Now available on smartphones and tablets

• Seamlessly integrated videos and other rich media

• Accessible (screen-reader ready)

• Configurable reading settings, including resizable type and night reading mode

• Instructor and student note-taking, highlighting, bookmarking, and search

Get Your StudentS going With

befoRe clAss

duRing clAss

dynamic study modules and etext 2.0 Provide students with a Preview of what’s to come

engage students with learning catalytics™

NeW! dynamic study modules help students study effectively on their own by continuously

assessing their activity and performance in real time.

Students complete a set of questions with a unique

answer format that also asks them to indicate their

confidence level. Questions repeat until the student

can answer them all correctly and confidently. Once

completed, Dynamic Study Modules explain the

concept using materials from the text.

DonatelleBasics12e_VW_final.indd 4 06/11/15 3:08 PM

The breadth and depth of content available to you to assign in

MasteringHealth is unparalleled, allowing you to quickly and easily

assign homework to reinforce key concepts.

These activities are linked out

to Mastering from the book and

made assignable in Mastering

with follow-up questions.

afteR clAss easy-to-assign, customizable, and automatically Graded assignments

NeW! interactive Behavior change activities—which Path would You take?—

allow students to explore various health

choices through an engaging, interactive,

low-stakes, and anonymous experience.

In activities covering topics such as

alcohol, smoking, nutrition, and fitness,

students receive specific feedback on the

choices they make today and the possible

consequences on their future health.

DonatelleBasics12e_VW_final.indd 5 06/11/15 3:08 PM

NeW! study Plans tie all end-of-chapter material (including chapter review, pop quiz, and

Think About It! questions) to specific numbered

learning outcomes and Mastering assets.

Assignable Study Plan items contain at least one

multiple-choice question per learning outcome

and wrong-answer feedback.

coaching activities guide students

through key health and fitness concepts

with interactive mini-lessons that

provide hints and feedback.

uPDAteD! self-assessments from the text are available within MasteringHealth in easy-to-assign formats both in PDF format with a self-

reflection section and as a multi-part activity that speaks to your gradebook.

afteR clAss other automatically Graded health and Fitness activities include . . .

DonatelleBasics12e_VW_final.indd 6 06/11/15 3:08 PM

Behavior change Videos are concise

whiteboard-style videos that help students

with the steps of behavior change, covering

topics such as setting SMART goals, identifying

and overcoming barriers to change, planning

realistic timelines, and more. Additional

videos review key fitness concepts such as

determining target heart rate range for exercise.

All videos include assessment activities and are

assignable in MasteringHealth.

learning outcomes

All of the MasteringHealth assignable content

is tagged to book content and to Bloom’s

Taxonomy. You also have the ability to add

your own outcomes, helping you track

student performance against your learning

outcomes. You can view class performance

against the specified learning outcomes and

share those results quickly and easily by

exporting to a spreadsheet.

nutritools coaching activities

in the nutrition chapter allow

students to combine and

experiment with different food

options and learn firsthand how

to build healthier meals.

DonatelleBasics12e_VW_final.indd 7 06/11/15 3:08 PM

Health THE BASICS

Rebecca J. Donatelle

Edition

3

Health THE BASICS

Health THE BASICS

21

Health THE BASICS

teaching toolkit dVd for Health: The Basics The Teaching Toolkit DVD provides everything that

you need to prep for your course and deliver a

dynamic lecture, in one convenient place. These

valuable resources are included on three disks:

disk 1 Robust media assets for each chapter

• ABC News Lecture Launcher videos

• Behavior Change videos • PowerPoint Lecture Outlines • PowerPoint clicker questions

and Jeopardy-style quiz show

questions

• Files for all illustrations and tables and selected photos from the text

disk 2 comprehensive test Bank

• Test Bank in Microsoft Word, PDF, and RTF formats

• Computerized Test Bank, which includes all the questions from the

printed test bank in a format that

allows you to easily and intuitively

build exams and quizzes

disk 3 additional innovative supplements for instructors and students

For Instructors

• Instructor Resource and Support Manual in Microsoft Word and

PDF formats

• Step-by-step MasteringHealth tutorials

• Video introduction to Learning Catalytics™

• Great Ideas in Teaching Health & Wellness

• Teaching with Student Learning Outcomes

• Teaching with Web 2.0

For Students

• Take Charge Self-Assessment Worksheets

• Behavior Change Log Book and Wellness Journal

• Live Right! Beating Stress in College and Beyond

• Eat Right! Healthy Eating in College and Beyond

• Food Composition Table

User’s Quick Guide for Health: The Basics

This easy-to-use printed supplement

accompanies the Teaching Toolkit

and offers easy instructions for

both experienced and new faculty

members to get started with the rich

Toolkit content and MasteringHealth.

teachinG toolkit

everYthiNG You NeeD to teAch in one place

DonatelleBasics12e_VW_final.indd 8 06/11/15 3:09 PM

HEALTH THE BAsics

Rebecca J. DonATELLE Oregon State University

Edition

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Senior Acquisitions Editor: Michelle Cadden Project Manager: Lauren Beebe Program Manager: Susan Malloy Development Editors: Kari Hopperstead, Nic Albert Editorial Assistant: Heidi Arndt Director of Development: Barbara Yien Development Manager: Cathy Murphy Program Management Team Lead: Mike Early Project Management Team Lead: Nancy Tabor Production Management: Jeanine Furino, Cenveo® Publisher Services Copyeditor: Jane Loftus Compositor: Cenveo® Publisher Services

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Donatelle, Rebecca J., 1950- Health : the basics / Rebecca J. Donatelle. -- 12e [edition]. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-13-418326-8 (alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-13-418326-6 (alk. paper) 1. Health--Textbooks. I. Title. RA776.D663 2017 613--dc23 2015029437

ISBN 10: 0-13-418326-6; ISBN 13: 978-0-13-418326-8 (Student edition) ISBN 10: 0-13-428694-4; ISBN 13: 978-0-13-428694-5 (Instructor’s Review Copy)

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http://www.pearsonhighered.com
iii

Brief contents

Part One

Finding the Right Balance

1 Accessing Your Health 1 Focus on

ImprovIng Your FInancIal HealtH 25

2 Promoting and Preserving Your Psychological Health 37

Focus on cultIvatIng Your SpIrItual HealtH 60

3 Managing Stress and Coping with Life’s Challenges 71

Focus on ImprovIng Your Sleep 98

4 Preventing Violence and Injury 110

Part twO

creating Healthy and caring Relationships

5 Connecting and Communicating in the Modern World 134

Focus on underStandIng Your SexualItY 156

6 Considering Your Reproductive Choices 171

Part tHree

Avoiding Risks from Harmful Habits

7 Recognizing and Avoiding Addiction and Drug Abuse 203

8 Drinking Alcohol Responsibly and Ending Tobacco Use 231

Part fOur

Building Healthy Lifestyles

9 Nutrition: Eating for a Healthier You 262 10 Reaching and Maintaining a Healthy

Weight 292

Focus on enHancIng Your BodY Image 317

11 Improving Your Personal Fitness 329

Part five

Preventing and Fighting Disease

12 Reducing Your Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer 354

Focus on mInImIzIng Your rISk For dIaBeteS 386

13 Protecting against Infectious Diseases and Sexually Transmitted Infections 397

Focus on reducIng rISkS For cHronIc dISeaSeS and condItIonS 428

Part Six

Facing Life’s challenges

14 Preparing for Aging, Death, and Dying 438 15 Promoting Environmental Health 456 16 Making Smart Health Care Choices 476 Focus on

underStandIng complementarY and IntegratIve HealtH 494

ANSWERS TO CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS a-1

REFERENCES r-1

PHOTO CREDITS C-1

INDEx i-1

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iv

contents PREFACE xIV

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xIx

Part One | Finding the Right Balance

1 Accessing Your Health 1 why Health, why now? 2

Choose Health Now for Immediate Benefits 2 Choose Health Now for Long-Term Rewards 2 Your Health Is Linked to Your Community 4

what is Health? 5 Models of Health 5 Wellness and the Dimensions of Health 6

what influences Your Health? 7 Individual Behavior 8 Biology and Genetics 9 Social Factors 10 Access to Quality Health Services 10 Policymaking 11

How Does Behavior Change Occur? 12 Health Belief Model 12 Social Cognitive Model 12 Transtheoretical (Stages of Change) Model 12

How Can You improve Your Health Behaviors? 13 Step One: Increase Your Awareness 13 Step Two: Contemplate Change 13 Step Three: Prepare for Change 16 Step Four: Take Action to Change 18 Let’s Get Started! 19

aSSeSS YourSelF 20

StudY plan 23

FOCUS ON improving Your Financial Health 25 the Link Between Health and wealth 26

Money and Stress 26 Money and Access to Resources 27 Poverty, Early Care, and Education 27

financial Struggles in College 27 Making College More Affordable 27

actions to improve Your financial Health 28 Prioritizing Health Insurance 28

Making a Budget 28 Understanding Debt and Credit Basics 30 Protecting against Fraud and Identity Theft 32

aSSeSS YourSelF 34

StudY plan 36

2 Promoting and Preserving Your Psychological Health 37

what is Psychological Health? 38 Mental Health 39 Emotional Health 40 Social Health 40 Spiritual Health 41

Keys to enhancing Psychological Health 41 Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem 41 Emotional Intelligence 43 Personality 43 Happiness and the Mind-Body Connection 43

when Psychological Health Deteriorates 44 Mental Health Threats to College Students 45 Mood Disorders 46 Anxiety Disorders 48 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 49 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder 49 Personality Disorders 50 Schizophrenia 50

Suicide: Giving up on Life 51 Overall Suicide Risks 51 Warning Signs of Suicide 52 Preventing Suicide 52

Seeking Professional Help 53 Mental Illness Stigma 53 Getting Evaluated for Treatment 53 Mental Health Professionals 54 What to Expect in Therapy 54 Pharmacological Treatment 55

aSSeSS YourSelF 56

StudY plan 58

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Contents | v

FOCUS ON cultivating Your spiritual Health 60 what is Spirituality? 61

Spirituality and Religion 62 Spirituality Integrates Three Facets 62 Spiritual Intelligence 62

the Benefits of Spiritual Health 63 Physical Benefits 62 Psychological Benefits 64

Cultivating Your Spiritual Health 64 Tune in to Yourself and Your Surroundings 64 Train Your Body 66 Expand Your Mind 67 Reach Out to Others 68

aSSeSS YourSelF 69

StudY plan 70

3 Managing stress and coping with Life’s challenges 71

what is Stress? 72

Your Body’s Stress response 73 The General Adaptation Syndrome 73 Do Men and Women Respond Differently to

Stress? 75

Physical effects Of Stress 75 Stress and Cardiovascular Disease 76 Stress and Weight Gain 76 Stress and Hair Loss: A Little Known Fact 76 Stress and Diabetes 76 Stress and Digestive Problems 76 Stress and Impaired Immunity 77

Stress and Your Mental Health 77 Stress, Memory, and Concentration 77 Psychological Effects of Stress 78

what Causes Stress? 78 Psychosocial Stressors 78

individual factors that affect Your Stress response 82 Appraisal 82 Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy 82 Type A and Type B Personalities 82 Type C and Type D Personalities 83 Psychological Hardiness 83 Psychological Resilience 83 Shift and Persist 83

Managing Stress in College 84 Practicing Mental Work to Reduce Stress 84 Developing a Support Network 85 Cultivating Your Spiritual Side 85 Managing Emotional Responses 86

Taking Physical Action 87 Managing Your Time 88 Consider Downshifting 89 Relaxation Techniques for Stress Management 89

aSSeSS YourSelF 93

StudY plan 96

FOCUS ON improving Your sleep 98 Sleepless in america 98

Why So Sleep Deprived? 100 Wired and Tired 100

the importance of Sleep 100 Sleep and Health 100

the Processes of Sleep 102 Non-REM Sleep 102 REM Sleep 102 Your Sleep Needs 103

Getting a Good night’s Sleep 103

Sleep Disorders 105 Insomnia 105 Sleep Apnea 106 Restless Legs Syndrome 107 Narcolepsy 107

aSSeSS YourSelF 108

StudY plan 109

4 Preventing Violence and injury 110

what is violence? 111 Violence Overview 111 Violence on U.S. Campuses 112

factors Contributing to violence 112 What Makes Some Individuals Prone to Violence? 113 How Much Impact Do the Media Have? 114

interpersonal and Collective violence 114 Homicide 114 Hate and Bias-Motivated Crimes 116 Gang Violence 116 Terrorism 116 Intimate Partner Violence 117 Child Abuse and Neglect 118 Elder Abuse 118

Sexual victimization 118 Sexual Assault and Rape 119 Sexual Harassment 121 Stalking and Cyberstalking 122 Child Sexual Abuse 122

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vi | Contents

Preventing violence 122 Self-Defense against Personal Assault and Rape 122 Campus-Wide Responses to Violence 124 Community Strategies for Preventing Violence 124

unintentional injuries 124 Motor Vehicle Safety 125 Cycling Safety 127

Stay Safe in the Water 128 Safety at Home 128

aSSeSS YourSelF 130

StudY plan 132

5 connecting and communicating in the Modern World 134

intimate Connections 135 Relating to Yourself 135 Family Relationships 136 Friendships 136 Romantic Relationships 136

the value of relationships 137

Building Communication Skills 139 Learning Appropriate Self-Disclosure 139 Becoming a Better Listener 141 Using Nonverbal Communication 141 Connecting Digitally: Too Much of a Good Thing? 141 Managing Conflict through Communication 144

relationships: for Better and worse 144 Characteristics of Healthy Relationships 145 Confronting Couples Issues 146 When and Why Relationships End 148 Coping with Failed Relationships 148

Marriage, Partnering, and Singlehood 148 Marriage 148 Cohabitation 150 Gay and Lesbian Marriage and Partnerships 151 Staying Single 152

aSSeSS YourSelF 153

StudY plan 154

FOCUS ON understanding Your sexuality 156 Your Sexual identity 156

Sexual Orientation 158

reproductive anatomy and Physiology 158 Female Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology 158 Male Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology 161

Human Sexual response 162 Sexual Dysfunction 163

Sexual expression and Behavior 164 Options for Sexual Expression 164 Drugs and Sex 166 Responsible and Satisfying Sexual Behavior 167

aSSeSS YourSelF 168

StudY plan 170

6 considering Your Reproductive choices 171

Basic Principles of Birth Control 172

Barrier Methods 174 Male Condom 174 Female Condom 175 Jellies, Creams, Foams, Suppositories, and Film 176 Diaphragm with Spermicidal Jelly or Cream 177 Cervical Cap with Spermicidal Jelly or Cream 178 Contraceptive Sponge 178

Hormonal Methods 179 Oral Contraceptives 179 Combination Pills 179 Progestin-Only Pills 180 Contraceptive Skin Patch 180 Vaginal Contraceptive Ring 181 Contraceptive Injections 181 Contraceptive Implants 181

intrauterine Contraceptives 182 ParaGard, Mirena, Skyla, and Liletta 182

Behavioral Methods 182 Withdrawal 182 Abstinence and “Outercourse” 183 Fertility Awareness Methods 183

emergency Contraception 184

Permanent Methods of Birth Control 184 Female Sterilization 184 Male Sterilization 185

Choosing a Method of Contraception 186

abortion 188 The Abortion Debate 189

Part twO | creating Healthy and caring Relationships

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Contents | vii

Emotional Aspects of Abortion 189 Methods of Abortion 189

Pregnancy 190 Planning for Pregnancy and Parenthood 190 The Process of Pregnancy 191 Prenatal Care 193

Childbirth 194 Labor and Delivery 195 Complications of Pregnancy and Childbirth 196 The Postpartum Period 196

infertility 197 Causes in Women 197 Causes in Men 197 Infertility Treatments 198 Surrogate Motherhood 198 Adoption 198

aSSeSS YourSelF 199

StudY plan 200

Part tHree | Avoiding Risks from Harmful Habits

7 Recognizing and Avoiding Addiction and Drug Abuse 203

what is addiction? 204 The Process of Addiction 204 Habit versus Addiction 205 Addiction Affects Family and Friends 206

addictive Behaviors 206 Gambling Disorder 206 Compulsive Buying Disorder 207 Exercise Addiction 207 Technology Addictions 207

what is a Drug? 207 How Drugs Affect the Brain 208 Routes of Drug Administration 209 Drug Interactions 210

Drug Misuse and abuse 210 Abuse of Over-the-Counter Drugs 210 Nonmedical Use or Abuse of Prescription Drugs 211 Use and Abuse of Illicit Drugs 212 Why Do Some College Students Use Drugs? 212 Why Don’t Some College Students Use Drugs? 213

Common Drugs of abuse 214 Stimulants 214 Marijuana and Other Cannabinoids 218 Depressants 219 Opioids (Narcotics) 221 Hallucinogens 222 Inhalants 224 Anabolic Steroids 224

treating and reducing Drug abuse 225 Treatment Approaches 225 Drug Treatment and Recovery for College

Students 226 Addressing Drug Misuse and Abuse in the United

States 227

aSSeSS YourSelF 228

StudY plan 229

8 Drinking Alcohol Responsibly and Ending Tobacco use 231

alcohol: an Overview 232 The Chemistry and Potency of Alcohol 232 Absorption and Metabolism 233 Blood Alcohol Concentration 234

alcohol and Your Health 235 Short-Term Effects of Alcohol Use 235 Drinking and Driving 237 Long-Term Effects of Alcohol 238 Alcohol and Pregnancy 239

alcohol use in College 240 High-Risk Drinking and College Students 241 Efforts to Reduce Student Drinking 242

abuse and Dependence 242 Identifying an Alcoholic 242 The Causes of Alcohol Use Disorder 243 Women and Alcoholism 244 Alcohol and Prescription Drug Abuse 244 Costs to Society 245 Treatment and Recovery 245

tobacco use in the united States 246 Tobacco and Social Issues 247 College Students and Tobacco Use 247 Tobacco Use and Prevention Policies 249

tobacco and its effects 249 Nicotine 249 Tar and Carbon Monoxide 249 Tobacco Use Disorder 250 Tobacco Products 250

Health Hazards of tobacco Products 252 Cancer 252 Cardiovascular Disease 254 Respiratory Disorders 254 Sexual Dysfunction and Fertility Problems 254 Unique Risks for Women 255 Other Health Effects 255

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viii | Contents

Environmental Tobacco Smoke 255

Quitting 255 Benefits of Quitting 255 How Can You Quit? 256

Breaking the Nicotine Addiction 256

aSSeSS YourSelF 258

StudY plan 260

Part fOur | Building Healthy Lifestyles

9 nutrition: Eating for a Healthier You 262

essential nutrients for Health 263 Recommended Intakes for Nutrients 263 Calories 264 Water: A Crucial Nutrient 264 Proteins 264 Carbohydrates 265 Fats 267 Vitamins 270 Minerals 271 Beneficial Non-Nutrient Components of Foods 273

nutritional Guidelines 273 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 273 MyPlate Food Guidance System 275

How Can i eat More Healthfully? 276 Read Food Labels 276 Understand Serving Sizes 279 Vegetarianism: A Healthy Diet? 279 Supplements: Research on the Daily Dose 280 Eating Well in College 281

food Safety: a Growing Concern 282 Choosing Organic or Locally Grown Foods 282 Foodborne Illnesses 283 Avoiding Risks in the Home 284 Food Sensitivities, Allergies, and Intolerances 284 Genetically Modified Food Crops 286

aSSeSS YourSelF 288

StudY plan 290

10 Reaching and Maintaining a Healthy Weight 292

Overweight and Obesity: a Growing Challenge 293 Overweight and Obesity in the United States 293 An Obesogenic World 293 Health Risks of Excess Weight 294

factors Contributing to Overweight and Obesity 295 Genetic and Physiological Factors 296 Environmental Factors 298 Psychosocial and Socioeconomic Factors 299

assessing Body weight and Body Composition 299 Body Mass Index (BMI) 300 Waist Circumference and Ratio Measurements 301 Measures of Body Fat 301

Managing Your weight: individual roles 302 Understanding Calories and Energy Balance 302 Diet and Eating Behaviors 303 Including Exercise 305 Keeping Weight Control in Perspective 307 Considering Drastic Weight-Loss Measures? 307 Trying to Gain Weight 311

aSSeSS YourSelF 312

StudY plan 315

FOCUS ON Enhancing Your Body image 317 what is Body image? 318

Many Factors Influence Body Image 318 Building a Positive Body Image 320 Body Image Disorders 320

Disordered eating and eating Disorders 322 Anorexia Nervosa 323 Bulimia Nervosa 323 Binge-Eating Disorder 324 Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder 324 Orthorexia Nervosa 325 Treatment for Eating Disorders 325 Helping Someone with Disordered Eating 325

exercise Disorders 326 Compulsive Exercise 326 Muscle Dysmorphia 326 The Female Athlete Triad 326

aSSeSS YourSelF 327

StudY plan 328

11 improving Your Personal Fitness 329

Physical activity for Health 330 Reduced Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases 331 Reduced Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2

Diabetes 332

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Contents | ix

Reduced Cancer Risk 332 Improved Bone Mass and Reduced Risk of

Osteoporosis 332 Improved Weight Management 333 Improved Immunity 333 Improved Mental Health and Stress Management 333 Longer Life Span 334

Physical activity for fitness and Performance 334 Health-Related Components of Physical Fitness 334 Skill-Related Components of Physical Fitness 335

Committing to Physical fitness 336 What If I Have Been Inactive for a While? 336 Overcoming Common Obstacles to Physical

Activity 336 Incorporating Physical Activity in Your Life 337

Creating Your Own fitness Program 338 Set SMART Goals 338 Use the FITT Principle 338

The FITT Principle for Cardiorespiratory Fitness 338 The FITT Principle for Muscular Strength and

Endurance 341 The FITT Principle for Flexibility 342

implementing Your fitness Program 343 Develop a Progressive Plan 343 Design Your Exercise Session 343 Explore Activities That Develop Multiple Components of

Fitness 345

taking in Proper nutrition for exercise 345 Foods for Exercise and Recovery 346 Fluids for Exercise and Recovery 346

Preventing and treating fitness-related injuries 347 Preventing Injuries 347 Treating Injuries 349

aSSeSS YourSelF 350

StudY plan 352

Part five | Preventing and Fighting Disease

12 Reducing Your Risk of cardiovascular Disease and cancer 354

Cardiovascular Disease in the united States 355

understanding the Cardiovascular System 356 The Heart: A Mighty Machine 356

Key Cardiovascular Diseases 357 Hypertension 358 Atherosclerosis 359 Peripheral Artery Disease 359 Coronary Heart Disease 360 Angina Pectoris 360 Arrhythmias 361 Heart Failure 361 Stroke 361

reducing Your risks 362 Metabolic Syndrome: Quick Risk Profile 363 Modifiable Risks 363 Nonmodifiable Risks 365 Other Risk Factors Being Studied 367

Diagnosing and treating Cardiovascular Disease 367 Techniques for Diagnosing Cardiovascular

Disease 367 Bypass Surgery, Angioplasty, and Stents 368 Aspirin and Other Drug Therapies 368

Cancer: an epidemiological Overview 368

what is Cancer? 369

what Causes Cancer? 370 Lifestyle Risks 370 Genetic and Physiological Risks 371 Occupational and Environmental Risks 371 Chemicals in Foods 372 Infectious Diseases and Cancer 372

types of Cancers 372 Lung Cancer 373 Breast Cancer 373 Colon and Rectal Cancers 375 Skin Cancer 375 Prostate Cancer 376 Ovarian Cancer 377 Cervical and Endometrial (Uterine) Cancer 377 Testicular Cancer 378 Pancreatic Cancer: Deadly and on the Rise 378

facing Cancer 378 Cancer Treatments 379

aSSeSS YourSelF 380

StudY plan 383

FOCUS ON Minimizing Your Risk for Diabetes 386 what is Diabetes? 387

Type 1 Diabetes 387 Type 2 Diabetes 388 Prediabetes 389 Gestational Diabetes 390

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x | Contents

what are the Symptoms of Diabetes? 391 Complications of Diabetes 391 Diagnosing Diabetes 392

treating Diabetes 393 Lifestyle Changes 393 Medical Interventions 393

aSSeSS YourSelF 395

StudY plan 396

13 Protecting against infectious Diseases and sexually Transmitted infections 397

the Process of infection 398 Routes of Transmission 399 Risk Factors You Can Control 399 Hard to Control Risk Factors 399

Your Body’s Defenses against infection 401 Physical and Chemical Defenses 401 How the Immune System Works 402 When the Immune System Misfires: Autoimmune

Diseases 402 Inflammatory Response, Pain, and Fever 403 Vaccines Bolster Immunity 403

types of Pathogens and the Diseases they Cause 403 Bacteria 404 Viruses 409 Other Pathogens 410 Emerging and Resurgent Diseases 411

Sexually transmitted infections (Stis) 412 What’s Your Risk? 412 Routes of Transmission 413

Common types of Sexually transmitted infections 413

Chlamydia 413 Gonorrhea 414 Syphilis 415 Herpes 416

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Genital Warts 416 Candidiasis (Moniliasis) 417 Trichomoniasis 418 Pubic Lice 419

Hiv/aiDS 420 How HIV Is Transmitted 420 Signs and Symptoms of HIV/AIDS 421 Testing for HIV 421 New Hope and Treatments 423 Preventing HIV Infection 423

aSSeSS YourSelF 424

StudY plan 426

FOCUS ON Reducing Risks for chronic Diseases and conditions 428 Chronic Lower respiratory (Lung) Diseases 428

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 429 Bronchitis 430 Emphysema 430 Asthma 430

allergies 431 Hay Fever 432

Headaches 432 Tension-Type Headaches 432 Migraine Headaches 432 Cluster Headaches 433

Digestion-related Disorders 433 Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) 433 Crohn’s Disease 433 Ulcerative Colitis 434

Musculoskeletal Diseases 434 Arthritis 434 Low Back Pain 434 Repetitive Motion Disorders 435

aSSeSS YourSelF 436

StudY plan 437

Part Six | Facing Life’s challenges

14 Preparing for Aging, Death, and Dying 438

aging 439 Older Adults: A Growing Population 439 Health Issues for an Aging Society 439

Physical and Mental Changes of aging 443 The Skin 441 Bones and Joints 442 The Urinary Tract 442 The Senses 442 Sexual Function 443 Mental Function and Memory 443

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Contents | xi

Strategies for Healthy aging 444 Successful Aging 444 Improve Fitness 444 Eat for Longevity 445 Develop and Maintain Healthy Relationships 445 Enrich the Spiritual Side of Life 445

understanding the final transitions: Dying and Death 445

Defining Death 445 The Process of Dying 446

Coping with Loss 447 What Is “Typical” Grief? 447 Worden’s Model of Grieving Tasks 448

Life-and-Death Decision Making 448 The Right to Die 448 Rational Suicide and Euthanasia 449

Making final arrangements 449 Hospice Care: Positive Alternatives 449 Making Funeral Arrangements 451 Wills 451 Organ Donation 451

aSSeSS YourSelF 452

StudY plan 454

15 Promoting Environmental Health 456

the threat of Overpopulation 457 Bursting with People: Measuring the Impact 457 Factors That Affect Population Growth 459

air Pollution 459 Components of Air Pollution 460 Acid Deposition 461 Indoor Air Pollution 461 Ozone Layer Depletion 462

Climate Change 463 Reducing the Threat of Global Warming 463

water Pollution and Shortages 465 Water Contamination 465

Land Pollution 467 Solid Waste 467 Hazardous Waste 468

radiation 469 Nonionizing Radiation 469 Ionizing Radiation 469 Nuclear Power Plants 470

noise Pollution 471

aSSeSS YourSelF 472

StudY plan 474

16 Making smart Health care choices 476

taking responsibility for Your Health Care 477 Self-Care 477 When to Seek Help 477 Assessing Health Professionals 478 Your Rights as a Patient 479

Conventional Health Care 480 Conventional Health Care Practitioners 481 Conventional Medication 481

Health insurance 482 Private Health Insurance 483 Managed Care 483 Government-Funded Programs 484 Insurance Coverage by the Numbers 486

issues facing today’s Health Care System 487 Access 487 Cost 487 Quality 488

aSSeSS YourSelF 490

StudY plan 492

FOCUS ON understanding complementary and integrative Health 494 what is Complementary and integrative Health? 494

Complementary Medical Systems 495 Traditional Chinese Medicine 496 Ayurveda 496 Homeopathy 496 Naturopathy 497

Mind and Body Practices 497 Manipulative Therapies 497 Energy Therapies 498

natural Products 499 Functional Foods 499 Herbal Remedies and Other Dietary Supplements 499 Consumer Protection 500

aSSeSS YourSelF 502

StudY plan 503

ANSWERS TO CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS a-1 REFERENCES r-1 PHOTO CREDITS C-1 INDEx i-1

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feature boxes

Challenge the Thoughts That Sabotage Change 19

Creative Ways to Cut Spending 30

Using PERMA to Enhance Your Happiness 44

Finding Your Spiritual Side Through Service 68

Overcoming Test-Taking Anxiety 83

Rethink Your Thinking Habits 95

Learn to Say No and Mean It! 89

Ditch Blue Light Devices 100

Surfing for the Latest in Health 15

Technostress and Taking Time to Unplug 79

Apps for the Relaxation Response 90

Love in the Time of Twitter 143

Consensual Texts 165

Mobile Devices, Media, and the Internet: Could You Unplug? 208

Health Care Reform and Contraceptives 188

Are Fruits and Veggies Beyond Your Budget? 283

“Living Large” Can Be Increasingly Costly 295

All Certifications Are Not Created Equal 344

Diabetes: At What Cost? 388

Are You a Food Waster? 468

Health Care Spending Accounts 485

MONEY &HEALTH

SKILLS foR BeHavIor ChaNgE

TECh &HEALTH

Reducing Your Risk of Dating Violence: Tips for Women and Men 120

Stay Safe on All Fronts 123

Minimizing the Chance of Injury During a Car Accident 127

Learning to Really Listen 141

Social Media Meanness 142

Responding to an Offer of Drugs 213

Tips for Drinking Responsibly 241

Cut Down on Your Drinking 243

Tips for Quitting Smoking 257

Bulk Up Your Fiber Intake! 267

Natural versus Organic Foods 282

Reduce Your Risk for Foodborne Illness 285

Tips for Sensible Snacking 305

Keys to Successful Weight Management 307

Ten Steps to a Positive Body Image 321

Plan It, Start It, Stick with It! 343

What to Do When a Heart Attack Hits 361

A Simple Test for Stroke 362

Reducing Your Risk for Diabetes 390

Reduce Your Risk of Infectious Disease 399

Safe Is Sexy 413

Preventing Asthma Attacks 431

Aging Well 439

Talking to Friends When Someone Dies 447

Avoiding Mold 463

Waste Less Water! 467

Be Proactive in Your Health Care 478

Complementary Health Approaches and Self-Care 500

Chapter 1: Accessing Your Health 10

Focus On: Improving Your Financial Health 30

Chapter 3: Managing Stress and Coping with Life’s Challenges 92

Chapter 8: Drinking Alcohol Responsibly 238

Chapter 8: Ending Tobacco Use 255

Chapter 9: Nutrition: Eating for a Healthier You 280

Chapter 11: Improving Your Personal Fitness 337

Chapter 12: Reducing Your Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer 372

Focus On: Minimizing Your Risk for Diabetes 394

Chapter 13: Protecting against Infectious Diseases and Sexually Transmitted Infections 413

WHICH paTh WOULD YOU TAKE ?

xii

Tracking Your Diet or Weight Loss? There’s an App for That 308

Simpler Tests can Improve Treatment Outcomes For HIV and TB Patients 423

E-Concerns 469

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STUDENT HEALTH TODaY

Cutting Through the Pain 51

Feng Shui for Stress Relief 88

Caffeine, Sleep, and Your Health 104

Hooking Up: The New Norm or Nothing New? 138

Life Is an Open (Face)Book 144

Tech Between Us 146

How Can Men Be More Involved in Birth Control? 186

Alcohol and Energy Drinks: A Dangerous Mix 233

Nutrition Rating Systems 278

Beware of Portion Inflation at Restaurants 298

Who Wins in Losing? Characteristics of Successful Losers 303

Thinspiration and the Online World of Anorexia 320

Is High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) Right for You? 340

Is Cholesterol So Bad? 364

Making Oral Sex Safe: Condoms, Dental Dams, and Abstinence 418

Q&A on HPV Vaccines 419

Body Piercing and Tattooing: Potential Risks 422

Potential Risks 422

The Placebo Effect: Mind Over Matter? 480

HEALTH HeaDLineS

America: Shorter Lives, Poorer Health 4

National Health Care Reform 11

Overdosing on Self-Esteem? 42

When Adults Have ADHD 46

Happiness and Flourishing New Strategies to Reduce Stress 87

Bringing the Gun Debate to Campus 115

E-Cigarettes Health Risks and Concerns 251

Coconut Oil: Friend or Foe? 269

Health Claims of Superfoods 274

Gluten-Free Diets 286

Transport Yourself! 337

Heart-Healthy Super Foods 366

Antibiotic Resistance: Bugs versus Drugs 400

Vaccine Controversy: Should Parents Be Allowed to Opt Out? 406

Be Eco-Clean and Allergen Free 429

HEALTH in a DiverSe wOrLD

The Challenge of Health Disparities 9

International Student Stress 81

He Says/She Says 140

Global Health and Alcohol Use 244

Women and Heart Attacks 360

POINTS Of view

Banning Phone Use While Driving: Good Idea or Going Too Far? 126

The End of the Defense of Marriage Act 151

Marijuana 220

Smoking on College & University Campuses: Should It Be Banned? 248

Genetically Modified Foods: Boon or Bane? 287

Obesity: Is It a Disability? 310

Physician-Assisted Suicide: Should It Be Legalized? 450

National Health Care: Is It a Government Responsibility? 489

Feature Boxes | xiii

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oday, threats to our health and the health of our planet dominate the media and affect our daily lives on a regular basis. Looming water shortages, poor air quality, food safety concerns, violence and the threat

of terrorism, chronic and infectious diseases, and other con- cerns have us wondering about our ability to survive and thrive. We are advised to watch what we eat, lose weight, exercise more, reduce our stress, sleep more, have healthier relationships, be vigilant against a host of threats, and do our part to protect our- selves, our communities, our resources, and our planet. The issues often seem so huge, so far-reaching and overwhelming, that you may wonder if there is anything you can do to make a difference—to ensure a life that is healthy and long and a planet that is preserved for future generations. You are not alone! Get- ting healthy and staying healthy is a challenge for many, but the good news is that you can do things to improve your health and the health of others. Regardless of your age, sex, race, the envi- ronment you live in, or the challenges you face, you can be an agent for healthy change for you, your loved ones, and the greater community. It can start now, and it can start with you!

After years of teaching and working with students of all ages and stages of life and careers, I am encouraged by the fact that so many young adults are working hard to change their own health futures and the health of their families and communities. The problem is that with so much “talk” about health on so many platforms, sifting through the “junk infor- mation” and making the right choices based on good science and good sense, can be difficult.

My goal in writing Health: The Basics, the MasteringHealth™ Edition, is to build upon the strengths of past editions; to utilize the most current, scientifically valid research, to examine some of the important issues and controversies about health today, and motivate students to become “actively engaged in health” at all levels. As part of the process, we have worked hard to pro- vide students with essential tools and technologically sound resources to empower them to take a careful and realistic look at their health risks, to examine their behaviors and the fac- tors that contribute to those behaviors, and take the steps nec- essary to prioritize health in their lives. Although prioritizing individual and community health is a priority of this text, it is important to recognize that our health is increasingly con- nected to the health of the global community and our planet. As such, my aim is to challenge students to think globally as they consider health risks and seek creative solutions, both large and small, to address complex health problems. There is no one-size-fits-all recipe for health. You can do it your way— whether that means starting slow with “baby steps” designed

t to change deeply engrained behaviors or gearing up for major changes that all happen at once. Remember, we didn’t develop our behaviors overnight. Being patient but persistent with our- selves is often part of the process.

This book is designed to help students quickly grasp the information, focusing on key objectives that have relevance to their own lives, both now and in the future. We provide the most current, comprehensive, concise, and scientifically valid information about each health topic, put a wealth of techno- logical tools and resources at students’ fingertips to assist in decision making, encourage students to think about the issues, and help students answer these questions: What is the issue and why should I care? What are my options for action? When and how do I get started?

With each new edition of Health: The Basics, I am gratified by the overwhelming success that this book has enjoyed. I am excited about making this edition the best yet—more timely, more relevant, and more interesting for students. Let’s face it: Our world faces unprecedented challenges to individual and community health. Understanding these challenges and hav- ing a personal plan to preserve, protect, and promote health will help ensure our healthful future!

nEW to this edition Health: The Basics, the MasteringHealth Edition, maintains many features that the text has become known for, while incorporating several major revisions, exciting new features, and a more explicit connection between the text and multi- media resources in MasteringHealth. MasteringHealth is an online homework, tutorial, and assessment product designed to improve and assess results by helping students quickly mas- ter concepts. Students benefit from self-paced tutorials that feature immediate wrong-answer feedback and hints that emu- late the office-hour experience to help keep students on track. With a wide range of interactive, engaging, and assignable activities, students are encouraged to actively learn and retain tough course concepts and apply them to real-world changes.

The multimedia created for the MasteringHealth Edition is more innovative and interactive than ever, and a tighter text and MasteringHealth integration provides students the oppor- tunity to master course content using a variety of resources on and off the page, reflecting the manner in which students study today.

The most noteworthy changes to the text and multimedia as a whole include the following.

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between the text and multimedia resources in Mastering- Health. Learning outcomes are now explicitly tied to chapter sections and the end-of-chapter Study Plan to create a clear learning path for students. Portions of chapters have been reorganized to improve the flow of topics, and figures, tables, feature boxes, and photos have all been added, improved on, and updated. Throughout the text, all data, statistics, and ref- erences have been updated to the most recent possible. The following is a chapter-by-chapter listing of some of the most noteworthy changes, updates, and additions.

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