Additional Praise for Implementing Enterprise Risk Management
“Educators the world over seeking to make the management of risk an integral part of management degrees have had great difficulties in providing their students with a definitive ERM text for their course. The Standards and associated Handbooks helped, but until the arrival of Implementing Enterprise Risk Management: Case Stud- ies and Best Practices, there has been no text to enlighten students on the application of an effective program to manage risk across an enterprise so that objectives are maximized and threats minimized. Fraser, Simkins, and Narvaez have combined with a group of contributors that represent the cream of risk practitioners, to pro- vide the reader with a clear and concise journey through the management of risk within a wide range of organizations and industries. The knowledge, skills, and experience in the management of risk contained within the covers of this book are second to none. It will provide a much needed resource to students and practition- ers for many years to come and should become a well-used reference on the desk of every manager of risk.”
—Kevin W. Knight AM, chairman, ISO/TC 262—Risk Management
“The authors—Fraser, Simkins, and Narvaez—have done an invaluable service to advance the science of enterprise risk management by collecting an extensive num- ber of wonderful case studies that describe innovative risk management practices in a diverse set of companies around the world. This book should be an extremely valuable source of knowledge for anyone interested in the emerging and evolving field of risk management.”
—Robert S. Kaplan, senior fellow, Marvin Bower Professor of Leadership Development, emeritus, Harvard University
“Lessons learned from case studies and best practices represent an efficient way to gain practical insights on the implementation of ERM. Implementing Enterprise Risk Management provides such insights from a robust collection of ERM pro- grams across public companies and private organizations. I commend the editors and contributors for making a significant contribution to ERM by sharing their experiences.”
—James Lam, president, James Lam & Associates; director and Risk Oversight Committee chairman, E∗TRADE Financial Corporation;
author, Enterprise Risk Management—From Incentives to Controls
“For those who still think that enterprise risk management is just a fad, the varied examples of practical value-generating uses contained in this book should dispel any doubt that the discipline is here to stay! The broad collection of practices is insightful for students, academics, and executives, as well as seasoned risk man- agement professionals.”
—Carol Fox, ARM, director of Strategic and Enterprise Risk Practice, RIMS
“Managing risk across the enterprise is the new frontier of business management. Doing so effectively, in my view, will be the single most important differentiating factor for many enterprises in the twenty-first century. Implementing Enterprise Risk Management: Case Studies and Best Practices is an innovative and important addition to the literature and contains a wealth of insight in this critical area. This book’s integration of theory with hands-on, real-world lessons in managing enterprise risk provides an opportunity for its readers to gain insight and understanding that could otherwise be acquired only through many years of hard-earned experience.
I highly recommend this book for use by executives, line managers, risk managers, and business students alike.”
—Douglas F. Prawitt, professor of Accounting at Brigham Young University, and Committee of Sponsoring Organizations (COSO)
Executive Board member
“The real beauty of and value in this book is its case study focus and the wide variety of firms profiled and writers’ perspectives shared. This will provide readers with a wealth of details and views that will help them chart an ERM journey of their own that is more likely to fit the specific and typically customized ERM needs of the firms for whom they toil.”
—Chris Mandel, senior vice president, Strategic Solutions for Sedgwick; former president of the Risk Management Society
and the 2004 Risk Manager of the Year
“Implementing Enterprise Risk Management looks at many industries through excel- lent case studies, providing a real-world base for its recommendations and an important reminder that ERM is valuable in many industries. I highly recommend this text.”
—Russell Walker, Clinical associate professor, Kellogg School of Management; author of Winning with Risk Management
“The body of knowledge in Implementing Enterprise Risk Management continues to develop as business educators and leaders confront a complex and rapidly chang- ing environment. This book provides a valuable resource for academics and prac- titioners in this dynamic area.”
—Mark L. Frigo, director, Strategic Risk Management Lab, Kellstadt Graduate School of Business, DePaul University
“The management of enterprise risk is one of the most vexatious problems con- fronting boards and executives worldwide. This is why this latest book by Fraser, Simkins, and Narvaez is a much needed and highly refreshing approach to the sub- ject. The editors have managed to assemble an impressive list of contributors who, through a series of fascinating real-life case studies, adroitly help educate readers to better understand and deal with the myriad of risks that can assault, seriously maim, and/or kill an organization. This is a ‘how to’ book written with the ‘risk management problem solver’ in mind. It provides the link that has been missing for effectively teaching ERM at the university and executive education levels and it is an exceptional achievement by true risk management advocates.”
—Dr. Chris Bart, FCPA, founder and lead faculty, The Directors College of Canada
“The Institute of Risk Management welcomes the publication of this highly practi- cal text which should be of great interest to our students and members around the world. Implementing Enterprise Risk Management brings together a fine collection of detailed case studies from organizations of varying sizes and working in differ- ent sectors, all seeking to enhance their business performance by managing their risks more effectively, from the boardroom to the shop floor. This book makes a valuable contribution to the body of knowledge of what works that will benefit the development of the risk profession.”
—Carolyn Williams, technical director, Institute of Risk Management
IMPLEMENTING ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENT
The Robert W. Kolb Series in Finance provides a comprehensive view of the field of finance in all of its variety and complexity. The series is projected to include approximately 65 volumes covering all major topics and specializations in finance, ranging from investments, to corporate finance, to financial institutions. Each vol- ume in the Kolb Series in Finance consists of new articles especially written for the volume.
Each volume is edited by a specialist in a particular area of finance, who develops the volume outline and commissions articles by the world’s experts in that partic- ular field of finance. Each volume includes an editor’s introduction and approx- imately thirty articles to fully describe the current state of financial research and practice in a particular area of finance.
The essays in each volume are intended for practicing finance professionals, grad- uate students, and advanced undergraduate students. The goal of each volume is to encapsulate the current state of knowledge in a particular area of finance so that the reader can quickly achieve a mastery of that special area of finance.
IMPLEMENTING ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENT
Case Studies and Best Practices
John R.S. Fraser Betty J. Simkins Kristina Narvaez
The Robert W. Kolb Series in Finance
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To Wendy, my wonderful wife and my inspiration, and to my parents who instilled in me a lifelong thirst for learning.
To my husband (Russell) and our family: sons and daughters- in-law (Luke & Stephanie and Walt & Lauren), daughter and son-in-law (Susan & Jason), and our youngest daughter (April). Thank you for your love, support, and encouragement!
I would like to thank my husband and four children for support- ing me on my journey of writing two chapters and co-editing this book. I would also like to thank the Risk and Insurance Manage- ment Society for supporting me during my educational years and providing great workshops and conferences on enterprise risk management.
1 Enterprise Risk Management Case Studies: An Introduction and Overview 1 John R.S. Fraser, Betty J. Simkins, and Kristina Narvaez
PART I Overview and Insights for Teaching ERM 17
2 An Innovative Method to Teaching Enterprise Risk Management: A Learner-Centered Teaching Approach 19 David R. Lange and Betty J. Simkins
PART II ERM Implementation at Leading Organizations 37
3 ERM at Mars, Incorporated: ERM for Strategy and Operations 39 Larry Warner
4 Value and Risk: Enterprise Risk Management at Statoil 59 Alf Alviniussen and Håkan Jankensgård
5 ERM in Practice at the University of California Health System 75 Grace Crickette
6 Strategic Risk Management at the LEGO Group: Integrating Strategy and Risk Management 93 Mark L. Frigo and Hans Læssøe
7 Turning the Organizational Pyramid Upside Down: Ten Years of Evolution in Enterprise Risk Management at United Grain Growers 107 John Bugalla
8 Housing Association Case Study of ERM in a Changing Marketplace 119 John Hargreaves
9 Lessons from the Academy: ERM Implementation in the University Setting 143 Anne E. Lundquist
10 Developing Accountability in Risk Management: The British Columbia Lottery Corporation Case Study 179 Jacquetta C. M. Goy
11 Starting from Scratch: The Evolution of ERM at the Workers’ Compensation Fund 207 Dan M. Hair
12 Measuring Performance at Intuit: A Value-Added Component in ERM Programs 227 Janet Nasburg
13 TD Bank’s Approach to an Enterprise Risk Management Program 241 Paul Cunha and Kristina Narvaez
PART III Linking ERM to Strategy and Strategic Risk Management 251
14 A Strategic Approach to Enterprise Risk Management at Zurich Insurance Group 253 Linda Conrad and Kristina Narvaez
15 Embedding ERM into Strategic Planning at the City of Edmonton 281 Ken Baker
16 Leveraging ERM to Practice Strategic Risk Management 305 John Bugalla and James Kallman
PART IV Specialized Aspects of Risk Management 319
17 Developing a Strategic Risk Plan for the Hope City Police Service 321 Andrew Graham
18 Blue Wood Chocolates 335 Stephen McPhie and Rick Nason
19 Kilgore Custom Milling 363 Rick Nason and Stephen McPhie
20 Implementing Risk Management within Middle Eastern Oil and Gas Companies 377 Alexander Larsen
21 The Role of Root Cause Analysis in Public Safety ERM Programs 397 Andrew Bent
22 JAA Inc.—A Case Study in Creating Value from Uncertainty: Best Practices in Managing Risk 427 Julian du Plessis, Arnold Schanfield, and Alpaslan Menevse
23 Control Complacency: Rogue Trading at Société Générale 461 Steve Lindo
24 The Role of VaR in Enterprise Risk Management: Calculating Value at Risk for Portfolios Held by the Vane Mallory Investment Bank 489 Allissa A. Lee and Betty J. Simkins
25 Uses of Efficient Frontier Analysis in Strategic Risk Management: A Technical Examination 501 Ward Ching and Loren Nickel
PART V Mini-Cases on ERM and Risk 523
26 Bim Consultants Inc. 525 John R.S. Fraser
27 Nerds Galore 529 Rob Quail
28 The Reluctant General Counsel 535 Norman D. Marks
29 Transforming Risk Management at Akawini Copper 539 Grant Purdy
30 Alleged Corruption at Chessfield: Corporate Governance and the Risk Oversight Role of the Board of Directors 547 Richard Leblanc
31 Operational Risk Management Case Study: Bon Boulangerie 555 Diana Del Bel Belluz
PART VI Other Case Studies 559
32 Constructive Dialogue and ERM: Lessons from the Financial Crisis 561 Thomas H. Stanton
33 Challenges and Obstacles of ERM Implementation in Poland 577 Zbigniew Krysiak and Sl̄awomir Pijanowski
34 Turning Crisis into Opportunity: Building an ERM Program at General Motors 607 Marc S. Robinson, Lisa M. Smith, and Brian D. Thelen
35 ERM at Malaysia’s Media Company Astro: Quickly Implementing ERM and Using It to Assess the Risk-Adjusted Performance of a Portfolio of Acquired Foreign Companies 623 Patrick Adam K. Abdullah and Ghislain Giroux Dufort
About the Editors 649
Enterprise Risk Management is an evolving discipline focused on a com-plex and still imperfectly-understood subject. In such a situation, science isadvanced best by collecting data from multiple, independent sites. A rich set of observations educates the field’s scholars and practitioners and provides the foundation for them to develop descriptive and normative theories as well as cod- ified best practices about the subject.
The authors—Fraser, Simkins, and Narvaez—have done an invaluable service to advance the science of enterprise risk management by collecting an extensive number of wonderful case studies that describe innovative risk management prac- tices in a diverse set of companies around the world. This book should be an extremely valuable source of knowledge for anyone interested in the emerging and evolving field of risk management. We should be grateful to the editors and to each chapter author for expanding the body of knowledge for risk management professionals and academics.
Robert S. Kaplan Senior Fellow, Marvin Bower Professor of Leadership Development, Emeritus
Enterprise Risk Management Case Studies An Introduction and Overview
JOHN R.S. FRASER Senior Vice President, Internal Audit, and former Chief Risk Officer, Hydro One Networks Inc.
BETTY J. SIMKINS Williams Companies Chair of Business and Professor of Finance, Oklahoma State University
KRISTINA NARVAEZ President and Owner of ERM Strategies, LLC
Businesses, business schools, regulators, and the public are now scrambling to catch up with the emerging field of enterprise risk management.
—Robert Kaplan (quote from Foreword in Fraser and Simkins, 2010)
Most executives with MBA degrees were not taught ERM. In fact, there are only a few universities that teach ERM. So some business school graduates are strong in finance, marketing, and management theory, but they are limited in terms of critical thinking, business acumen, and risk analysis skills.
THE EVOLUTION OF ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENT Over the past two decades enterprise risk management (ERM) has evolved from concepts and visions of how risks should be addressed to a method- ology that is becoming entrenched in modern management and is now increasingly expected by those in oversight roles (e.g., governing bodies and regulators). As Felix Kloman describes in his chapter “A Brief History of Risk Man- agement,” published in Fraser and Simkins (2010), many of the concepts go back a very long time and many of the so-called newly discovered techniques can be
2 Implementing Enterprise Risk Management
referenced to the earlier writings and practices described by Kloman. However, it is only from around the mid-1990s that the concept of giving a name to manag- ing risks in a holistic way across the many operating silos of an enterprise started to take hold. In the 1990s, terms such as integrated risk management and enterprise- wide risk management were also used. Many thought leaders, for example, those who created ISO 31000,2 believe that the term risk management is all that is needed to describe good risk management; however, many others believe that the latter term is often used to describe risk management at the lower levels of the organiza- tion and does not necessarily capture the concepts of enterprise-level approaches to risk. As a result, the term ERM is used throughout this book.
As ERM continues to evolve there is still much discussion and confusion over exactly what it is and how it should be achieved. It is important to realize that it is still evolving and may take many more years before it is fully codified and practiced in a consistent way. In fact, there is a grave danger now of believing that there is only one way of doing ERM. This is probably a mistake by regula- tors who have too eagerly seized some of these concepts and are trying to impose them when the methods are not fully understood, and in some cases the require- ments are unlikely to produce the desired results. As Fraser and Simkins (2010) noted in their first book on ERM: “While regulatory interest can force ERM into companies, if not done well, it can become another box-ticking exercise that adds little value.”3
The leading and most commonly agreed4 guideline to holistic risk manage- ment is ISO 31000. However, it should be mentioned that in the United States the COSO 2004 Enterprise Risk Management–Integrated Framework has been the dominant framework used to date. Many organizations are currently adopting one or the other of these frameworks and then customizing them to their own context.
WHY THE NEED FOR A BOOK WITH ERM CASE STUDIES? Following the success of the earlier Enterprise Risk Management: Today’s Leading Research and Best Practices for Tomorrow’s Executives by Fraser and Simkins (2010), we found through our own teaching experiences, and by talking to others, that there was an urgent need for a university-level textbook of ERM case studies to help educate executives, risk practitioners, academics, and students alike about the evolving methodology. As a result, Fraser and Simkins, together with Kristina Narvaez, approached many of the leading ERM specialists to write case studies for this book.
Surveys have also shown that there is a dire need for more case studies on ERM (see Fraser, Schoening-Thiessen, and Simkins 2008). Additionally, surveys of risk executives report that business risk is increasing due to new technologies, faster rate of change, increases in regulatory risk, and more (PWC 2014). As Paul Walker of St. John’s University points out in the opening quote of the 2014 American Pro- ductivity & Quality Center (APQC) report on ERM, “Most executives with MBA degrees were not taught ERM. In fact, there are only a few universities that teach ERM. So some business school graduates are strong in finance, marketing, and
ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENT CASE STUDIES 3
management theory, but they are limited in terms of critical thinking, business acu- men, and risk analysis skills.” Learning Centered Teaching (LCT), as discussed in Chapter 2, is an ideal way to achieve this. Using LCT and the case study approach, students actively participate in the learning process through constructive reflective reasoning, critical thinking and analysis, and discussion of key issues. This is the first book to provide such a broad coverage of case studies on ERM.
The case studies that follow are from some of the leading academics and prac- titioners of enterprise risk management. While many of the cases are about real-life situations, there are also those that, while based on real-life experiences, have had names changed to maintain confidentiality or are composites of several situations. We are deeply indebted to the authors and to the organizations that agreed so kindly to share their stories to help benefit future generations of ERM practition- ers. In addition, we have added several chapters where we feel the fundamentals of these specialized techniques (e.g., VaR) deserve to be understood by ERM stu- dents and practitioners. Each case study provides opportunities for executives, risk practitioners, and students to explore what went well, what could have been done differently, and what lessons are to be learned.
Teachers of ERM will find a wealth of material to use in demonstrating ERM principles to students. These can be used for term papers or class discussions, and the approaches can be contrasted to emphasize different contexts that may require customized approaches. This book introduces the reader to a wide range of con- cepts and techniques for managing risks in a holistic way, by correctly identifying risks and prioritizing the appropriate responses. It offers a broad overview of the various types of ERM techniques, the role of the board of directors, risk tolerances, profiles, workshops, and allocation of resources, while focusing on the principles that determine business success.
Practitioners interested in implementing ERM, enhancing their knowledge on the subject, or wishing to mature their ERM program, will find this book an abso- lute must resource to have. Case studies are one of the best ways to learn more on this topic.
This book is a companion to Enterprise Risk Management: Today’s Leading Research and Best Practices for Tomorrow’s Executives (Fraser and Simkins 2010). Together, these two books can create a curriculum of study for business students and risk practitioners who desire to have a better understanding of the world of enterprise risk management and where it is heading in the future. Boards and senior leadership teams in progressive organizations are now engaging in building ERM into their scenario-planning and decision-making processes. These forward- looking organizations are also integrating ERM into the business-planning pro- cess with resource allocation and investment decisions. At the business unit level, ERM is being used to measure the performance of risk-taking activities of employees.
As these case studies demonstrate, ERM is a continuous improvement process and takes time to evolve. As can be gleaned from these case studies, most firms that have taken the ERM journey started with a basic ERM language, risk identification, and risk-assessment process and then moved down the road to broaden their pro- grams to include risk treatments, monitoring, and reporting processes. The ulti- mate goal of ERM is to have it embedded into the risk culture of the organization and drive the decision-making process to make more sound business decisions.
4 Implementing Enterprise Risk Management
SUMMARY OF THE BOOK CHAPTERS As mentioned earlier, the purpose of this book is to provide case studies on ERM in order to educate executives, risk practitioners, academics, and students alike about this evolving methodology. To achieve this goal, the book is organized into the following sections:
Part I: Overview and Insights for Teaching ERM Part II: ERM Implementation at Leading Organizations Part III: Linking ERM to Strategy and Strategic Risk Management Part IV: Specialized Aspects of Risk Management Part V: Mini-Cases on ERM and Risk Part VI: Other Case Studies
Brief descriptions of the contributors and the chapters are provided next.
PART I: OVERVIEW AND INSIGHTS FOR TEACHING ERM The first two chapters provide an overview of ERM and guidance on ERM educa- tion. As we have pointed out, education on ERM is crucial and more universities need to offer courses in this area. Our conversations with many ERM educators and consultants highlight how extremely challenging it is to achieve excellence in ERM education.
Chapter 2, “An Innovative Method to Teaching Enterprise Risk Manage- ment: A Learner-Centered Teaching Approach,” offers insights and suggestions on teaching ERM. This chapter covers the concept of flipping the classroom with learner-centered teaching (LCT), distinguishes it from traditional lectures, and describes how it can be used in teaching ERM. The LCT approach emphasizes active student participation and collaboration on in-class activities such as case studies versus the traditional lecture approach. This chapter provides several examples as to how LCT can be applied in teaching ERM, utilizing Fraser and Simkins’ (2010) book. David R. Lange and Betty J. Simkins, both experienced ERM educators, team together to write this chapter. David Lange, DBA, is an Auburn University Montgomery (AUM) Distinguished Research and Teaching Professor of Finance. He has received many prestigious awards for both research and teaching from the University and from several academic associations. He has taught many courses in the area of risk management and has consulted in a significant num- ber of individual and class insurance–related cases in both state and federal court. Betty Simkins, PhD, the Williams Companies Chair of Business and Professor of Finance at Oklahoma State University, is coeditor of this book.
PART II: ERM IMPLEMENTATION AT LEADING ORGANIZATIONS Part II is a collection of ERM case studies that give examples of how ERM was developed and applied in major organizations around the world. Note that there is no perfect ERM case study and the objective is for readers to assess what they believe was successful or not so successful about these ERM programs.
ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENT CASE STUDIES 5
The first case study in this book describes ERM at Mars, Inc. Larry Warner, who is the former corporate risk manager at Mars, Inc. and now is president of Warner Risk Group, describes the ERM program at the company in Chapter 3. Mars is a global food company and one of the largest privately held corporations in the United States. It has more than 72,000 associates and annual net sales in excess of $33 billion across six business segments—Petcare, Chocolate, Wrigley, Food, Drinks, and Symbioscience. Its brands include Pedigree, Royal Canin, M&M’s, Snickers, Extra, Skittles, Uncle Ben’s, and Flavia. With such complex business oper- ations, Mars recognized the importance of providing its managers with a tool to knowledgably and comfortably take risk in order to achieve its long-term goals. Mars business units use its award-winning process to test their annual operating plan and thereby increase the probability of achieving these objectives.
The case study in Chapter 4 entitled “Value and Risk: ERM in Statoil” was writ- ten by Alf Alviniussen, who is the former Group Treasurer and Senior Vice Pres- ident of Norsk Hydro ASA, Oslo, Norway, and Håkan Jankensgård who holds a PhD in risk management from Lund University, Sweden. Håkan is also a for- mer risk manager of Norsk Hydro. In this case study, the authors discuss ERM at Statoil, one of the top oil and gas companies in the world, located in Norway. In Statoil, understanding and managing risk is today considered a core value of the company, which is written into the corporate directives and widely communicated to employees. ERM is thoroughly embedded in the organization’s work processes, and its risk committee has managed the transition from a “silo”-mentality to pro- moting Statoil’s best interests in areas where risk needs to be considered.
Chapter 5, called “ERM in Practice at University of California Health Systems,” is written by their former Chief Risk Officer (CRO), Grace Crickette, who is now the Senior Vice President and Chief Risk and Compliance Officer of AAA Northern California, Nevada, and Utah. The University of California’s (UC) Health System is comprised of numerous clinical operations, including five medical centers that support the clinical teaching programs for the university’s medical and health sci- ence school and handle more than three million patient visits each year. ERM plays an important role at the UC Health System and assists the organization in assess- ing and responding to all risks (operational, clinical, business, accreditation, and regulatory) that affect the achievement of the strategic and financial objectives of the UC Health System.
The descriptive case study in Chapter 6, written by Dr. Mark Frigo from DePaul University and Hans Læssøe, the Strategic Risk Manager of the LEGO Group, provides a great example of integrating risk management in strategy devel- opment and strategy execution at the LEGO Group, which is based on an initiative started in late 2006 and led by co-author Hans Læssøe. The LEGO methodology is also part of the continuing work of the Strategic Risk Management Lab at DePaul University, which is identifying and developing leading practices in integrating risk management with strategy development and execution.
United Grain Growers (UGG), a conservative 100-year-old Winnipeg, Canada- based grain handler and distributor of farm supplies, was an ERM pioneer. Chap- ter 7 called “Turning the Organizational Pyramid Upside Down: Ten Years of Evo- lution in Enterprise Risk Management at United Grain Growers” analyzes the ERM program at United Grain Growers 15 years later. When UGG announced that it had implemented a new integrated risk-financing program in 1999, it received a great deal of attention in the financial press. CFO magazine hailed the UGG
6 Implementing Enterprise Risk Management
program as “the deal of the decade.” The Economist characterized it as a “revo- lutionary advance in corporate finance,” and Harvard University created a UGG case study. While most outside attention focused on the direct financial benefits of implementing the program (protection of cash flow, the reduced risk-capital required, and a 20 percent increase in stock price), scant attention was given to the less tangible and therefore less measurable issues of governance, leadership, and corporate culture—the conditions that enabled such innovation. It was a combi- nation of a collaborative leadership open to new ideas, a culture of controlled risk taking, and active risk oversight by the board that produced a strategic approach to UGG’s risk management process. This chapter is written by John Bugalla, who is the principal of ermINSIGHTS.
John Hargreaves has written Chapter 8 titled “Housing Association Case Study of ERM in a Changing Marketplace.” He has a mathematics degree from Cambridge University and six years strategy consultancy experience at KPMG. This case study features four real-life charitable housing associations in England and Wales, each with a different strategy and risk environment. Simple yet prac- tical tools to assist in risk identification and prioritization are also presented. This case study has two main aims. The first is to help develop an understanding of the importance of ERM in a charitable context, showing that modern charities are often very active organizations that face significant risks. Second, the case aims to illustrate the need for a close relationship between risk assessment and strategy development, particularly in sectors where objectives are defined in social as well as economic terms. Each of the four cases has a different perspective and challenges the student or practitioner to identify and assess the risk and develop possible risk treatments for each.
Chapter 9, “Lessons from the Academy: ERM Implementation in the Univer- sity Setting,” was written by Anne E. Lundquist. She is pursuing a PhD in the Educational Leadership program at Western Michigan University with a concen- tration in Higher Education Administration. This chapter explores the unique aspects of the University of Washington’s (UW) risk environment, including how leadership, goal-setting, planning, and decision-making differ from the for-profit sector. The lack of risk management regulatory requirements, combined with cul- tural and environmental differences, helps explain why there are a limited number of fully evolved ERM programs at colleges and universities. The second half of the chapter explores the decision to adopt and implement ERM at UW, including a description of early decisions, a timeline of how the program evolved, a discus- sion of the ERM framework, and examples of some of the tools used in the risk management process. It traces the evolution of the UW program as well as demon- strates decisions that administrators made to tailor ERM to fit the decentralized culture of a university.
The case study in Chapter 10, “Developing Accountability in Risk Manage- ment: The British Columbia Lottery Corporation Case Study,” demonstrates how ERM was successfully implemented in a Canadian public sector organization over a 10-year period. Jacquetta Goy, author of this chapter, was the Senior Manager, Risk Advisory Services at British Columbia Lottery Corporation and was respon- sible for establishing and developing the ERM program. Currently, Jacquetta is the Director of Risk Management at Thompson Rivers University, Canada. This case study focuses on initiation, early development, and sustainment of the ERM
ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENT CASE STUDIES 7
program, highlighting some of the barriers and enablers that affected implemen- tation. This case study includes a focus on developing risk profiles; the role of risk managers, champions, and committees; and the development of effective risk evaluation tools. The approach to ERM has evolved from informal conversations supported by an external assessment, through a period of high-level corporate focus supported by a dedicated group of champions using voting technology to an embedded approach, where risk assessment is incorporated into both opera- tional practice and planning.
Chapter 11, “Starting from Scratch: The Evolution of ERM at the Workers Com- pensation Fund,” describes the evolution of a formal ERM program at a midsize property casualty insurance carrier. This chapter is authored by Dan Hair, the CRO of the Workers Compensation Fund. In this chapter, the motivations of executive management and the board of directors in taking existing strategic risk manage- ment discussions to a higher level are reviewed. The step-by-step actions taken by the company to develop the ERM program are explained in chronological order. External resources used are also commented upon. The chapter concludes with a discussion of striking an ongoing balance between program rigor, documentation, and business needs.
Chapter 12, “Measuring Performance at Intuit: A Value-Added Component in ERM Programs,” shows how Intuit, maker of Quicken, QuickBooks, and Turbo- Tax, is committed to creating new and easier ways for consumers and businesses to tackle life’s financial chores, giving them more time to live their lives and run their businesses. This case study shows how Intuit, a global company, is exposed to a wide range of customer-related and operational risks. Understand- ing the risk landscape enables Intuit to formulate and execute strategies to address potential pitfalls and opportunities. The author, Janet Nasburg, is Chief Risk Offi- cer at Intuit. Janet is responsible for driving Intuit’s ERM capability, ensuring that the company appropriately balances opportunities and risks to achieve optimal business results. Before Intuit, Janet spent 16 years in various finance roles at Visa, and has more than 30 years of risk management and finance experience.
Chapter 13 describes TD Bank’s ERM program and how it has been developed to reinforce the risk culture and ensure that all stakeholders have a common under- standing of how risks are addressed within the organization. This is achieved by identifying the risks to TD Bank’s business strategy and operations, determining the types of risk it is prepared to take, establishing policies and practices to gov- ern risks, and following an ERM framework to manage those risks. This chapter is co-authored by Paul Cunha and Kristina Narvaez. Paul Cunha is Vice President, Enterprise Risk Management at TD Bank. During his career at TD Bank, he has spent time in risk management, internal audit, retail banking, commercial bank- ing, and corporate and investment banking. Kristina Narvaez is the president and owner of ERM Strategies, LLC, and is co-editor of this book.
PART III: LINKING ERM TO STRATEGY AND STRATEGIC RISK MANAGEMENT Part III of this book demonstrates the link between ERM and strategy in what is now being called strategic risk management (SRM). SRM represents an important evolution in enterprise risk management, shifting from a reactive approach to a
8 Implementing Enterprise Risk Management
proactive approach in dealing with the large spectrum of risks across the organi- zation. These case studies view their risk-taking activities in a strategic way, not only to protect the organization’s value and assets, but also to be able to capture new value that is in alignment with the strategic goals of the organization.
Zurich Insurance Group, the case study in Chapter 14, demonstrates the link between ERM and strategy. Zurich is a global insurance carrier and is exposed to a wide range of risks. Zurich recognizes that taking the right risks is a necessary part of growing and protecting shareholder value. It is careful not to miss valu- able market opportunities that could attract the best talent and investor capital, but must also balance the growth opportunities with the reality that it is operating in a complex world economy. This chapter is co-authored by Linda Conrad, Director of Strategic Business Risk Management at Zurich and Kristina Narvaez, president and owner of ERM Strategies, LLC and co-editor of this book. Linda leads a global team responsible for delivering tactical solutions to Zurich and to its customers on strategic issues such as business resilience, supply chain risk, ERM, risk culture, and total risk profiling.
Chapter 15, “Embedding ERM into Strategic Planning at the City of Edmon- ton,” is written by Ken Baker, who is their ERM Program Manager. This study examines the process used by the City of Edmonton in Alberta, Canada, to estab- lish its strategic ERM model. After examining several existing frameworks, the City decided on a framework based on the ISO 31000 risk management standard, but customized to suit the City’s needs. During the process, administration had to weigh factors common to any large organization, as well as those specific to governments in general and municipalities in particular. The chronicling of this process may assist those in similar organizations to more successfully implement their own ERM and SRM programs.
Chapter 16 describes a brief history of the evolution of enterprise risk management and describes a new and innovative approach (value mapping) to measuring the potential value by taking risks. This chapter also provides a model for incorporating the ERM process into strategic planning. John Bugalla, Principal of ermINSIGHTS and author of Chapter 7, and James Kallman, a finance professor at St. Edward’s University, co-author this chapter. John’s experience includes 30 years in the risk management profession serving as Managing Director of Marsh & McLennan, Inc., Willis Group, Plc., and Aon Corp., before founding ermINSIGHTS. James teaches courses in finance, statistics, and risk management.
PART IV: SPECIALIZED ASPECTS OF RISK MANAGEMENT Part IV of the book captures unique aspects of ERM so that the reader can learn about the many broad applications, including insights into managing specific types of risk. This part starts with a case study in Chapter 17 of the challenges of risk management within a typical police department. This case is followed by eight additional chapters addressing other intriguing aspects of risk management.
Andrew Graham reveals the complex and challenging aspects of risk manage- ment in Chapter 17, “Developing a Strategic Risk Plan for the Hope City Police Ser- vice.” This fictional case study was developed based on many years of teaching risk management to police forces. The setting is a medium-sized but growing city that
ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENT CASE STUDIES 9
is facing many issues, including changes in demographics, traffic issues, budgetary challenges, and so on. The student is required to act as a consultant who has been hired by the chief of police to assist him in briefing the Police Services Board and the mayor in understanding the most critical risks to their objective of having a best- in-class police service for their citizens. Andrew Graham researches, teaches, and writes on public-sector management, financial management, integrated risk man- agement, and governance at Queen’s University School of Policy Studies, Canada, as well as a variety of international and Canadian venues. Andrew had an exten- sive career in Canada’s criminal justice system and has taught and worked with police services and police boards and commissioners in a variety of ways for the past 10 years.
Chapter 18, “Blue Wood Chocolates,” is designed to facilitate discussion of the implementation of an ERM framework, corporate governance issues, and com- modity risk management. The situation that this fictional company faces is typi- cal of many midsize companies that have performed satisfactorily in the past but are exposed, often unknowingly, to major potential risks and do not have the internal governance and risk management structures to identify, quantify, and manage such risks adequately. In particular, this case illustrates commodity and foreign currency exposures, and challenges the student to investigate the specifics of hedging such positions. Rick Nason, PhD, CFA, and Stephen McPhie, CA, coau- thored this chapter. Rick is an associate professor of finance at Dalhousie Univer- sity, Canada, and is also a founding partner of RSD Solutions, a risk management consultancy firm. His coauthor, Stephen McPhie, CA, is a partner of RSD Solu- tions Inc. and has also held various positions in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom with a major Canadian bank.
Foreign exchange (FX) risk management is one of the greatest financial risks a company faces when expanding globally. Chapter 19, “Kilgore Custom Milling,” illuminates the myriad of issues that arise when hedging FX risk, such as faced by a midsize original equipment manufacturer (OEM) operating in the automobile industry. Kilgore Custom Milling (a fictional company) needs to develop a hedg- ing strategy to manage its foreign exchange risk for a new contract and decide what type of derivatives to use, what size of hedge to implement, and how the com- pany’s financial risk management fits in with its overall ERM process. Rick Nason and Stephen McPhie, coauthors of Chapter 18, team together again to explore the complex and challenging issues that many companies face with FX risk.
ERM is currently of very high interest to companies operating in the Mid- dle East, an area that presents unique challenges for implementation. Alexander Larsen captures this scenario in Chapter 20, “Implementing Risk Management within Middle Eastern Oil and Gas Companies.” This case study is based on real- life examples of Middle Eastern oil and gas companies and captures the challenges of implementing risk management in the Middle East. Alexander Larsen holds a degree in risk management from Glasgow Caledonian University and is a Fellow of the Institute of Risk Management. He has over 10 years of experience across a wide range of sectors, including oil and gas, construction, utilities, finance, and the public sector. Alexander has considerable expertise in training and working with organizations to develop, enhance, and embed their ERM.