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TOURISM Principles, Practices, Philosophies
Charles R. Goeldner J. R. Brent Ritchie
JOHNWILEY & SONS, INC.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Goeldner, Charles R. Tourism : principles, practices, philosophies / Charles R. Goeldner, J.R. Brent Ritchie.—12th ed.
p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-118-07177-9 (hardback) 1. Tourism. I. Ritchie, J. R. Brent. II. Title.
G155.A1M386 2011 338.4 0791—dc22
Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
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PART 1 TOURISM OVERVIEW 1
CHAPTER 1 Tourism in Perspective 2
Introduction 3 What Is Tourism? 3 Components of Tourism and Tourism Management 9 Basic Approaches to the Study of Tourism 15 Economic Importance 18 Benefits and Costs of Tourism 24 Summary 25 Key Concepts 26 Internet Exercises 26 Questions for Review and Discussion 26 Case Problems 27
CHAPTER 2 Tourism through the Ages 28
Introduction 29 Early Beginnings 29 Early (and Later) Tourist Attractions 38 Early Economic References 39 The First Travel Agents 40 Historic Transportation 40 Accommodations 43 Chronologies of Travel 44 Summary 47 Key Concepts 48 Internet Exercises 48 Questions for Review and Discussion 48 Case Problem 49 Endnotes 49
CHAPTER 3 Career Opportunities 51
Introduction 52 Job Forecasts 52 Job Requirements 52 Career Possibilities 53 Career Paths in Tourism 62
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Internships 64 Other Sources of Career Information 65 Summary 66 Key Concepts 66 Internet Exercises 66 Questions for Review and Discussion 67 Case Problems 67
PART 2 HOW TOURISM IS ORGANIZED 69
CHAPTER 4 World, National, Regional, and Other Organizations 70
Introduction 71 International Organizations 71 Developmental Organizations (International and National) 77 Regional International Organizations 78 National Organizations 79 Regional Organizations 88 State and Community Organizations 88 Education and Educational Organizations 91 Summary 92 Key Concepts 92 Internet Exercises 92 Questions for Review and Discussion 93 Case Problems 94
CHAPTER 5 Passenger Transportation 95
Introduction 96 The Airline Industry 98 The Rail Industry 105 The Motorcoach Industry 108 The Automobile 111 The Cruise Industry 115 Other Modes of Transportation 120 Summary 120 Key Concepts 121 Internet Exercises 121 Questions for Review and Discussion 121 Case Problems 122 Endnotes 122
CHAPTER 6 Hospitality and Related Services 123
Introduction 124 The Lodging Industry 124 The Food Service Industry 136 Meetings Industry 140 Miscellaneous Services 146 Summary 146 Key Concepts 146
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Internet Exercises 147 Questions for Review and Discussion 147 Case Problems 147 Endnotes 148
CHAPTER 7 Organizations in the Distribution Process 149
Introduction 150 Travel Agents 151 The Internet 159 Consolidators 161 The Tour Wholesaler 162 Tour Wholesaler Organizations 165 Sightseeing and Receptive Service Agencies 165 Specialty Channelers 167 Choosing Channels 169 Summary 169 Key Concepts 169 Internet Exercises 169 Questions for Review and Discussion 170 Case Problems 170 Endnotes 171
CHAPTER 8 Attractions, Entertainment, Recreation, and Other Tourist Draws 172
Introduction 173 Attractions 173 Gaming 178 Recreation 181 Live Entertainment 188 Festivals and Events 188 Sporting Events 190 Shopping 190 Summary 192 Key Concepts 192 Internet Exercises 192 Questions for Review and Discussion 193 Case Problem 193 Endnotes 194
PART 3 UNDERSTANDING TRAVEL BEHAVIOR 195
CHAPTER 9 Motivation for Pleasure Travel 196
Introduction 197 A Focus on Customers 197 The Need for a Theory 203 The Development of Motivation Models 206 Summary 207 Key Concepts 207
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Internet Exercises 208 Questions for Review and Discussion 208 Case Problems 209 Endnotes 209
CHAPTER 10 Cultural and International Tourism for Life's Enrichment 211
Introduction 212 Importance 212 Life-Seeing Tourism 214 The Romance of Pleasure Travel 215 Developmental and Promotional Measures 216 Anthropography (Geography of Humankind) 218 Types of Destinations as Travel Experiences 219 Other Tourist Appeals 221 Tourism and Peace 229 Summary 235 Key Concepts 235 Internet Exercises 236 Questions for Review and Discussion 236 Case Problems 236 Endnotes 237
CHAPTER 11 Sociology of Tourism 238 Introduction 239 Effects on the Individual 239 Effects on the Family 239 Effects on Society 239 Life Characteristics and Travel 243 Emergence of Group Travel Patterns 249 Social (Subsidized) Tourism 250 Summary of the Principal Social Effects of Tourism 253 The International Tourist 253 Barriers to Travel 256 Summary 257 Key Concepts 257 Internet Exercises 257 Questions for Review and Discussion 258 Case Problems 258 Endnotes 258
PART 4 TOURISM SUPPLY, DEMAND, POLICY, PLANNING, AND DEVELOPMENT 261
CHAPTER 12 Tourism Components and Supply 262 Introduction 263 Supply Components 263 Natural Resources 264 Built Environment 265 Operating Sectors 267
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Spirit of Hospitality and Cultural Resources 273 Matching Supply with Demand 278 Summary 283 Key Concepts 283 Internet Exercises 283 Question for Review and Discussion 284 Case Problems 284
CHAPTER 13 Measuring and Forecasting Demand 285
Introduction 286 Why Demand Is Important 286 Demand to a Destination 286 Measuring Demand 288 Projection Methodology 290 Summary 296 Key Concepts 297 Internet Exercises 297 Questions for Review and Discussion 298 Case Problems 298
CHAPTER 14 Tourism's Economic Impact 299
Introduction 300 Tourism's Economic Impact: An International Perspective 300 Comparing International and Domestic Expenditures 302 Optimization 304 Economic Multipliers 312 Tourism Satellite Accounts 318 Summary 321 Key Concepts 323 Internet Exercises 323 Questions for Review and Discussion 323 Case Problems 324 Endnotes 324
CHAPTER 15 Tourism Policy: Structure, Content, and Process 325
Introduction 326 Tourism Policy: A Definition 326 The Focus of Tourism Policy: The Competitive/Sustainable Destination 328 The Major Parameters of Tourism Destination Management 329 Tourism Policy: Structure, Content, and Process 335 The Process of Tourism Policy Formulation 339 Translating Policy into Reality 343 Formulating Policy to Deal with Crises 343 Summary 345 Key Concepts 345 Internet Exercises 345 Questions for Review and Discussion 346 Case Problem 346 Endnotes 346
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CHAPTER 16 Tourism Planning, Development, and Social Considerations 348
Introduction 349 Planning for a Competitive/Sustainable Destination 349 The Nature of Tourism Planning 351 Relating Tourism Planning to Tourism Policy 352 Why Tourism Planning Is Necessary 355 The Planning Process 356 Goals of Tourism Development 358 Obstacles to Development of Supply 360 Political Aspects of Tourism Development 361 Development of Tourist Potential 364 Summary 368 Key Concepts 369 Internet Exercises 369 Questions for Review and Discussion 369 Case Problems 370
CHAPTER 17 Tourism and the Environment 371
Introduction 372 Does Tourism Threaten the Environment? The UNEP/UNWTO Position 372 Major Challenges Facing the Achievement of Sustainable Tourism 381 Ecotourism: Common Terms Used 386 Travel Organizations' Efforts 389 Summary 391 Key Concepts 391 Internet Exercises 391 Questions for Review and Discussion 392 Case Problems 392 Endnotes 393
PART 5 ESSENTIALS OF TOURISM RESEARCH AND MARKETING 395
CHAPTER 18 Travel and Tourism Research 396
Introduction 397 Types of Tourism Research 397 The Travel Research Process 400 Sources of Information 402 Exploratory Research 404 Basic Quantitative Research Methods 404 Who Does Travel Research? 409 The State of the Art 412 Travel and Tourism Research Association 413 Summary 414 Key Concepts 414 Internet Exercises 414 Questions for Review and Discussion 415
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Case Problem 415 Endnotes 415
CHAPTER 19 Tourism Marketing 416
Introduction 417 What Is Marketing? 417 Marketing Concept 417 The Marketing Mix 418 Market Segmentation 434 Marketing Planning: The Tourism Marketing Plan 439 Joint Marketing Efforts 440 Summary 440 Key Concepts 441 Internet Exercises 441 Questions for Review and Discussion 442 Case Problem 443 Endnotes 443
PART 6 TOURISM PROSPECTS 445
CHAPTER 20 Tourism's Future 446
Introduction 447 Tourism in the Third Millennium 447 World Tourism Forecasts for 2020 448 The Nature of Future Growth 448 Leisure, Tourism, and Society in the Third Millennium 450 New Realities—New Horizons: Global Forces Impacting the Future of Tourism 450 The Tourist of the Future 460 Managing the Future Effectively 466 Summary 466 Key Concepts 467 Internet Exercises 467 Questions for Review and Discussion 468 Case Problem 468 Endnotes 469
Selected References 471 Glossary 481 Index 487
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S pace travel, only a few years ago the dream of a few space pioneers, is now a featured story in thetravel sections of leading newspapers. Billionaires write checks for a place in line to go into space while ordinary travelers note the emergence of the megaplane, the Airbus A380, with potential capacity of over 800. Meanwhile Boeing has responded with the smaller, lighter Boeing 787 Dreamliner about to enter commercial service. Most important, tourism planners recognize that technological change, peak oil prices, climate change, and other environmental issues necessitate adaptation if tourism is to thrive. And while tourism planners remain human, just over the horizon they foresee the imminent arrival of nonhuman robots who are about to change the future face of tourism—particularly as it pertains to the provision of routine services and the fulfillment of repetitive tasks required to keep the tourism product functional.
The industry must respond to these challenges and opportunities plus deal with options generated by the proliferation of travel blogs and social networking sites such as Facebook, Linkedin, YouTube, Twitter, and MySpace, which change the stream of communication about travel and tourism. Furthermore, security continues to present challenges and added cost. These factors underscore why the globe's most dynamic industry demands constant reassessment.
Although basic tourism principles remain, applications must constantly be reevaluated in light of new developments and more challenging economic times. Nevertheless, the world's largest industry, tourism, continues to grow even more as millions of travelers from such booming economies as China, India, Brazil, and Russia seek culture, comfortable climates, and recreation in offshore destinations. At the same time, additional millions of retiring baby boomers from industrialized nations will take advantage of leisure time to enjoy increased travel. All are lured to pack their bags as increasing access to the Internet and television whet appetites to see the modern wonders of the world. The travel industry must respond. Accordingly, Tourism, Twelfth Edition is designed to examine changes and relate them to the basic concepts of tourism.
This book is intended to be used primarily as a textbook for college and university courses in tourism. However, the book also provides valuable information and guidance for national/state/ provincial/local tourism offices, convention and visitors bureaus, chambers of commerce, tourism planning and development organizations, tourism promoters, tourist accommodations, attractions and other businesses, transportation carriers, oil and automotive companies, and any other organiza- tion that is interested or involved in the movement of people from their homes or businesses to destinations.
NEW TO THIS EDITION The Twelfth Edition updates the Eleventh Edition of this leading comprehensive tourism text. Because the tourism industry changes so rapidly, the revision involves adding new developments, updating data, updating profiles, expanding some sectors, adding new Web sites, adding selected references, and expanding the glossary. B&Bs, timeshares, meetings and conventions, sustainable tourism, climate change, social media, and mobile marketing are some topics given expanded coverage.
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The Twelfth Edition has been revised and updated to explore new trends in travel and tourism and discusses changes to the industry since the publication of the previous edition. New elements in the Twelfth Edition include:
& Profiles of travel industry leaders such as J. R. Marriott Jr. of Marriott International and Roger Dow of the U.S. Travel Association. Their comments about the future are included. These industry leaders have introduced practices that have transformed the nature and quality of the vacation experience. We are also proud to acknowledge the outstanding ethical and moral leadership that Taleb Rifai, the secretary-general of the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), has brought to tourism.
& Global Insights are short features that cover timely, interesting, and even whimsical topics that are intended to serve as a stimulus for discussion. Examples are Dark Tourism, Tourism Forecasts, Travel Advisories, The Power of Travel, Emerging Markets, and Travel Experiences. These Global Insights facilitate and strengthen the ability of the instructor to identify selected areas of emerging importance in tourism. In addition, they assist the instructor in exploring the significance of these areas, without requiring extensive background reading.
& Chapter 3 has new information on technology, convention centers, arenas, stadium and public facilities management jobs, and an updated internship section.
& Chapter 5 has new information on the airline industry, updated cruise industry information, and added train travel as a tourist attraction.
& Chapter 6 has a new section on culinary tourism.
& Chapter 7 has extensive treatment of the changing world of travel distribution, with new information about the future and mobile marketing.
& Chapter 11 has added information on seniors, as well as a new section on gay and lesbian tourism.
& Chapter 15 has information on passports, visas, ethics, and government policy impacts, with clarified differences between destination vision and mission statement.
& Chapter 17 has been substantially revised to update information on sustainable development and climate change.
& Chapters 18 and 19 discuss the use of the Internet in tourism research, marketing, and promotion.
& Chapter 19 also has new material on social media, blogs, and podcasting.
& Chapter 20 takes a new look at the future of travel by identifying new trends such as space tourism.
& There is additional coverage of crisis management in Chapter 15 and Chapter 20.
& Updated and additional Internet Exercises are included at the end of each chapter to keep information current.
& Selected references for each chapter have been gathered in an appendix.
& Updated Internet sites for each chapter can be found on the companion Web site for the book at www.wiley.com/college/goeldner.
ORGANIZATION AND CONTENT This book explores major concepts in tourism, what makes tourism possible, and how tourism can become an important factor in the wealth of any nation. It is written in broad, global terms, discussing the principles, practices, and philosophies of tourism that have been found to bring about success. In this Twelfth Edition of Tourism, even greater attention has been paid to the global impact of tourism, both economically and socially.
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For tourism to be successful, a great variety of components must work together seamlessly to create a positive travel experience. This book is divided into six parts, which examine the various components of tourism, their function, and their significance.
Part 1 provides a broad overview of tourism, with chapters devoted specifically to the global impact of tourism, a history of travel, and career opportunities.
Part 2 looks at the governmental and private-sector organizations that provide services, products, and destinations for travelers. Individual chapters discuss tourist organizations, passenger transportation, lodging and food service providers, travel agents and wholesalers, and tourism attractions.
Part 3 examines travel motivation, travel behavior, and the sociology of tourism.
Part 4 is devoted to tourism planning and a further examination of the components of tourism. A chapter on formulating tourism policy is included in this part. Other chapters cover topics such as tourism supply, forecasting demand, the economic impact of tourism, tourism planning, and environmental issues. In light of the growing importance of the environment, a particular effort has been made to explore fully the managerial issues at the tourism/environment interface—a point at which there is much potential for conflict.
Part 5 examines the important fields of tourism research and tourism marketing.
Part 6 looks at projections for tourism in 2020 and 2030, and suggests how today's industry can prepare itself to accommodate future growth and meet tomorrow's challenges.
FEATURES To help students better understand and process the information presented, a number of pedagogical features have been integrated into this textbook.
The Learning Objectives at the beginning of each chapter alert students to the important concepts that will be covered.
Understand what tourism is and its many definitions.
Learn the components of tourism and tourism management.
Examine the various approaches to studying tourism and determine which is of greatest interest to you.
Appreciate how important this industry is to the economy of the world and of many countries.
Know the benefits and costs of tourism.
The chapter Introduction sets the scene and provides some context for what students are about to read. When appropriate, boxes, tables, illustrations, photos, and Internet sites have been included to help illustrate important topics and ideas. The chapter discussion concludes with a written Summary to help students reinforce what they have read.
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The list of Key Concepts serves as a valuable checkpoint for understanding the chapter topics. These terms are boldfaced and green within the chapter to call them to the reader's attention.
An updated directory of Internet Sites lists Web sites referred to in the chapter as well as additional sites students can turn to for more information. This directory can be found on the companion Web site for the book at www.wiley.com/college/goeldner.
Three types of exercises have been provided to gauge student understanding of the subject matter. The Questions for Review and Discussion test student recall of important chapter concepts and include some critical thinking questions.
The Case Problems present hypothetical situations that require students to apply what they have learned. They can be used for written assignments or as the catalyst for class discussions.
Also included is a series of Internet Exercises, designed to increase students' familiarity with technology by having them visit important travel industry Web sites and answer questions based on their investigation. This section has been expanded in this edition.
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Features updated to this edition are Global Insights on timely subjects that can serve as a springboard for lively discussion and as the basis for encouraging deeper study into key issues of the day.
Also featured are Profiles of eight travel and tourism leaders and WATG, one of the top destination design firms in the world. Our goal in including these profiles is to acknowledge the very special contributions that these industry leaders have made to tourism.
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES An Instructor's Manual (ISBN 978-1-118-15224-9) is available to professors who have adopted this textbook. The Instructor's Manual contains teaching suggestions, sample syllabi, and test questions and answers. An electronic version of the Instructor's Manual is available to qualified instructors on the companion Web site at www.wiley.com/college/goeldner. The Web site also includes PowerPoint slides and Internet resources.
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The Test Bank for this text has been specifically formatted for Respondus, an easy-to-use software for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published directly to Blackboard, WebCT, Desire2Learn, eCollege, ANGEL, and other eLearning systems. Instructors who adopt Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies can download the Test Bank for free. Additional Wiley resources also can be uploaded into your LMS course at no charge. To view and access these resources and the Test Bank, visit www.wiley.com/college/goeldner, click on the ‘‘Visit the Companion Sites’’ link, then click on ‘‘Instructor Companion Site.’’
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS As Tourism, Twelfth Edition goes to press, we celebrate the thousands of students who have already begun their education in travel and tourism with previous editions of this book. We acknowledge their participation through their letters to us and to our publisher.
We are grateful for the help of all of the educators who have contributed to this and previous editions through their constructive comments and feedback at conferences, via telephone, and written correspondence.
Many thanks go to the current and past reviewers of the manuscript for their helpful comments. They include:
Jim Clark, president and CEO, Fort Collins Convention & Visitors Bureau
Dogon Gursoy, Washington State University
Tammie J. Kaufman, University of Central Florida
Richard F. Patterson, Western Kentucky University
Wayne W. Smith, College of Charleston
Daniel M. Spencer, Black Hills State University
Victor Teye, Arizona State University
Dallen J. Timothy, Arizona State University
We cannot emphasize too much the extent to which their comments have provided guidance to us in our revision efforts and as we constantly seek to maintain the pioneering standard for quality set for us by the founder of this textbook, Dr. Robert W. McIntosh. We once again salute him.
We especially wish to thank Philip L. Pearce, Department of Tourism, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia, for his contribution of Chapter 9, ‘‘Motivation for Pleasure Travel.’’ A special word of thanks must also go to Dr. Richard F. Patterson, Western Kentucky University, who developed a number of the Internet exercises for this textbook, and Cindy DiPersio, University of Colorado, who proofread the manuscript.
We also acknowledge the support of the staff at John Wiley & Sons, especially JoAnna Turtletaub, Mary Cassells, Julie Kerr, Jenni Lee, and Amy Weintraub. Special recognition must go to Deb Angus at the University of Calgary, who tirelessly prepared the manuscript, artwork, index, and Instructor's Manual.
Charles R. Goeldner University of Colorado
J. R. Brent Ritchie University of Calgary
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E P A R T 1 Tourism Overview Chapter 1 Tourism in Perspective Chapter 2 Tourism through the Ages Chapter 3 Career Opportunities
Florence, Italy, is a favorite destination in Europe for travelers around the world. Photo courtesy of Corbis Digital Stock.
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C H A P T E R 1 E Tourism in Perspective
& Understand what tourism is and its many definitions.
& Learn the components of tourism and tourism management.
& Examine the various approaches to studying tourism and determine which is of greatest interest to you.
& Appreciate how important this industry is to the economy of the world and of many countries.
& Know the benefits and costs of tourism.
Tourism is visiting the exquisite canaled city of Venice, Italy; exploring the waterways and walkways; riding in a gondola; taking the vaporetti (public ‘‘bus’’ ferries); admiring the bridges, museums, palaces, and churches. This magical city with its unique beauty provides tourists from all over the world enjoyment. Photo courtesy of PhotoDisc, Inc./Getty Images.
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Bon Voyage! You are setting off on a voyage to learn about the subject of tourism. Assuming that the forecasters and futurists are correct, you are studying the world’s largest industry. Tourism is alive with dynamic growth, new activities, new destinations, new technology, new markets, and rapid changes. Record numbers of tourists are traveling the globe, attracted by an increased variety of tour packages, cruises, adventure experiences, and independent itineraries. All of these visitors and the activities they generate change local communities. They have an economic and social impact that cannot be ignored. In today’s society, attention must be paid to environmental issues, cultural issues, economic issues, the way landscapes are created to appeal to tourists, and how tourists behave.
The tourism industry is global. It is big business and will continue to grow. Meeting this growth with well-planned, environmentally sound development is a challenge for planning all over the world, whether it is Indonesia, Nepal, the United States, Australia, Thailand, or France. The goal of this chapter and the book is to raise issues, provide frameworks, and generate your thoughtful consideration of the issues and changes facing this complex field as it operates in an increasingly technological and global age.
WHAT IS TOURISM? When we think of tourism, we think primarily of people who are visiting a particular place for sightseeing, visiting friends and relatives, taking a vacation, and having a good time. They might spend their leisure time engaging in various sports, sunbathing, talking, singing, taking rides, touring, reading, or simply enjoying the environment. If we consider the subject further, we may include in our definition of tourism people who are participating in a convention, a business conference, or some other kind of business or professional activity, as well as those who are taking a study tour under an expert guide or doing some kind of scientific research or study.
These visitors use all forms of transportation, from hiking in a wilderness park to flying in a jet to an exciting city. Transportation can include taking a chairlift up a Colorado mountainside or standing at the rail of a cruise ship looking across the blue Caribbean. Whether people travel by one of these means or by car, motorcoach, camper, train, taxi, motorbike, or bicycle, they are taking a trip and thus are engaging in tourism. That is what this book is all about—why people travel (and why some don’t) and the socioeconomic effects that their presence and expenditures have on a society.
Any attempt to define tourism and to describe its scope fully must consider the various groups that participate in and are affected by this industry. Their perspectives are vital to the development of a comprehensive definition. Four different perspectives of tourism can be identified:
1. The tourist. The tourist seeks various psychic and physical experiences and satisfactions. The nature of these will largely determine the destinations chosen and the activities enjoyed.
2. The businesses providing tourist goods and services. Businesspeople see tourism as an opportunity to make a profit by supplying the goods and services that the tourist market demands.
3. The government of the host community or area. Politicians view tourism as a wealth factor in the economy of their jurisdictions. Their perspective is related to the incomes their citizens can earn from this business. Politicians also consider the foreign exchange receipts from international tourism, as well as the tax receipts collected from tourist expenditures, either directly or indirectly. The host government can play an important role in tourism policy, development, promotion, and implementation (see Chapter 15).
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4. The host community. Local people usually see tourism as a cultural and employment factor. Of importance to the host community, for example, is the effect of the interaction between large numbers of international visitors and residents. This effect may be beneficial or harmful, or both.
Thus, tourism can be defined as the processes, activities, and outcomes arising from the relationships and the interactions among tourists, tourism suppliers, host governments, host communities, and surrounding environments that are involved in the attracting and hosting of visitors. (See the Glossary for definitions of tourist and excursionist.)
Tourism is a composite of activities, services, and industries that deliver a travel experience: transportation, accommodations, eating and drinking establishments, shops, entertainment, activity facilities, and other hospitality services available for individuals or groups that are traveling away from home. It encompasses all providers of visitor and visitor-related services. Tourism is the entire world industry of travel, hotels, transportation, and all other components, including promotion, that serve the needs and wants of travelers. Finally, tourism is the sum total of tourist expenditures within the borders of a nation or a political subdivision or a transportation-centered economic area of contiguous states or nations. This economic concept also considers the income multiplier of these tourist expenditures (discussed in Chapter 14).
One has only to consider the multidimensional aspects of tourism and its interactions with other activities to understand why it is difficult to come up with a meaningful definition that will be universally accepted. Each of the many definitions that have arisen is aimed at fitting a special situation and solving an immediate problem, and the lack of uniform definitions has hampered the study of tourism as a discipline. Development of a field depends on: (1) uniform definitions, (2) description, (3) analysis, (4) prediction, and (5) control.
Modern tourism is a discipline that has only recently attracted the attention of scholars from many fields. The majority of studies have been conducted for special purposes and have used narrow
In the United States, the definition of a person-trip is one person traveling 50 miles (one way) or more away from home, or staying overnight regardless of distance. U.S. residents take over two billion person-trips a year—mostly by motor vehicle on the nation's highways. Photo courtesy of The Adirondack Regional Tourism Council.
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operational definitions to suit particular needs of researchers or government officials; these studies have not encompassed a systems approach. Consequently, many definitions of tourism and the tourist are based on distance traveled, the length of time spent, and the purpose of the trip. This makes it difficult to gather statistical information that scholars can use to develop a database, describe the tour- ism phenomenon, and do analyses.
The problem is not trivial. It has been tackled by a number of august bodies over the years, including the League of Nations, the United Nations, the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), the Organi- zation for Economic Cooperation and De- velopment (OECD), the National Tourism Resources Review Commission, and the U.S. Senate’s National Tourism Policy Study.
The following review of various defini- tions illustrates the problems of arriving at a consensus. We examine the concept of the movement of people and the terminol- ogy and definitions applied by the United Nations World Tourism Organization and
those of the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Later, a comprehensive classification of travelers is provided that endeavors to reflect a consensus of current thought and practice.
United Nations World Tourism Organization Definitions The International Conference on Travel and Tourism Statistics convened by the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) in Ottawa, Canada, in 1991 reviewed, updated, and expanded on the work of earlier international groups. The Ottawa Conference made some fundamental recommenda- tions on definitions of tourism, travelers, and tourists. The United Nations Statistical Commission adopted the UNWTO’s recommendations on tourism statistics on March 4, 1993.
The UNWTO has taken the concept of tourism beyond a stereotypical image of ‘‘holiday making.’’ The officially accepted definition is: ‘‘Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business, and other purposes.’’ The term usual environment is intended to exclude trips within the area of usual residence, frequent and regular trips between the domicile and the workplace, and other community trips of a routine character.
1. International tourism a. Inbound tourism: Visits to a country by nonresidents b. Outbound tourism: Visits by residents of a country to another country
2. Internal tourism: Visits by residents and nonresidents of the country of reference
Tourism is relaxing and enjoying a vacation with a stone massage at the Spa of the Rockies. A massage
allows a comfortable escape from the
complexities of the modern world and encourages a
stress-free vacation. Photo courtesy of the Spa of the Rockies at Glenwood Hot
Springs in Glenwood Springs, Colorado.
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3. Domestic tourism: Visits by residents of a country to their own country
4. National tourism: Internal tourism plus outbound tourism (the resident tourism market for travel agents, airlines, and other suppliers)
Traveler Terminology for International Tourism
Underlying the foregoing conceptualization of tourism is the overall concept of traveler, defined as ‘‘any person on a trip between two or more countries or between two or more localities within his/her country of usual residence.’’ All types of travelers engaged in tourism are described as visitors, a term that constitutes the basic concept of the entire system of tourism statistics. International visitors are persons who travel for a period not exceeding 12 months to a country other than the one in which they generally reside and whose main purpose is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited. Internal visitors are persons who travel to a destination within their own country, which is outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months.
All visitors are subdivided into two further categories:
1. Same-day visitors: Visitors who do not spend the night in a collective or private accommodation in the country visited—for example, a cruise ship passenger spending four hours in a port or day- trippers visiting an attraction
2. Tourists: Visitors who stay in the country visited for at least one night—for example, a visitor on a two-week vacation
There are many purposes for a visit—notably pleasure, business, and other purposes, such as family reasons, health, and transit.
United States The Western Council for Travel Research in 1963 employed the term visitor and defined a visit as occurring every time a visitor entered an area under study. The definition of tourist used by the National Tourism Resources Review Commission in 1973 was: ‘‘A tourist is one who travels away from home for a distance of at least 50 miles (one way) for business, pleasure, personal affairs, or any other purpose except to commute to work, whether he stays overnight or returns the same day.’’
The United States Travel Association (USTA) research department defines a person-trip as one person traveling 50 miles (one way) or more away from home or staying overnight, regardless of distance. Trips are included regardless of purpose, excluding only crews, students, military personnel on active duty, and commuters.
Canada In a series of quarterly household sample surveys known as the Canadian Travel Survey that began in 1978, trips qualifying for inclusion are similar to those in the United States. The 50-mile figure was a compromise to satisfy concerns regarding the accuracy of recall for shorter trips and the possibility of the inclusion of trips completed entirely within the boundaries of a large metropolitan area such as Toronto.
The determination of which length of trip to include in surveys of domestic travel has varied according to the purpose of the survey methodology employed. Whereas there is general agreement that commuting journeys and one-way trips should be excluded, qualifying distances vary. The province of Ontario favors 25 miles.
In Canada’s international travel surveys, the primary groups of travelers identified are nonresident travelers, resident travelers, and other travelers. Both nonresident and resident travelers include both
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same-day and business travelers. Other travelers consist of immigrants, former residents, military personnel, and crews.
United Kingdom Visit Britain, Visit Scotland, Visit Wales, and the Northern Ireland Tourist Board jointly sponsor a continuous survey of internal tourism, the United Kingdom Tourism Survey (UKTS). It measures all trips away from home lasting one night or more. These include: (1) trips taken by residents for holidays, (2) visits to friends and relatives (nonholiday), or (3) trips taken for business, conferences, or any other purposes. Tourism is measured in terms of volume (trips taken, nights away) and value (expenditure on trips).
The International Passenger Survey collects information on both overseas visitors to the United Kingdom and travel abroad by U.K. residents. It distinguishes five different types of visits: holiday independent, holiday inclusive, business, visits to friends and relatives, and miscellaneous.
Australia The Australian Bureau of Industry Economics in 1979 placed length of stay and distance traveled constraints in its definition of tourist as follows: ‘‘A person visiting a location at least 40 kilometers from his usual place of residence, for a period of at least 24 hours and not exceeding 12 months.’’
In supporting the use of the UNWTO definitions, the Australian Bureau of Statistics notes that the term ‘‘usual environment is somewhat vague.’’ It states that ‘‘visits to tourist attractions by local residents should not be included’’ and that visits to second homes should be included only ‘‘where they are clearly for temporary recreational purposes.’’
Comprehensive Classification of Travelers The main types of travelers are indicated in Figure 1.1. Shown is the fundamental distinction between residents and visitors and the interest of travel and tourism practitioners in the characteristics of nontravelers as well as travelers. The figure also reflects the apparent consensus that business and same-day travel both fall within the scope of travel and tourism.
Placed to one side are some other types of travelers generally regarded as being outside the area of interest, although included in some travel surveys. Foremost among these exclusions are commuters, who seem to fall outside the area of interest to all in the travel and tourism community. Other travelers generally excluded from studies on travel and tourism are those who undertake trips within the community, which for convenience are described arbitrarily as trips involving less than a specific one-way distance, such as 50 miles. These ‘‘other travelers’’ have been focused on in the Nationwide Personal Transportation Surveys conducted by the U.S. Department of Transportation. The broad class of travelers categorized as migrants, both international and domestic, is also commonly excluded from tourism or travel research, on the grounds that their movement is not temporary, although they use the same facilities as other travelers, albeit in one direction, and frequently require temporary accommodation on reaching their destination. The real significance of migration to travel and tourism, however, is not in the one-way trip in itself, but in the long-term implications of a transplanted demand for travel and the creation of a new travel destination for separated friends and relatives.
Other groups of travelers are commonly excluded from travel and tourism studies because their travel is not affected by travel promotion, although they tend to compete for the same types of facilities and services. Students and temporary workers traveling purely for reasons of education or temporary employment are two leading examples. Another frequently excluded group consists of crews, although they can be regarded as special subsets of tourists.
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Of those travelers directly within the scope of travel and tourism, basic distinctions are made among those whose trips are completed within one day. The same-day visitors are also called day- trippers and excursionists because they stay less than 24 hours. Although they are important travelers, their economic significance pales in comparison to travelers who stay one or more nights. An additional meaningful division can also be made between those international travelers whose travel is between continents and those whose international travel is confined to countries within the same continent. In the case of the United States, the distinction is between (1) trips to or from the neighboring countries of Canada and Mexico or elsewhere in the Americas and (2) trips made to or from countries in Europe or on other continents.
The purposes of travel identified in Figure 1.1 go beyond those traditionally accepted because of the growing evidence that ‘‘visits to friends and relatives’’ (VFR) is a basic travel motivation and a distinctive factor in marketing, accounting for a major proportion of travel. In any event, ‘‘primary
Within scope of travel and tourism
Staying one or more nights (1)
Primary purposes of travel
Business Visiting friends or
relatives (VFR) Other personal
Other local travelers (3)
• Consultations • Conventions • Inspections
• Dining out • Recreation • Shopping • Sightseeing • VFR
• Socializing • Dining in • Home entertainment
• Dining out • Physical recreation • Shopping • Sightseeing • Urban entertainment
• Recreation • Sightseeing • Dining out
• VFR • Convention • Business • Shopping
• Shopping • Visiting lawyer • Medical appointment
• Dining out • VFR
(1) Tourists in international technical definitions. (2) Excursionists in international technical definitions. (3) Travelers whose trips are shorter than those that qualify for travel and tourism: e.g., under 50 miles (80 km)
from home. (4) Students traveling between home and school only—other travel of students is within scope of travel and
tourism. (5) All persons moving to a new place of residence, including all one-way travelers, such as emigrants, immigrants,
refugees, domestic migrants, and nomads.
Figure 1.1 Classification of travelers.
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purpose’’ is an arbitrary concept because many journeys are undertaken for a combination of reasons, such as ‘‘business and vacation.’’
COMPONENTS OF TOURISM AND TOURISM MANAGEMENT Tourism is a complex phenomenon, one that is extremely difficult to describe succinctly. Any model of tourism must ‘‘capture’’ the composition—or components—of the tourism system, as well as the key processes and outcomes that occur within tourism. These processes and outcomes include the very essence of tourism, the travel experience, and the supporting means by which tourism is made possible. Figure 1.2 attempts to describe the complexity of the relationships among the many components of the tourism phenomenon.
The Tourist The very heart of the tourism phenomenon model is unequivocally the tourists and the travel experiences that they seek when visiting a tourism destination. In order for a destination to provide stimulating, high-quality experiences, it is critical that both policy makers and managers be able to understand tourists’ motivation for pleasure travel, as well as the multiple factors that influence their selection of a destination, their mode of travel, and their ultimate choice among the myriad activities that may fulfill their travel needs. It is only when we understand the tourist as fully as possible that we can proceed to develop the facilities, events, activities, and programs that will distinguish a given destination, thus making it uniquely attractive to the tourist.
Natural Resources and Environment A fundamental dimension of the model—indeed, the very basis of much tourism—is the natural resources and environment component. Any given destination is primarily and unchangeably characterized by its physiography (the nature and appearance of its landscape) and its climate (the kind of weather it has over a period of years; i.e., the conditions of heat and cold, moisture and
Tourism is engaging in wonderful, fun, family experiences while on vacation. Visiting an
interactive zoological park such as Jungle Island and enjoying an encounter with lorikeets is a memorable
experience. Photo courtesy of Jungle Island.
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dryness, and wind). Finally, the third component of the natural environment is people. In the case of people, we must distinguish between two very important categories of individuals: (1) those who ‘‘belong’’ to the destination (its residents), and (2) those who are current or potential visitors to the destination (the tourism market).
The Built Environment Another dimension of the tourism phenomenon is the built environment that has been created by humans. This built environment first includes the culture of the residents of the host region. As discussed in Chapter 10, the culture of a people reflects many dimensions of its past development and its current way of life. Culture is a very permanent characteristic of a destination, and one that cannot (and should not) be changed simply to enhance tourism development.
The infrastructure of a tourism destination is yet another dimension that has not been put in place mainly to serve tourism. Such basic things as roads, sewage systems, communication networks, and many commercial facilities (supermarkets and retail stores) have been put in place to meet the needs of local residents. Although these components of the infrastructure can also be important to visitors, their primary functions are related to the ongoing daily needs of residents. In contrast, a destination’s tourism superstructure includes those facilities that have been developed especially to respond to the
Figure 1.2 The tourism phenomenon: components of
tourism and tourism management.
Local & Regional Tourism Associations/ Convention & Visitor
World & National Travel Industry Associations
State and Provincial Government
Local & City Government
World & National Government
State and Provincial Travel Industry Associations
nts Public S
Trav el Tr
Outdoor Recreation Fo od Serv
opment, and Promotion O
RS OF THE TOURISM INDUSTRY
........................................... ... ...
• BU ILT EN
VIRONMENT •• N AT
RES OURCES AND ENVIRONMENT •
oph y — R
esearch — Policy — Vision — Strategy
Impacts — Experiences — Behav iors
, AC TIVITIES, AND OUTCOMES OF TOURISM
CAREERS IN TOURIS M
N TE C
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demands of visitors. The most obvious examples include hotels, restaurants, conference centers, car rental locations, and major attractions. Because of their special tourism orientation, the characteristics of components of the superstructure are essentially determined by visitors’ wishes rather than residents’ desires, even though residents often desire many benefits from certain elements of the tourism superstructure.
Technology is one of the most recent, and still increasingly influential, dimensions of the built environment that is shaping the nature of both tourism products/services and travel experiences. In many ways, technology can be viewed as one of the most distinctive and most powerful characteristics of the built environment since the dawn of modern tourism following World War II. The advent of jet aircraft and the massive invasion of telecommunications technology, linked closely with computer technology, have had a dramatic impact on the very essence of the tourism phenomenon. Indeed, these aspects of technology have become so pervasive and so important that they, in fact, represent very specialized elements of both the tourism infrastructure and super- structure. However, because of their unique identification with the modern era of the built environment, each aspect—transportation, telecommunications, and computer technology—merits specific identification. See Chapters 5, 7, 18, and 19.
A recent addition to the built environment of a destination is information. Increasingly, the success of a destination is determined by its ability to assemble, interpret, and utilize information in an effective manner. Information is of several types: information concerning the potential tourism market, which is essential for destination design and development; information on the level of satisfaction of current visitors regarding the quality, or enjoyment, of their visitation experience; information regarding competitors and their activities; information concerning the functioning or performance of the destination in its efforts to profitably provide attractive experiences to visitors; and information concerning the extent to which residents of the host region understand and support tourism as a long-term component of the socioeconomic system.
Finally, a dimension of tourism that often receives inadequate attention is the overall system of governance within which the tourism system functions. This topic is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 15. For present purposes, it should be noted that the system of governance surrounding tourism (the legal, political, and fiscal systems regulating its functioning) has a profound impact on the ability of a destination to compete in the international marketplace and subsequently plays a major
Tourism is visiting the Indian Peaks Wilderness Area near Denver, Colorado, and marveling at all that nature has to offer. Outdoor recreationists recognize their responsibility to maintain the environmental integrity of the areas they explore. Photo by Richard Grant, courtesy of Denver Metro Convention and Visitors Bureau.
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role in determining the profitability of individual firms. Although the system of governance of a country or region may be viewed as an evolutionary dimension of overall culture, it is subject to influence and change within an observable time frame. Sometimes these changes can be quite dramatic and can occur in a relatively short period of time in cultural terms. Recent high-profile examples include the worldwide phenomenon of deregulation and privatization and the more focused process of economic (and eventually social) integration brought about by the formation of regional trade blocs such as the European Union (EU) and the countries of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Parallel initiatives in Asia are Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN). Even more recently, the events of September 11, 2001, have incited many governments to introduce new regulations concerning airline travel and entry to countries that impact both domestic and international travel.