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Domestic companies facing competitive pressure from lower-cost imports

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CHAPTER 7 Strategies for Competing in International Markets

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

THIS CHAPTER WILL HELP YOU UNDERSTAND:

The primary reasons companies choose to compete in international markets

How and why differing market conditions across countries influence a company’s strategy choices in international markets

The five major strategic options for entering foreign markets

The three main strategic approaches for competing internationally

How companies are able to use international operations to improve overall competitiveness

The unique characteristics of competing in developing-country markets

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Why companies decide to enter foreign markets

To further exploit core competencies

To gain access to lower-cost inputs of production

To gain access to new customers and meet current customer needs

To achieve lower costs through economies of scale, experience, and increased purchasing power

To gain access to resources and capabilities located in foreign markets

WHY COMPANIES DECIDE TO ENTER FOREIGN MARKETS

Jump to Appendix 1 long image description

© McGraw-Hill Education.

WHY COMPETING ACROSS NATIONAL BORDERS MAKES STRATEGY-MAKING MORE COMPLEX

1. Different countries with different home-country advantages in different industries
2. Location-based value chain advantages for certain countries
3. Differences in government policies, tax rates, and economic conditions
4. Currency exchange rate risks
5. Differences in buyer tastes and preferences for products and services
© McGraw-Hill Education.

FIGURE 7.1 The Diamond of National Advantage

Jump to Appendix 2 long image description

© McGraw-Hill Education.

THE DIAMOND FRAMEWORK

Answers important questions about competing on an international basis by:

Predicting where new foreign entrants are likely to come from and their strengths

Highlighting foreign market opportunities where rivals are weakest

Identifying the location-based advantages of conducting certain value chain activities of the firm in a particular country

© McGraw-Hill Education.

REASONS FOR LOCATING VALUE CHAIN ACTIVITIES ADVANTAGEOUSLY

Lower wage rates

Higher worker productivity

Lower energy costs

Fewer environmental regulations

Lower tax rates

Lower inflation rates

Proximity to suppliers and technologically related industries

Proximity to customers

Lower distribution costs

Available or unique natural resources

© McGraw-Hill Education.

THE IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN HOST COUNTRIES

Positives

Tax incentives

Low tax rates

Low-cost loans

Site location and development

Worker training

Negatives

Environmental regulations

Subsidies and loans to domestic competitors

Import restrictions

Tariffs and quotas

Local-content requirements

Regulatory approvals

Profit repatriation limits

Minority ownership limits

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Core Concepts (1 of 6)

Political risks stem from instability or weaknesses in national governments and hostility to foreign business.

Economic risks stem from the stability of a country’s monetary system, economic and regulatory policies, the lack of property rights protections.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

THE RISKS OF ADVERSE EXCHANGE RATE SHIFTS

Effects of exchange rate shifts

Exporters experience a rising demand for their goods whenever their currency grows weaker relative to the importing country’s currency.

Exporters experience a falling demand for their goods whenever their currency grows stronger relative to the importing country’s currency.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (1 of 6)

Fluctuating exchange rates pose significant economic risks to a firm’s competitiveness in foreign markets.

Exporters are disadvantaged when the currency of the country where goods are being manufactured grows stronger relative to the currency of the importing country.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE (2 of 6)

Domestic companies facing competitive pressure from lower-cost imports benefit when their government’s currency grows weaker in relation to the currencies of the countries where the lower-cost imports are being made.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Thinking Strategically

What effects has the adoption of the euro had on the ability of European Union (EU) countries and firms to respond to changes in intra-national economic conditions given that they now share a common currency?

What should a EU firm do to respond to a adverse currency exchange rate shift in a non-EU country?

How will exiting the EU affect the United Kingdom’s ability to compete in world markets?

© McGraw-Hill Education.

CROSS-COUNTRY DIFFERENCES IN DEMOGRAPHIC, CULTURAL, AND MARKET CONDITIONS

Whether to pursue a strategy of offering a mostly standardized product worldwide

Whether to customize offerings in each country market to match the tastes and the preferences of local buyers

Key Strategic Considerations

Jump to Appendix 3 long image description

© McGraw-Hill Education.

STRATEGIC OPTIONS FOR ENTERING AND COMPETING IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS

Maintain a home country production base and export goods to foreign markets.

License foreign firms to produce and distribute the firm’s products abroad.

Employ a franchising strategy in foreign markets.

Establish a subsidiary in a foreign market via acquisition or internal development.

Rely on strategic alliances or joint ventures with foreign companies.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

EXPORT STRATEGIES

Advantages

Low capital requirements

Economies of scale in utilizing existing production capacity

No distribution risk

No direct investment risk

Disadvantages

Maintaining relative cost advantage of home-based production

Transportation and shipping costs

Exchange rates risks

Tariffs and import duties

Loss of channel control

© McGraw-Hill Education.

LICENSING AND FRANCHISING STRATEGIES

Advantages

Low resource requirements

Income from royalties and franchising fees

Rapid expansion into many markets

Disadvantages

Maintaining control of proprietary know-how

Loss of operational and quality control

Adapting to local market tastes and expectations

© McGraw-Hill Education.

FOREIGN SUBSIDIARY STRATEGIES

Advantages

High level of control

Quick large-scale market entry

Avoids entry barriers

Access to acquired firm’s skills

Disadvantages

Costs of acquisition

Complexity of acquisition process

Integration of the firms’ structures, cultures, operations, and personnel

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Core Concept (2 of 6)

A greenfield venture is a subsidiary business that is established by setting up the entire operation from the ground up.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

USING A GREENFIELD STATEGY FOR DEVELOPING A FOREIGN SUBSIDIARY

A greenfield strategy is appealing when:

Creating an internal startup is cheaper than making an acquisition

Adding new production capacity will not adversely impact the supply-demand balance in the local market

A startup subsidiary has the ability to gain good distribution access

A startup subsidiary will have the size, cost structure, and resource strengths to compete head-to-head against local rivals

© McGraw-Hill Education.

PURSUING A GREENFIELD STRATEGY

Advantages

High level of control over venture

“Learning by doing” in the local market

Direct transfer of the firm’s technology, skills, business practices, and culture

Disadvantages

Capital costs of initial development

Risks of loss due to political instability or lack of legal protection of ownership

Slowest form of entry due to extended time required to construct facility

© McGraw-Hill Education.

BENEFITS OF ALLIANCE AND JOINT VENTURE STRATEGIES

Gaining partner’s knowledge of local market conditions

Achieving economies of scale through joint operations

Gaining technical expertise and local market knowledge

Sharing distribution facilities and dealer networks, and mutually strengthening each partner’s access to buyers

Directing competitive energies more toward mutual rivals and less toward one another

Establishing working relationships with key officials in the host-country government

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Strategic Management Principle (3 of 6)

Collaborative strategies involving alliances or joint ventures with foreign partners are a popular way for companies to edge their way into the markets of foreign countries.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Strategic Management Principle (4 of 6)

Cross-border alliances enable a growth-minded firm to widen its geographic coverage and strengthen its competitiveness in foreign markets; at the same time, they offer flexibility and allow a firm to retain some degree of autonomy and operating control.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Walgreens Boots Alliance, Inc.: Entering Foreign Markets via Alliance Followed by Merger

Did industry consolidation provoke Walgreens to make its strategic international acquisition?

What strategic advantages does the alliance between Walgreens and Alliance Boots bring to both partners?

What internal problems could the merger create for Walgreens as it strives to integrate and adjust to the risks of entry into international markets?

© McGraw-Hill Education.

THE RISKS OF STRATEGIC ALLIANCES WITH FOREIGN PARTNERS

Outdated knowledge and expertise of local partners

Cultural and language barriers

Costs of establishing the working arrangement

Conflicting objectives and strategies or deep differences of opinion about joint control

Differences in corporate values and ethical standards

Loss of legal protection of proprietary technology or competitive advantage

Overdependence on foreign partners for essential expertise and competitive capabilities

© McGraw-Hill Education.

INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY: THE THREE MAIN APPROACHES

Multidomestic Strategy

Global Strategy

Transnational Strategy

Competing Internationally

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Core Concepts (3 of 6)

An international strategy is a strategy for competing in two or more countries simultaneously.

A multidomestic strategy is one in which a firm varies its product offering and competitive approach from country to country in an effort to be responsive to differing buyer preferences and market conditions. It is a think-local, act-local type of international strategy, facilitated by decision making decentralized to the local level.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

Core Concepts (4 of 6)

A global strategy is one in which a firm employs the same basic competitive approach in all countries where it operates, sells much the same products everywhere, strives to build global brands, and coordinates its actions worldwide with strong headquarters control. It represents a think-global, act-global approach.

A transnational strategy is a think-global, act-local approach that incorporates elements of both multidomestic and global strategies.

© McGraw-Hill Education.

FIGURE 7.2 Three Approaches for Competing Internationally

Jump to Appendix 4 long image description

© McGraw-Hill Education.

INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS AND THE QUEST FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

Use international location to lower cost or differentiate product

Share resources and capabilities

Gain cross-border coordination benefits

Build Competitive Advantage in International Markets

Jump to Appendix 5 long image description

© McGraw-Hill Education.

TABLE 7.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of a Multidomestic Strategy

Multidomestic (think local, act local)
Advantages Disadvantages
Can meet the specific needs of each market more precisely Hinders resource and capability sharing or cross-market transfers
Can respond more swiftly to localized changes in demand Has higher production and distribution costs
Can target reactions to the moves of local rivals Is not conductive to a worldwide competitive advantage
Can respond more quickly to local opportunities and threats
© McGraw-Hill Education.

TABLE 7.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of a Global Strategy

Global (think global, act global)
Advantages Disadvantages
Has lower costs due to scale and scope economies Cannot address local needs precisely
Can lead to greater efficiencies due to the ability to transfer best practices across markets Is less responsive to changes in local market conditions
Increases innovation from knowledge sharing and capability transfer Involves higher transportation costs and tariffs
Offers the benefit of a global brand and reputation Has higher coordination and integration costs
© McGraw-Hill Education.

TABLE 7.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Transnational Strategy

Transnational (think global, act local)
Advantages Disadvantages
Offers the benefits of both local responsiveness and global integration Is more complex and harder to implement
Enables the transfer and sharing of resources and capabilities across borders Entails conflicting goals, which may be difficult to reconcile and require trade-offs
Provides the benefits of flexible coordination Involves more costly and time-consuming implementation

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